More Ivory than Elephants [English with French exec ... More Ivory than Elephants: domestic ivory markets

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  • More Ivory than Elephants: Domestic Ivory Markets in Three West African Countries Prepared by

    Marianne Courouble, Francis Hurst and Tom Milliken

    TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa

    December 2003

    TRAFFIC R

    TRAFFIC Online Report Series

    No. 8

  • Published by TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK. @ 2003 TRAFFIC International All rights reserved. All material appearing in this publication is copyrighted and may be reproduced with permission. Any reproduction in full or in part of this publication must credit TRAFFIC International as the copyright owner. The views of the author expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the TRAFFIC network, WWF or IUCN. The designations of geographical entities in this publication, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of TRAFFIC or its supporting organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The TRAFFIC symbol copyright and Registered Trademark ownership is held by WWF. TRAFFIC is a joint programme of WWF and IUCN. Suggested citation: Courouble, M., Hurst, F. and Milliken, T. 2003. More Ivory than Elephants: domestic ivory markets in three West African countries. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN 1 85850 203 9 Front cover photograph: African Savanna Elephant Loxodonta africana africana. Photograph credit: @ WWF / Olivier Langrand

  • More Ivory than Elephants: domestic ivory markets in three West African countries Prepared by Marianne Courouble, Francis Hurst and Tom Milliken TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa December 2003

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  • CONTENTS Acknowledgements Executive Summary i-v Côte d’Ivoire i Senegal ii Nigeria iv Recommendations v Introduction 1 A Word on Methodological Approach 3 Domestic Ivory Trade in Côte d’Ivoire 6 1. Background 6 2. Methodology 6 3. Results 7 3.1. Legislation and policy 7

    Legal framework 7 Implementation and enforcement 8 Ivory stockpiles 10 Participation in ETIS 10 3.2. Retail outlets and prices for worked ivory in Côte d’Ivoire 11 Abidjan markets 11 Abidjan hotels 14 Abidjan other shops 15 Grand Bassam 15 Retail prices in Abidjan 16 3.3. Ivory carving and manufacturing in Côte d’Ivoire 18 Abidjan workshops 18 Grand Bassam workshops 19 3.4. Sources and price of raw ivory 20 4. Discussion 21 Status of the ivory market 21 Ivory carving and manufacturing 22 Ivory consumers 22 The price of ivory 22 Sources of ivory and trade routes 23 Regulation of trade 24 Compliance with CITES requirements 24

  • Implementation of ETIS 25 Domestic Ivory Trade in Senegal 26 1. Background 26 2. Methodology 26 3. Results 27 3.1. Legislation and policy 27 Legal framework 27 Implementation and enforcement 28 Ivory stockpiles 30 Participation in ETIS 30 3.2. Retail outlets and prices for worked ivory in Senegal 30 Dakar markets 30 Dakar hotels 31 Dakar other shops 32 Saly 33 Mbour 33 Retail prices in Dakar 34 3.3. Ivory carving and manufacturing in Senegal 35 3.4. Sources and prices of raw ivory 37 4. Discussion 38 Status of the ivory market 38 Ivory carving and manufacturing 39 Ivory consumers 39 The price of ivory 39 Sources of ivory and trade routes 40 Regulation of trade 40 Compliance with CITES requirements 41 Implementation of ETIS 41 Domestic Ivory Trade in Nigeria 42 1. Background 42 2. Methodology 43 3. Results 43 3.1. Legislation and policy 43 Legal framework 43 Implementation and enforcement 45 Ivory stockpiles 46 Participation in ETIS 46 3.2. Retail outlets and price for worked ivory in Nigeria 46

  • 3.3. Ivory carving and manufacturing in Nigeria 49 3.4. Sources and prices of raw ivory 50 4. Discussion 51

    Status of the ivory market 51 Ivory carving and manufacturing 51 Ivory consumers 51 The price of ivory 52 Sources of ivory and trade routes 52 Regulation of trade 53 Compliance with CITES requirements 53 Implementation of ETIS 54 Conclusions and Recommendations 55 Côte d’Ivoire 56

    Improving policy, legislation and regulatory measures 56 Addressing implementation and enforcement deficiencies 56 Enhancing ivory stock management 57 Monitoring ivory manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers 58 Implementing ETIS 58

    Senegal 58

    Improving policy, legislation and regulatory measures 58 Addressing implementation and enforcement deficiencies 59 Enhancing ivory stock management 60 Monitoring ivory manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers 60 Implementing ETIS 60

    Nigeria 60

    Improving policy, legislation and regulatory measures 60 Addressing implementation and enforcement deficiencies 61 Enhancing ivory stock management 62 Monitoring ivory manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers 62 Implementing ETIS 62

    References 64

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are indebted to the following individuals for their co-operation and assistance in completing the field surveys associated with this report:

    Côte d’Ivoire: Vincent Beligné, Bina Fofana, Philippe Chardonnet, Amani Denis Kouame, Francis Lauginie, Fanny N’Golo, Jean Not, Djata Ouattara, Souleymane Ouattara, Jean Michel Pavy, Aka Tano, Sombo Tano, Wilfried Waitkuwait, and Souleymane Zeba. Senegal: Tamba Ba, Philippe Chardonnet, Yves Cremieux, Papa Samba Diouf, Malik Fall, Lamine Faye, Lamine Gueye, Abdoulaye Kane, Geoffroy Mauvais, Gora Ndiaye, M’Bor Ndione, Doudou Sow, Abdoulaye Sy, Seydina Issa Sylla, and Paul Siegel. Nigeria: Alede Adeleke, Olumide Akinsola, Malam Bashir Garba Beli, M.P.O. Dore, Gill and John Godwin, Dr. Aminu Kano, John Mshelbwala, Alhaji M.M. Omar, F. Omeni, Moses Ohiomokhare, Chief Mrs. Aino Oni Okpaku-Ternstadt, O.O. Omotade, Alhaji L.O. Suberu, Eyo Umeng, Alhaji Ali Lawan Yola, and Souleymane Zeba.

    The authors would also like to express their appreciation to Claire Patterson of TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa who put considerable effort into preparing the manuscript for final publication. Tom Milliken edited the chapters by the two principal authors. Special thanks are owed to Steven Broad and Maija Sirola of TRAFFIC International, and to P.J. Stephenson and Cliona O’Brien of WWF, for reviewing this report and making numerous suggestions for its improvement. The WWF African Elephant Programme kindly sponsored this project under the inspired leadership of P.J. Stephenson for which TRAFFIC is very grateful.

  • More Ivory than Elephants: domestic ivory markets in three West African countries

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    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Marianne Courouble, Francis Hurst and Tom Milliken Surveys of African ivory markets in 1999 identified Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), Dakar (Senegal) and Lagos (Nigeria) as the most significant ivory carving centres in West Africa (Martin and Stiles, 2000). This report serves to update the situation in these three countries and to assess whether or not any progress has been made in establishing effective control of their domestic ivory markets. The following results stem from field surveys which were conducted by two researchers between 11th-30th June 2002. CÔTE D’IVOIRE

    • Domestic trade in ivory was officially banned in Côte d’Ivoire in 1997 through Decree No. 97-130. Marking an important evolution in the country’s wildlife legislation, the Decree introduced measures to regulate the possession, sale and movement of ivory within the country and across international borders. Implementation and enforcement responsibilities principally lie with the Directorate of Wildlife and Fisheries under the Ministry of Water and Forests. In 1998, regulatory measures to register and record national ivory stocks identified 7,110.7 kg of ivory in the hands of some 224 owners. However, this exercise was never fully completed and additional stocks of ivory are believed to be in the country.

    • In spite of an improved legal basis from which to act, effective implementation has faltered.

    At present, wildlife authorities are constrained by insufficient financial and human resources, a lack of motivation toward the development of effective monitoring and co-ordinated law enforcement systems nationally, and poor collaboration with other law enforcement bodies, especially Customs. Currently, Water and Forests agents are prevented from having regular access to passenger and luggage clearance areas at the international airport in Abidjan. With