Operant Conditioning Brooke Konefsky Morgan Monroe Megan Walsh Joshua Peace
B.F. Skinner Behaviorist Skinner Box Schedules of Reinforcement Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning A method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.
Reinforcement Anything that strengthens the desired response Positive or Negative
Positive Reinforcement Favorable events or outcomes that follow the desired behavior A response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something Praise, stickers, candy, prizes, good grades, feeling of satisfaction
Positive Reinforcement Example You get an A on that math test that you spent all week studying for and your teacher recognizes you for your efforts.
Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforces involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant. (response or behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus. )
Example of Negative Reinforcement Before going to the beach, you would rather take the time to put on sunscreen then get sunburn You clean your room when its messy to avoid getting punished by your parents
Punishment A consequence that decreases the possibility of a particular response occurring in the future Positive or Negative
Positive Punishment Occurs when an undesirable behavior is reduced by applying something negative Referred to as punishment by application A burn, spank, or fine
Positive Punishment Example Because you are running late to work, you drive over the speed limit. You get pulled over by a police officer and receive a ticket.
Negative Punishment Response to undesirable behavior with the removal of positive stimuli. The key is to respond immediately and often to the behavior.
Negative Punishment Examples A child returns late from curfew. As a result, the child is grounded from going out for a week. Behaving inappropriately in class results in the loss of behavior points.