NATIONAL BUILDING IN LATIN AMERICA.  Political ideals stemming from the revolution in North America put European control of Latin America in peril. Social

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  • Political ideals stemming from the revolution in North America put European control of Latin America in peril. Social classes divided Latin America; and held all important positions. Creoles controlled land and business. Peninsular regarded the creoles as second class citizens.
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  • 1. Prelude to Revolution Creoles were descendants of European born in Latin America who lived there permanently. Creoles favored revolutionary ideals of equality of all people. Francois Toussaint Lourveture started the revolutions. Led revolt on island that became known as Haiti. Became first independent state in Latin America.
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  • 2. Revolt in Mexico Miguel Hidalgo started. He roused the Native Americans and mestizos. His forces were poorly trained and Hidalgo was sentenced to death. Eventually Agustin de Iturbide brought freedom to Mexico. He became emperor.
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  • 3. Revolts in South America Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar were hailed as the liberators of South America. San Martin believed that the Spaniards must be removed from all of South America, if any South American nation was to be free. Bolivar began the struggle for independence in Venezuela and went on to Ecuador. San Martin liberated Argentina and Chile. The two eventually joined forces and liberated the rest of Spanish South America.
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  • 4. Threats to Independence Other European countries wanted to move into Latin America and take over these new lands. Britain wished to trade with Latin America and wanted to join with USA to figure out. James Monroe did not trust the British. The MONROE DOCTRINE was put in which strongly warned against any European intervention in the Americas.
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  • The wars of independence had resulted in a staggering loss of people, property and livestock. Not sure of borders countries went to war to secure borders. Countries became economically dependent on western nations once again.
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  • 1. Rose of the Caudillos Began with republican governments but had no experience in self rule. Strong leaders known as CAUDILLOS gained power. Rule by military force. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ruled Mexico. Called self the Napoleon of the West he misused state funds, halted reforms and created chaos. 1835 American settlers in Texas revolted against Santa Anna. Texas gained its independence and was later annexed to USA. War between Mexico and USA followed. Benito Juarez followed Santa Anna and brought liberal reforms to Mexico.
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  • 2. A New Imperialism Political independence brought economic independence but old patterns were quickly reestablished. Great Britain and US now dominated Latin America economy by foreigners. These countries built transportation and communication systems and power plants.
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  • 3. Economic Dependence The emphasis on exporting raw material and importing finished products ensured the ongoing domination of the Latin American economy by foreigners. Most LA countries experienced uneven economic development since they were almost wholly dependent on the sale of one or two cash crops. LA countries remained economically dependent on western nations.
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  • 4. Persistent Inequality Fundamental problem for all of LA nations was the domination of society by the landed elites. Land remained the basis of wealth, social prestige, and political power throughout the 19 th century.
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  • After 1870, LA governments led by large landowners, wrote constitutions similar to the US. 1. The US in Latin America US was world power by 1900. Began to intervene in the affairs of southern neighbors. Cuba was a protectorate, Puerto Rico was annexed. We supported revolution that allowed Panama to separate from Columbia. In return we got to build and control Panama Canal.
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  • 2. American Investments Soon expanded. We sent military forces to many LA countries to protect our interests. In Haiti and Nicaragua we had marines for years.
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  • 3. Revolution in Mexico Porfirio Diaz created a conservative, centralized government. Was supported by all the major institutions. Wages of workers had declined so they were upset. The northern states were in near anarchy as PANCHO VILLA armed masses of bandits swept the countryside. Was a demand for land reform and this was led by Emillano Zapata. He aroused the masses of landless peasants and began to seize and redistribute the estates of wealth landholders. This was the Mexican Revolution and finally a new constitution was enacted. Set up a president, created land reform policies, established limits on foreign investors and set an agenda to help the workers.
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  • 4. Prosperity and Social Change After 1870 prosperity based to a large extent on the export of a few basic items. Wheat and beef from Argentina, coffee from Brazil. Increased industrialization. Had growth in middle sectors which lived in cities and sought education and decent incomes. US was a model for liberal reform.
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  • Leaders of newly formed LA republics Caudillos Miguel Hidalgo. A hero of Mexican independence after 1810, had studied what? The French Revolution Mexican ruler from 1833-1855 Santa Anna Guarantee by the US to protect LA from Europe Monroe Doctrine
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  • The Mexican period of reform from 1855 to 1876 included: Separation of church and __. State Land distribution to the ___. Poor The ___ system Education Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar led South American independence movements against what country? Spain
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  • Most privileged Latin American class Peninsulares This country dominated the economy of LA in the 19 th century Britain Mexican reform leader Benito Juarez Wealth, social prestige, and political power during the 19 th century in LA were based on what? Land