MINERAL SPRINGS OF ALASKA The history of the hot springs of Seward Peninsula is probably similar, but

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Text of MINERAL SPRINGS OF ALASKA The history of the hot springs of Seward Peninsula is probably similar,...

  • DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FRANKLIN K. LANE, Secretary

    UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY GEORGE OTIS SMITH, Director

    Water-Supply Paper 418

    MINERAL SPRINGS OF ALASKA BY

    GERALD A. WARING

    WITH A CHAPTEE ON THE

    CHEMICAL CHARACTER OJ1 SOME SURFACE WATERS OF ALASKA

    BY

    KICHARD B. DOLE AND ALFRED A. CHAMBERS

    WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

    1917

  • ABDITIONAL COPIES

    OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM

    THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS

    GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

    WASHINGTON, D. C.

    AT

    25 CENTS PER COPY

  • CONTENTS.

    Page. Preface, by Alfred H. Brooks............................................... 7 Introduction.............................................................. 11 Distribution of springs..................................................... 12 Mineral waters............................................................ 14 Hot springs............................................................... 19

    Southeastern Alaska................................................... 19 Distribution...................................................... 19 Bell Island Hot Springs............................................. 19 Bailey Bay Hot Springs............................................ 20 Hot springs near Unuk Biver....................................... 23 Hot springs near Saks Cove........................................ 23 Shakes Hot Springs................................................. 24 Minor hot springs in the Wrangell region............................. 25 Baranof Hot Springs................................................ 26 Sitka Hot Springs................................................. 28 Hot springs near Gut Bay........................................... 30 Hot springs near Fish Bay.......................................... 31 Hot springs on North Arm of Peril Strait............................ 33 Hooniah Warm Springs............................................ 34 Tenakee Hot Springs.............................................. 35 Hot springs near head of Tenakee Inlet............................. 38 Other hot springs near Tenakee Inlet............................... 41 Hot spring on Twelvemile Creek................................... 41

    Southwestern Alaska.................................................. 42 Distribution...................................................... 42 Port Moller Hot Springs............................................ 45 Hot springs near Port Heiden....................................... 46 Hot springs on shore of Becharof Lake............................... 46 Hot springs near Katmai Pass....................................... 47 Hot springs on Bogoslof Island..................................... 47 Warm springs on Attu Island....................................... 49

    Yukon Basin........................................................... 50 Distribution...................................................... 50 Circle Hot Springs.................................................. 51 Hot springs on Big Windy Creek................................... 53 Hot springs near Flat Creek........................................ 54 Chena Hot Springs................................................. 55 Hot springs near Tolovana River.................................... 57 Hot spring near Little Minook Creek................................ 59 Hutlinana Hot Spring.............................................. 59 Baker Hot Springs................................................. 60 Warm springs west of Glacier....................................... 63 Warm springs north of Glacier....................................... 63 Hot springs on Bay Biver.......................................... 64 Little Melozitna Hot Springs....................................... 64 Melozitna Hot Springs............................................. 66

    3

  • 4: CONTENTS.

    Hot springs Continued. Yukon Basin Continued. Page.

    Horner Hot Springs................................................. 68 Warm springs on Alatna River..................................... 69 Warm spring near Reed River...................................... 70 Hot springs near Selawik River..................................... 70 Hot springs on a tributary of Innoko River........................... 70 Warm springs near Iditarod........................................ 71 Hot spring near Whitefish Lake.................................... 71 Hot springs near Tuluksak River.................................... 72

    Seward Peninsula..................................................... 72 Distribution...................................................... 72 Kruzgamepa Hot Springs........................................... 72 Arctic Hot Springs...................................._:............ 75 Warm springs near Inmachuk River................................. 76 Hot springs near Kwiniuk River.................................... 77 Hot springs near Sweepstake Creek.................................. 77

    Carbonated springs........................................................ 77 Southeastern Alaska................................................... 77

    ' Distribution...................................................... 77 Carbonated springs near New Eddystone Rock...................... 78 Carbonated springs near Unuk River................................ 79 Carbonated springs near Soda Bay.................................. 79 Carbonated springs near Trocadero Bay............................. 81 Zarembo Springs.................................................. 82 Carbonated springs on south end of Zarembo Island................... 83

    Yukon Basin........................................................... 84 Distribution...................................................... 84 Carbonated springs near Woodchopper Creek........................ 84 Carbonated springs on Coal Creek..................--.--..-.-.--..... 84 Carbonated spring on Hoseanna Creek................................ 85 Carbonated springs near Marshall................................... 85

    Seward Peninsula..................................................... 86 Distribution...................................................... 86 Carbonated springs near Bering...................................... 87 Other carbonated springs on Seward Peninsula....................... 88

    Sulphur springs........................................................... 89 Distribution...................................................... 89 Sulphur springs on Revillagigedo Island............................. 89 Sulphur springs on Prince of Wales Island........................... 91 Sulphur springs near Mount Edgecumbe............................ 91 Sulphur springs on Bering River................................... 92 Sulphur springs near Iliamna Lake................................. 92 Sulphur spring near Little Susitna River............................ 92 Sulphur sprijigs near Skilak Lake................................... 93 Sulphur spring on Eldorado Creek.................................. 93 Sulphur spring near Nenana River.................................. 93 Sulphur spring near Platinum Creek................................. 94 Sulphur springs on Coal Creek....................................... 94 Sulphur springs south of Circle...................................... 94 Sulphur springs near Ignak River.................................. 95

    Iron springs............................................................... 95 Salt springs................................................................ 98

  • CONTENTS.

    Chemical character of some surface waters of Alaska, by Richard B. Dole and Alfred A. Chambers...................................................... 99

    General character of surface waters........,..............-.......,...:.. 99 Yukon River.......................................................... 99

    Character of the basin............................................ 99 Mineral analyses of water of Yukon River........................... 101 Chemical composition of water of Yukon River...................... 104 Discharge of Yukon River......................................... 105

    Comparative composition of waters of great North American rivers........ 106 Yukon-Tanana region................................................. 106 Seward Peninsula..................................................... 108 Lowe and Copper rivers................................................ 109 StiMne River.......................................................... 109

    Index.................................................................... Ill

    ILLUSTRATIONS.

    Page. PLATE I. Map of Alaska showing distribution of mineral springs and vol-

    canoes. ....................................................... 12 II. Map of southeastern Alaska showing location of mineral springs..... 18

    III. A, Bell Island Hot Springs, southeastern Alaska; B, Melozitna Hot Springs, Ruby region........................................... 20

    IV. A, Sitka Hot Springs, Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska; B, Tena- kee Hot Springs, Chichagof Island, southeastern Alaska; C, Circle Hot Springs, Circle district..................................... ' 28

    V. A, Chena Hot Springs, Fairbanks district; B, Baker Hot Springs, Hot Springs district; C, Little Melozitna Hot Springs, Tanana region......................................................... 54

    VI. Map of Seward Peninsula, Alaska, showing location of mineral springs........................................................ 72

    VII. A, Kruzgamepa Hot Springs, Seward Peninsula; B, C