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Microsoft Word - 00-Front Matter-PC.docNUCLEAR REACTORS, NUCLEAR FUSION AND FUSION ENGINEERING
No part of this digital document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. The publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this digital document, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained herein. This digital document is sold with the clear understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, medical or any other professional services.
NUCLEAR REACTORS, NUCLEAR FUSION AND FUSION ENGINEERING
A. AASEN AND
P. OLSSON EDITORS
Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York
Copyright © 2009 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com
NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Aasen, A., 1963- Nuclear reactors, nuclear fusion, and fusion engineering / A. Aasen and P. Olsson. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-1-60876-722-9 (E-Book) 1. Fusion reactors. 2. Nuclear fuels. 3. Nuclear engineering. I. Olsson, P., 1962- II. Title. TK9204.A27 2009 621.48--dc22 2009009077
Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York
CONTENTS
Research and Review Studies 1
Chapter 1 Neutron Physics Research for the Development of Accelerator- Driven Systems
31
J. Blomgren and A.J. Koning
Chapter 2 An Overview about Modeling Approaches for Turbulent Mixing and Void Drift in Sub-Channel Analysis
79
Markus Glück
Chapter 3 Quantum Theory Way to the Two-Laser Ignition Facility 127 Miroslav Pardy
Chapter 4 The Development of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Zones in Irradiated U-ZR and U-PU-ZR Fuel Elements With Stainless Steel Cladding
163
D.D. Keiser, Jr.
Chapter 5 Microalloying Design for Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels
195
M.J. Balart and J.F. Knott
Chapter 6 History and Evolution of Fusion Power Plant Studies: Past, Present, and Future Prospects
217
Chapter 7 Optimization of Configuration under Dominant Electron Heating in Tokamaks
273
Qingdi Gao
Chapter 8 Impurity Radiation and Opacity Effects in Fusion Plasmas 295 D.Kh. Morozov and V.E. Lukash
Contents vi
Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Safety and Environmental Aspects of Fusion Experiments and Power Plants
321
Laila A. El-Guebaly and Lee C. Cadwallader
Chapter 10 Leak Detection Technology 367 Seiji Hiroki, Tetsuya Abe and Sadamitsu Tanzawa
Chapter 11 A D-3He Spherical Tokamak Reactor with the Plasma Current Ramp-Up by Vertical Field
405
A Pragmatic Course in Nuclear Engineering 445 Elizabeth K. Ervin
Low-Density-Plastic-Foam Capsule of Cryogenic Targets of Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) in Laser Fusion Research
455
Keiji Nagai, Fuyumi Ito, Han Yang, Akihumi Iwamoto, Mitsuo Nakai and Takayoshi Norimatsu
Index 465
PREFACE Nuclear reactors play a key role in 21st Century energy production. This new book
provides critical research in both fission and fusion energy production as well as the technology of the reactors. The role of nuclear data in Accelerator Driven Systems in order to reduce the cost for reaching a certain level of safety is presented and a detailed discussion of turbulent mixing and void drift that includes state-of-the-art models is given. Motivation for construction of the fusion reactors, including the laser fusion facilities and other related problems, are addressed. A brief history of magnetic confinement fusion power plant conceptual designs, focusing on tokamaks, is outlined in this book. Furthermore, the progress and state-of-the-art of principal aspects of fusion safety and environment are discussed. Since a high quality of vacuum integrity is required in large tokamak machines, leak detection systems are overviewed and a reasonable leak detection strategy is proposed.
One of the outstanding new developments in the field of Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) concerns Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), discussed in Chapter 1, which consist of a combination of a high-power, high-energy accelerator, a spallation target for neutron production, and a sub-critical reactor core.
The development of the commercial critical reactors of today motivated a large effort on nuclear data up to about 20 MeV, and presently several million data points can be found in various data libraries. Accelerator-driven transmutation will make use of neutrons up to GeV energies. Although only a minor fraction of the neutrons will have such high energies, they nevertheless need to be well characterized. At these high energies, data are scarce or even non-existent.
The nuclear data needed for transmutation in an ADS can roughly be divided into two main areas. First, the initial proton beam produces neutrons via spallation reactions. This means that data on proton-induced neutron production is needed. In addition, data on other reactions are needed to assess the residual radioactivity of the target. Second, the produced neutrons can induce a wide range of nuclear reactions, and knowledge of these is useful in the design of an ADS.
In most cases, direct data determination is not the ultimate goal. The global capacity for such measurements is insufficient to obtain complete coverage of important data. It is even impossible in theory to supply all relevant data. This means that the experimental work must be focused on providing benchmark data for theory development, making it possible to use theoretical models for unmeasured parameters in a core environment. In this respect, accelerator-driven systems are not fundamentally different than critical reactors.
A. Aasen and P. Olsson viii
An often overlooked aspect is why nuclear data should be measured in the first place. Nuclear data are not needed for a demonstration of the principle of driving a sub-critical assembly with an external neutron source. The need for nuclear data becomes imminent when a realistic large-scale facility is the goal. With large uncertainties in the nuclear data, large safety margins have to be used, which results in excessive costs. Thus, the role of nuclear data is to reduce the cost for reaching a certain level of safety.
Another important aspect is the trade-off between general and particular information. Below 20 MeV, a single cross section can be of paramount importance to the entire application. Moreover, some cross sections are fundamentally inaccessible to theory, in particular in the resonance region. As a result, at low energies more or less complete data coverage for major elements is required. Above 20MeV, the situation is fundamentally different. The cross sections are smooth, and the behaviour of the total technical system is always dictated by the sum of a large number of reactions, neither of which strongly dominates the performance. Therefore, getting a grip on the overall picture is more important than precision data on a single reaction.
If the boiling flow through fuel assemblies in a reactor core is to be predicted numerically by means of a sub-channel code, two important lateral exchange processes between neighboring sub-channels have to be taken into account: turbulent mixing and void drift. Whereas mixing is a kind of turbulent gradient diffusion occurring in both single-phase and two-phase flow, void drift is a two-phase phenomenon which is physically not yet well understood. However, there are a lot of phenomenological attempts to model this superimposed effect, which can act in the same direction as turbulent mixing, but also contrarily depending on sub-channel geometries and flow conditions.
Chapter 2 will classify the physical background of both phenomena including a detailed overview about the flow conditions which have to be existent in order to cause the one or other phenomenon. Furthermore, it will provide a well-structured thread through the whole calculation methodology. Thereby, each single phenomenon will be discussed in detail (physically and mathematically) and an overview about both the particular state-of-the-art models and new approaches in open literature will be given.
In the introductionof Chapter 3 we present the motivation for construction of the fusion reactors including the laser fusion facilities. Then, we consider the solution of the Dirac equation with the periodic potential which is called the Volkov solution. The one-photon and two-photon Compton process follows from this solution. The energy-momentum equation for the multi-photon process is also involved. In the following section, we solve the problem of the interaction of an electron with the Dirac delta-form impulsive force, which is an idealization of experimental situation in laser physics. We elaborate the quantum theory of the interaction of a charged particle with a such impulsive force. We determine the modified Compton formula for final frequency of photons generated by the scattering of the delta-form laser pulse on the electron in a rest. The one-photon Compton process is only special case of the multi-photon interaction of electron with N photons of laser pulse. The multi-photon interaction is nonlinear and differs from the situation where electron scatters twice or more as it traverses the laser focus.
The next problem of the laser physics is the electron interaction with the two electromagnetic waves. This is also the future direction of the laser physics of elementary particles. The two laser beams can be used in the thermonuclear reactor instead of many laser beams.
Preface ix
In the following text we consider the solution with massive photons in the laser beam. The mass of photon is of the dynamical origin corresponding to the radiative corrections. We determine the equation corresponding to the Dirac equation with periodic potential of massive photons. The resulting equation is the Riccati equation which cannot be solved in general. So, we derive only some approximative formulas. While massless photon is described by theMaxwell Lagrangian, the massive photon is described by the Proca Lagrangian from which the field equations follow. The massive electrodynamics can be considered as a generalization of massless electrodynamics.
Massive photons are substantial in the theory of superconductivity, plasma physics, waveguides and so on. The massive photons can be produced in very strong magnetic pulses generated by the Kapitza gigantic solenoid method, or, by the Terletzkii method of the cumulation of the magnetic flux. It means that the deuterium-tritium pellet in the laser ignition facility can be compressed by the massive photons generated simultaneously with the magnetic delta-form pulses.
The presence of the magnetic field in which the pellet can be situated leads to the generation of the synchrotron radiation of charged particles. Motivated by this fact, we derive the synchrotron radiation formulas using the Volkov solution of the Dirac equation and the S- matrix formalism of QED for an electron moving in the constant magnetic field.
As explained in Chapter 4, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is responsible for the development of advanced nuclear energy systems. One of these nuclear energy systems is the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). To maximize the performance of this type of nuclear reactor, it will be important to improve on the performance of the nuclear fuel, i.e., allow for higher fuel burnup and/or operation of the fuel at higher reactor operating temperatures. One type of nuclear fuel currently being evaluated is a metallic U-Pu-Zr alloy, and one phenomenon that could limit the ability of the fuel to perform at temperatures that are higher than what have been typically employed is the chemical compatibility of the fuel and cladding. During irradiation, the fuel swells and eventually contacts the cladding, at which time fuel cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) can occur. During this process, interdiffusion occurs between the fuel, cladding, and fission products, which can result in the formation of interaction zones on the inner surface of the cladding that can become brittle or may contain relatively low-melting phases. The result of this process can be cracking and failure of the cladding. Minimal detailed information on FCCI in irradiated metallic SFR fuels is available in the literature. Thus, in order to facilitate an increased understanding of FCCI, this chapter describes results that have been generated from the destructive examinations of individual fuel elements that were irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II over the course of a thirty-year timeframe. This chapter particularly focuses on any interaction zones that developed on the inner surface of the cladding. Three examination techniques were employed to characterize FCCI in these fuel elements: optical metallography, electron probe micro-analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results of these examinations were evaluated and compared to provide information about FCCI and what effects it could have on fuel performance. Fuel elements that included U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr alloy fuels and HT-9, D9, or Type 316 stainless steel cladding were assessed. The irradiation conditions, cladding type, and axial location on fuel elements, where the thickest layers could be expected to develop, were identified, and it was found that the largest interaction zones developed at the combined high- power and high-temperature regions of the fuel elements and for the fuel elements with U-Pu-
A. Aasen and P. Olsson x
Zr alloy fuel and D9 stainless steel cladding. The most prevalent, non-cladding constituent observed in the developed interaction layers were the lanthanide fission products.
Microalloying technology is widely used in the steel industry to improve the mechanical properties of structural steels, in which the strength and toughness are improved by the refinement of ferrite grain size. Chapter 5 explains the importance of microalloying elements in controlling the microstructures and properties of quenched and tempered (QT) RPV steels. First, we give a brief description of the physical metallurgy of prior austenite grain refinement in microalloyed steels. The critical microalloying element for prior austenite grain size control is shown to be titanium, which forms carbonitrides, able to pin prior austenite grain boundaries during heat treatment. Secondly, attention is drawn to experimental results from the literature that demonstrate prior austenite grain coarsening in simulated coarse-grained heat-affected-zones (CGHAZs) in certain grades of non-microalloyed RPV steel. Finally, we discuss the microstructures and mechanical properties of simulated heat-affected-zones (HAZs) in A508 and A533 steels.
Chapter 6 provides a brief history of magnetic confinement fusion power plant conceptual designs, beginning with the early development in 1970, focusing on tokamaks. In addition, the evolution of six more magnetic concepts (stellarator, spherical tori, field- reversed configurations, reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, and tandem mirrors) is highlighted. The key issues encountered are discussed, including the technological obstacles and the elements necessary for economic competitiveness. Extensive R&D programs and international collaboration in all areas of fusion research led to a wealth of information generated and analyzed. As a result, fusion promises to be a major part of the energy mix in the 21st century and beyond.
In Chapter 7, higher power LH wave (1.5MW) is injected into the diverted plasma with a slightly asymmetric spectrum. Dominant electron heating and current profile control are investigated with numerical simulation. Plasma heating by electron Landau interaction results in operation scenarios of preferentially dominant electron heating. Due to the off-axis driven current, an optimized q-profile is formed, and an enhanced confinement regime with steep electron temperature gradient is produced. The clear decrease of the electron thermal conductivity in the LH power deposition region shows that an electron-ITB is developed. Establishment of the current profile like in the hybrid scenario is studied under the condition of dominant electron heating in HL-2A. The scenarios with injecting LH and EC waves are under numerical study. Carefully adjusting the position of non-inductive current driven by two groups of gyrotron, an optimized q-profile was obtained with qa =3.78 and weak shear region extending to ρ ~ 0.45 (where ρ is the square-root of toroidal flux normalized to its value at plasma boundary) in low-density discharges of 319100.1 −×= mne . When 0.5 MW LH power in the current drive mode and 0.95MW EC power mainly for plasma heating are used to control the current profile, a hybrid discharge scenario with weak magnetic shear region extended to ρ = 0.6 and qa = 3.21 is established through controlling the EC absorption position. The mechanism of the LH wave absorption in the HL-2A plasma causes interplay of the distribution of the LH driven current with the modification of the plasma configuration, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. Due to the non-linearity the LH wave deposition position changes spontaneously or oscillates. The oscillatory behavior caused by non-linear effect of the LH wave deposition is analyzed.
Preface xi
In Chapter 8, recent years the optical opacity effects in impurity seeded plasmas in fusion devices are discussed. In many practically interesting situations plasmas are far from coronal as well as from local thermo-dynamical equilibria. Impurities in clouds, surrounding diagnostic pellets, in noble gas jets injecting into tokamak etc., are transparent for some lines and opaque for others. Hence, accurate simulations of thermal balance, impurity dynamics and so on, are extremely cumbersome. At the same time the influence of plasma optical opacity on plasma parameters may be very important. Reduced models for impurity description with taking into account opacity effects were developed. Coincidence of some theoretical and experimental results has been achieved taking into account opacity effects with the models mentioned above. The present paper is the review (may be, not complete) of results obtained by some theoretic teams in last few years. Carbon pellets, noble gas jets and disruptions are discussed.
Electricity generating plants powered by nuclear fusion have long been envisioned as possessing inherent advantages for the health and safety of the public, the health and safety of plant workers, and good stewardship of the environment while supporting modern society. Chapter 9 discusses the progress and state-of-the-art of these three principal aspects of fusion safety and environment. The fusion safety philosophy and advantages over traditional thermal power plants are described. Fusion workers should be protected commensurately with workers in other comparable industrial activities. The fusion radwaste management strategy must accommodate the new trend of recycling and clearance, avoiding geological disposal. Here, we discuss the technical elements as well as the US regulatory approach and policy governing the design of safe and environmentally sound fusion devices.
In large tokamak machines such as the TFTR, the JET and the JT-60, a high quality of vacuum integrity is required to achieve impurity-free plasma, so the vacuum leak detection technology is highly important. A combination of a helium (4He) spraying and a 4He leak detector is a conventional leak detection method due to its higher detectability, reliability and easier maintainability. However, such tokamak machines are huge, complicated,…

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