Text of Mnemonic Strategies ïƒ Chunking ïƒ Method of Loci ïƒ Peg Word Mnemonic
Mnemonic Strategies Chunking Method of Loci Peg Word Mnemonic
Chunking Grouping elements into chunks Chase and Ericcsons subjects Chunked digits into running times Remembered up to 82 digits! Not as effective as more elaborative strategies
Method of Loci Based upon visual imagery Imagine a grocery list (eggs, milk, cheese, bread, butter) Imaging items placed in a common scene To recall, mentally stroll through scene Bizarreness / distinctiveness
Peg Word Mnemonic Uses prememorized list (e.g., rhyme) One is a bun ==> Two is a shoe ==> Three is a tree ==> Four is a door ==>
Acronyms Create word from beginning letters Create a limerick from beginning letters OOOTTAFAGVAH 12 Cranial nerves
Why Do Mnemonics Devices Work? Provide structure for learning Provide durable trace (less interference) Provide retrieval structure
Which Mnemonic is the Best? Roediger (1980)
Interaction of Encoding and Retrieval Processes Anderson & Pichert (1978) Participants read a story about the activities of two boys at home either from the point of view of a burglar or a homebuyer Later the participants were asked to remember as much as possible about the story they read The point of view affected what participants recalled Homebuyers were more likely to remember that the basement was musty Burglars were more likely to remember the coin collection and color TV
To Understand Memory Processes Need to understand encoding processes, retrieval processes, and how they function together for short term storage (STM) and long term storage (LTM)
Encoding Processes Creating an acoustic code What it sounds like Creating a semantic code What it means Creating a visual code What it looks like
Encoding Types and STM Type of code may rely on type of task STM refers to memory that needs to be held temporarily Evidence exists for a variety of encoding types for STM
Evidence for Acoustic Encoding in STM Conrad (1964) Visually present a series of letters Ask participants to write the order letters are presented What types of errors are made?
Conrad (1964) Found evidence for the use of an acoustic code in STM Participants made acoustic errors F for S, B for V, P for B Not visual errors E for F, O for Q, R for P Participants encoded items acoustically even though stimuli were presented visually
Shulman (1970) Evidence for semantic encoding in STM Participants viewed 10-word lists Given a recognition test using visually represented "probe words" which were either: Homonyms - e.g. "bawl" for "ball" Synonyms - e.g. "talk" for "speak" Identical to the original word
Shulman (1970) Results The Homonym and Synonym probes produced similar error rates - this suggests that an equal amount of acoustic and semantic processing must be taking place Homonyms - e.g. "bawl" for "ball" Synonyms - e.g. "talk" for "speak" Identical to the original word
Posner & Keele (1967) Evidence for visual encoding in STM Letter matching task Two letters separated by brief interval Participant had to indicate if same letter A-aYes A-AYes A-M No Measure reaction time
Posner & Keele (1967) Results If letters were the same visually (a-a) participants were faster than if the letters were not the same visually (A-a) Results indicate that visual code was also present for STM
Encoding Types & LTM Type of code may rely on type of task LTM refers to memory that may be held permanently Evidence exists for a variety of encoding types for LTM
Semantic Encoding in LTM Grossman & Eagle (1970) Study 41 different words Given recognition test after delay 9 of the distractors were semantically related to words on list 9 of the distractors were not False alarms for each type: 1.83 of synonyms, but only 1.05 of unrelated
Visual Encoding in LTM Frost (1972) Participants studied 16 drawings Manipulated visual orientation and semantic category After a delay, participants were asked if they had studied an object with the same name as the test object Reaction time was measured Participants responded faster to identical drawings than drawings in a different orientation This result indicates visual encoding occurred
Acoustic Encoding in LTM Evidence of very long-term memory for songs Rubin (1977) Participants recall more of the text when provided with the melody of a well-learned song ("Star Spangled Banner") than when given no cue
Transfer from STM to LTM Consolidation Integrating new information into stored information Disruption of consolidation is studied in amnesiacs ECT patients (Squire)
Principles to Strengthen Memory Elaborative rehearsal is better than maintenance rehearsal Distributed practice is better than massed practice Spacing effect Organizing information to enhance memory
Why Does Distributed Practice Work? REM Theory The more REM sessions following study sessions, the more consolidation that occurs Multiple encoding contexts theory Multiple study sessions lead to multiple types of encoding, thus more possibility of matching during test conditions
Prospective Memory The ability to remember a future intention Buying bread on your way home from work Going to the dentist on Wednesday Retrospective memory is memory of the past
Retrieval Processes Getting information back out Multiple processes can be used to enhance retrieval Different strategies are used for short term storage and long term storage Matching the type of processes done during encoding with the type of processes done at retrieval increases success
Retrieval from STM Is the search serial or parallel? Serial indicates one by one search Parallel means all items are processed at once Is the search exhaustive or self-terminating? Exhaustive indicates that all items in the set are examined Self-terminating means that after target is found the search stops
Studying Searching in STM Saul Sternberg (1967) Memorize a set of numbers (6,3,8,2,7) Shown a probe digit Participant must indicate if the probe was in the set Reaction time to respond is measured 6,3,8,2,7 2 Yes
Sternberg (1967) 3 critical factors manipulated How many items were in the set the participants had to memorize Whether the probe was in the list The probes location in the set
Sternberg (1967) Possible Result Patterns A represents parallel processing B illustrates serial processing C illustrates exhaustive serial processing D illustrates self- terminating serial processing
Sternbergs Conclusion A serial exhaustive model But. Corcoran (1971) proposed that a parallel model could also explain the pattern found Townsend (1971) stated it was mathematically impossible to distinguish parallel from serial Thus, both models still exist
If You Do Not Retrieve from LTM Has the memory disappeared? or Is the memory still there but cannot retrieve it (available, but not accessible)?
Evidence Supporting Still There Theory Nelson (1971) Paired associate List 43-house 67-dog 38-dress 77-sissors Cued recall test 43- ________ 67- ________ Two week delay Subjects recalled 75% of items on list But focus was on 25% they forgot.
Nelson (1971) Critical Manipulation If participants forgot 38-dress and 77-sissors then participants relearned either same pairs or changed pairs 25% forgotRelearnedResults Same 38-dress 77-sissors 78% Changed 38-dress 77-sissors 38-apple 77- kettle 43% The better performance of participants in the same condition indicate that there was some memory left for forgotten items. Otherwise both groups would remember the same amount.
What Contributes to Forgetting? Decay theory Memory is weakened with disuse Interference theory Proactive: old memories interfere with recall of new information Retroactive: new memories interfere with recall of old information
Retroactive Interference from LTM Experiment al group Learn List ALearn List BDelayTest for Memory A Control group Learn List A------------DelayTest for Memory A The experimental group will remembers less material from the tested list A compared to the control group Information learned afterwards interferes with retrieval of List A.
Proactive Interference from LTM Experimental group Learn List ALearn List BDelayTest for Memory B Control group No studyLearn List BDelayTest for Memory B The experimental group remembers less material from the tested list B than the control group Information previously learned (list A) interferes with retrieval