Meluhha examples of processions of hieroglyphs as artisan repertoire lists

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    Meluhha examples of processions of hieroglyphs as

    artisan repertoire lists

    h1966A h1966B 1. Glyph: bull:hangra bull.Rebus: hangar

    blacksmith.pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattar 'guild'. dula 'pair, likenes'

    Rebus: dul 'cast metal. Thus the hieroglyphs denote pattar 'guild' of

    blacksmiths, casters of metal.

    h1973B h1974B Two tablets. One side shows a person seated on a

    tree branch, a tiger looking up, a crocodile on the top register and

    other animals in procession in the bottom register. Obverse side

    (comparable to h1970, h1971 and h1972) shows an elephant, a person strangling two tigers (jackals or

    foxes) and a six-spoked wheel.

    The glyphic which is common to both set 1 (h1970B, h1971B and h1972B) and set 2: (h1973B and

    h1974B) is: crocodile on the top register. kar crocodile (Telugu). Rebus: khara blacksmith (Kashmiri)

    Set 1: crocodile + person with foot on head of animal + spearing + bison + horned (with twig) seated

    person in penance

    Set 2: crocodile + person seated on branch of tree + tiger looking back and up + rhinoceros + tiger in

    procession.

    h1971B Harappa. Three tablets with identical glyphic compositions on both

    sides: h1970, h1971 and h1972. Seated figure or deity with reed house or

    shrine at one side. Left: H95-2524; Right: H95-2487.

    Harappa. Planoconvex molded tablet found on Mound ET. A. Reverse. a female deity battling

    two tigers and standing above an elephant and below a six-spoked wheel; b. Obverse. A person spearing

    with a barbed spear a buffalo in front of a seated horned deity wearing bangles and with a plumed

    headdress. The person presses his foot down the buffalos head. An alligatorwith a narrow snout is on

    the top register. We have found two other broken tablets at Harappa that appear to have been made

    from the same mold that was used to create the scene of a deity battling two tigers and standing above

    an elephant. One was found in a room located on the southern slope of Mount ET in 1996 and another

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    example comes from excavations on Mound F in the 1930s. However, the flat obverse of both of these

    broken tablets does not show the spearing of a buffalo, rather it depicts the more well-known scene

    showing a tiger looking back over its shoulder at a person sitting on the branch of a tree. Several other

    flat or twisted rectangular terracotta tablets found at Harappa combine these two narrative scenes of a

    figure strangling two tigers on one side of a tablet, and the tiger looking back over its shoulder at a figure

    in a tree on the other side.1

    Pict-47 Row of uncertain animals in file.

    m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center pointing with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with

    his left hand pointing to the sign Obverse: A tiger and a rhinoceros in file.

    m1405Bt Pict-48 A tiger and a rhinoceros in file 2841

    Glyph: Animals in procession:[kh] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi)

    kai Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khtools, pots and pans, and metal-

    ware.

    m1431A m1431B Crocodile+ three animal glyphs: rhinoceros, elephant, tiger

    (with fishes on top?).

    m1431C

    m1431E

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    m1431A

    m1431E. From R.a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff

    in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopesflanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

    Line drawing of Indus script seal impression on one side of a prism tablet M1431E. Mohenjodaro.

    Symmetrically flanking goats with feet on central tree and mountain (ASI).

    The turner on a lathe is depicted on this glyphic narrative. kd to turn in a lathe(Bengali)

    Glyph: broken treebranch:kha A tree of which the head and branches are broken off, a stock or

    stump: also the lower portion of the trunkthat below the branches. (Marathi) Rebus 1: koworkshop

    (G.)

    Allograph glyph: [ kha ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) [ gda ] gda. [Tel.] n. An ox. A

    beast. kine, cattle.(Telugu) koiyum heifer (G.) [ kiya ] ke, kiya. [Tel.] n. A bullcalf. . k* A

    young bull. Plumpness, prime. . a pair of bullocks. ke adj. Young. ke-ku.

    n. A young man.. [ kruke ] kru-ke. [Tel.] n. A bull in its prime. koiyum (G.) Rebus : B.

    kd to turn in a lathe r. kunda lathe, kdib, kud to turn ( rav. Kur. kud lathe) (CDIAL 3295).

    M1431E shows a turner at work, assisted by a

    person bending on all fours. kunda turner

    kundr turner (A.) kdr, kdri (B.) kundru

    (Or.); kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to

    chase; kundau dhiri = a hewn stone; kundau

    murhut = a graven image (Santali) kunda a

    turners lathe (Skt.)(CIAL 3295) Glyph: Br.

    Kn on all fours, bent double. (ER 204a)

    The seated person is shown wearing knot of hair

    at back. Snd ga(Go.) cund the hairtail as

    worn by men (Kur.)(DEDR 2670). Rebus: cundakra a turner J vi.339 (Pali) cundakra cognate kundr.

    m1431B

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    m1431C

    m1431E 2805 Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish

    held in its jaw above the animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a

    kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes

    flanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

    koe young bull (Telugu) [ kha ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kd to turn in a lathe (B.)

    kndaengraver, lapidarysetting or infixing gems (Marathi)[kaa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi)ayakra ironsmith (Pali)[fish= aya (G.); crocodile = kru (Te.)] baai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaa = an

    oven, kiln, furnace (Santali)

    ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'. kaa'arrow' Rebus: khatools, pots and pans, and metal-

    ware.ayaskais a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish + arrow may

    denote metalware tools, pots and pans.kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of 5 metals -

    pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo 'merchant ' ib iron'. Alternative: [ karai ] karai. [Skt.] n. An

    elephant. (Telugu) Rebus:khard turner (Gujarati) ka 'rhimpceros' Rebus: khatools,

    pots and pans, and metal-ware. The text on m0489 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo

    'rice plant' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the

    metalware catalog includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and

    produce tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar 'smiths,

    artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha alloys'. pancha-

    lnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz., copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron (Telugu).

    Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the depiction is of satthiya 'svastika' Rebus: satthiya

    'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of copper, zinc, tin, lead and iron.

    Procession of animals. Bronze dish found by Layard at Nimrud: circular objects are decorated by

    consecutive chains of animals following each other round in a circle. A similar theme occurs on the

    famous silver vase of Entemena. In the innermost circle, a troop of gazelles (similar to the ones depicted

    on cylinder seals) march along in file; the middle register has a variety of animals, all marching in the

    same direction as the gazelles. A one-horned bull, a winged griffin, an ibex and a gazelle, are followed by

    two bulls who are being attacked by lions, and a griffin, a one-horned bull, and a gazelle, who are all

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    respectively being attacked by leopards. In the outermost zone there is a stately procession of realistically

    conceived one-horned bulls marching in the opposite direction to the animals parading in the two inner

    circles. The dish has a handle. (Percy S.P.Handcock, 1912,

    Mesopotamian Archaeology, London, Macmillan and Co., p. 256). Cf.

    pasaramu, pasalamu = quadrupeds (Telugu); rebus: pasra = smithy !

    (Santali) Smithy for varieties of minerals and metals, indeed.

    f lasting significance were attempts to lighten the disk wheels, as first

    seen on a third-millennium seal from Hissar IIIB (fig.2). On it, the central plank, through which the axle

    passes, is narrowed to a diametral bar; the flanking planks of the Hissar. Depiction of a wheel on a seal

    from Hissar IIIB. 3rdmillennium BCE (After Figure 2, Littauer and Crouwel, 979). tripartite wheel are

    eliminated, and the former bonding slats are turned into sturdy transverse bars between the diametral bar

    and the felloe. This crossbar wheel is also clearly illustrated in the second millennium BCE, fixed on a

    revolving axle; it has remained in use with simple carts in various parts of the world.

    Warka stone (alabaster) vase dated to c. 3000 BCE, has relief

    decoration in four registers.2On top register are glyphs of a

    goat and a tiger/jackal above