ChildhoodEducationA.N.C (Africian national congress)ImprisonmentLife in PrisonNelson's releaseR.I.P Nelson MandelaFactsTribute songs10 questions I would ask Nelson Mandela
Rohlilaha Mandela was born 18th of July 1918.As a young boy, Rohlilaha grew up in a small village of thatched huts.His father was chief of the Thembu tribe and was friendly with a retired teacher.One day this teacher suggested that Mandela should be sent to school as he was a very bright young boy.This came as a shock to the Mandelas as none of the children had ever gone to school before.
Nevertheless at the age of just seven Mandela set out across the hills to a small shack that served as a school to poor black children.On the first day of school his teacher gave him the name Nelson. At that time South Africans were usually given an African and a Westren name. One evening as he returned home from school he was shocked to hear that his father had died.The new chief of the Thembu tribe decided to adopt Nelson as his son.In his new home he developed a great interest in African history and Black African heroes.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a well educated man. He is a great believer in education and life-long learning. It was at the Wesleyan mission school that he first attended that he was given the name Nelson.This formal schooling was not the only Mandela education though. As the son of a tribal councilor he learned the art of listening which helped in his role as a leader and peacemaker throughout his life.
From there he went (in 1937) to the usual college for Thembu royalty Healdtown in Fort Beaufort. At the Fort Hare University Nelson Mandela became involved in the Student Representative Council. Following a boycott there he was given an ultimatim he could either back down or leave. Nelson choose to leave the univeresty and from then the Nelson Mandela education took a change of direction.
Rather than follow through on his guardians wish for an arranged marriage the young Nelson took off to Johannesburg. He completed his Bachelor of Arts studies there through the University of South Africa through correspondence.Mandela then went on to study law at the University of Witswatersrand.Nelson Mandela university life was interrupted by his involvement in the ANC. He and his friend Oliver Tambo opened the first black legal practice in South Africa, giving affordable and often free advice to black people who could otherwise not afford it.
The African National Congress was founded in 1912 (6 years before Nelson Mandela's birth) to unite the African people against white minority ruling. Their aim has always been to create a non-racial and democratic South Africa.Nelson Mandela and ANC have become almost synonymous. Nelson Mandela joined the ANC in 1943. From that time on he never lost his vision for the ideals that the ANC stands for. In the ANC Mandela found the way to a free South Africa but it did not come without a high price.
Shortly after joining the ANC Nelson Mandela, together with his friend and partner Oliver Tambo and Walter Sislu, formed the Youth League of the congress. Initially, in line with the ANC's Defiance campaign the ideals of peaceful non-compliance and protests were the order of the day. As things progressed, more specific areas were targeted, but always with the intention that no person would be hurt or injured.
In 1956, 156 members of the ANC were arrested and tried for treason. The Riviona trial lasted from 1956-1961 and eventually all members, including Mandela, were acquitted.In 1959, under the leadership of Potlako Leballo and Robert Sobukwe the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) was formed. This depleted the ANC's numbers and finances dramatically.
Following the Sharpeville Massacre of 1960 however, a new Nelson Mandela ANC came into being. Mandela realized that peaceful protest was getting them nowhere and so he co-founded and became leader of the Umkhonto we Sizwe, or Spear of the Nation branch of the ANC. This name is also abbreviated as MK. With this branch of the ANC Nelson Mandela recognized and was ready to demonstrate the need for a less passive approach to achieving the goal of freedom.
In 1962 the A.N.C was banned and soon after Nelson was arrested and convicted of sabotage and planning to over throw the government.Finally in 1964, after a four and a half year triall Nelson was sentenced to life in prison.
Nelson served his time in Robben island prison.A warder's first words when Nelson Mandela and his ANC comrades arrived were: "This is the Island. This is where you will die."They faced a harsh regime in a new cell block constructed for political prisoners. Each had a single cell some seven foot square around a concrete courtyard, with a slop bucket. To start with, they were allowed no reading materials.
Prisoner 46664, as he was known - the 466th prisoner to arrive in 1964 - would be the first to protest over ill-treatment and he would often be locked up in solitary as punishment.
On February Nelson Mandela was released from prison after 27 years. Accompanied by his wife Winnie, Mandela left the Victor Verster prison (renamed Drakenstein Correctional Centre) on the outskirts of Paarl and was driven 60 km to Cape Town by African National Congress's (ANC) Rose Sonto along a route lined by thousands of supporters.On the balcony of the City Hall he spoke to a crowd of approximately 50,000 people, who had waited for hours to see him. He started by expressing his sincere and warmest gratitude to the "millions of my compatriots and those in every corner of the globe who have campaigned tirelessly for my release".
South African President Jacob Zuma announced that Mandela, "the founding president of our democratic nation, has departed," adding that he "passed on peacefully.""Our nation has lost its greatest son. Our people have lost a father," Zuma said.The former South African president had been suffering from a recurring lung infection, and the Daily Telegraph reports that his friends and family had gathered at his bedside at his time of death.
He had a cameo in a Spike Lee film: He had a big part in Spike Lee's 1992 biopic "Malcolm X." At the very end of the movie, he plays a teacher reciting Malcolm X's famous speech to a room full of Soweto school kids. But the pacifist Mandela wouldn't say "by any means necessary." So Lee cut back to footage of Malcolm X to close out the film. The evolution of Nelson Mandela The evolution of Nelson MandelaThere's a woodpecker named after him: From Cape Town to California, streets named after Mandela abound. But he's also been the subject of some rather unusual tributes. Last year, scientists named a prehistoric woodpecker after him: Australopicus nelsonmandelai. In 1973, the physics institute at Leeds University named a nuclear particle the 'Mandela particle.'He married a first lady: Before tying the knot with Mandela on his 80th birthday, Graca Machel was married to Mozambique President Samora Machel. Her marriage to Mandela after her husband's death means she has been the first lady of two nations. He was a master of disguise: When Mandela was eluding authorities during his fight against apartheid, he disguised himself in various ways, including as a chauffeur. The press nicknamed him "the Black Pimpernel" because of his police evasion tactics. "I became a creature of the night. I would keep to my hideout during the day, and would emerge to do my work when it became dark," he says in his biography, "Long Walk to Freedom."
A bloody sport intrigued him: Besides politics, Mandela's other passion was boxing. "I did not like the violence of boxing. I was more interested in the science of it - how you move your body to protect yourself, how you use a plan to attack and retreat, and how you pace yourself through a fight," he says in his biography.His favorite dish is probably not yours: He's been wined and dined by world leaders. But what Mandela loved eating most was tripe. Yup, the stomach lining of farm animals.He quit his day job: He studied law at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg and opened the nation's first black law firm in the city in 1952.9. He was on the U.S. terror watch list: Mandela wasn't removed from the U.S. terror watch list until 2008 -- at age 89. He and other members of the African National Congress were placed on it because of their militant fight against apartheid.He drew his inspiration from a poem: While he was in prison, Mandela would read William Ernest Henley's "Invictus" to fellow prisoners. The poem, about never giving up, resonated with Mandela for its lines "I am the master of my fate. I am the captain of my soul." You may know it from the movie by the same name starring Morgan Freeman as Mandela.
In the 1980s, a number of musicians raised their voices to call for the freedom of Nelson Mandela. (The fight against apartheid, as the documentary Amandla! highlighted, was waged partly with music.) The most famous of these protest songs, in the U.S. at least, is probably 1984s (Free) Nelson Mandela by the Specials, which reached No. 9 on the U.K. charts and helped to make Mandelas cause more widely known in Great Britain and elsewhere.
Who was your role model?If you had not encouraged positive discrimination, how different do you think South Africa would be today?Is there anything else you would like to change about today's South Africa?What advice would you give to the young people of South Africa?Due to your time on Robben island would you change the conditions of prisons?
Is there anything in your life you would have done differently?What did you find hardest about life in prison?Would you want your children to follow in your foots