of 30 /30

orthopaedic pathologic specimen

Embed Size (px)


describing gross specimen in orthopaedics

Text of orthopaedic pathologic specimen



  • DESCRIBING GROSS SPECIMENA: Identify the part: Knee / prox. femur/ prox. tibia/ pelvis /scapula. Epiphyseal / Metaphyseal / Diaphyseal. Physeal plate visible? Immature pt.

  • B:Describe the abnormality: Nature: solid / soft & friable /cystic / varigated Matrix: bony / cartilaginous / fibrous Secondary changes: central necrosis/ hemorrhage

    / cystic change Cortical destruction, periosteal elevation Intramedullary spread Tumor margin / capsule: well defined / illdefined Extension: into soft tissue / joint; invasion /

    infiltration to surrounding tissue

  • C: Give provisional diagnosis.

  • Age: 20-40. Epiphyseometaphyseal in adults -

    Metaphyseal in adolescents. Common location: around knee (50%),

    distal radius Xray: Geographic lytic lesion, thinned & ballooned out cortex.

    Gross pathology: Large red - grey - brown tumor Soft & friable Areas of cystic degeneration / necrosis & blood filled cavities


  • HISTOPATHOLOGY:Uniform oval mononuclear stromalcells : mesenchymal origin; neoplasticAppear to grow in a syncytium

    Numerous osteoclast-type giant cells: reactive

    Necrosis, hemorrhage, hemosiderindeposition and reactive bone


    Relatively few mitotic figures in relation to the dense cellularity of the tumor

  • GIANT CELL VARIANTSIncludes the tumors which show giant cells in histology-

    A. ABC B. Brown tumor C. Chondromyxoid fibroma, chondroblastoma D. Desmoplastic fibroma E. Epulis Giant cell reparative granuloma F. Fibrous dysplasia, non ossifying fibroma G. Giant cell rich osteosarcoma H. Benign fibrous histiocytoma

  • Giant cell

    Physiological: MegakaryocytePathological Langhans : fused epitheliod cells. Peripherally arranged 7-21 nuclei. TB,

    histoplasmosis, sarcoidosis, other mycobacteria

    Foreign body: fused macrophages. Numerous nuclei scattered in cytoplasm

    Aschoff : Rheumatic heart disease Reed Sternberg: Hodgkins lymphoma Touton : xanthoma, xanthogranuloma, dematofibroma Viral: Warthin Finkeldy (measles), resp syncitial virus, parainfluenza Tumor

  • OSTEOSARCOMA Bimodal age distribution: Primary 10-20, secondary 50-70. 75% around knee Bone forming tumor arising from bone Several subtypes By location (Central or Juxtacortical)MulticentricityDegree of differentiation: well to dedifferentiatedHistologic variance:

    osteoblastic/chondroblastic/fibroblastic/telangictatic/small cell Associated with Retinoblastoma (rb gene), Li Fraumeni

    syndrome (p53 gene), Rothmund Thomsen syndrome.

  • GROSS PATHOLOGY: Metaphyseal Tan-white solid tumor fills

    most of the medullary cavity of the metaphysis and proximal diaphysis

    Expanding & infiltrating through the cortex, lifts the periosteum (Codmans triangle) and forms soft tissue masses on the side of the bone

    Areas of hemorrhage and central necrosis.

  • HISTOPATHOLOGY: Pleomorphic and anaplastic cell

    population- large hyperchromaticnuclei, mitotic figures

    Abundant fibrous/ chondroidmatrix

    Formation of pink homogenous osteoid by neoplastic cell: characteristic.

    The neoplastic bone has a coarse, lacelike architecture but is also deposited in broad sheets or as primitive trabeculae.

    Osteoblastic, chondroblastic or fibroblastic types

    Osteoclast-like giant cells may be present


    Age: 30-60 Primary or Secondary ( Enchondromatosis [Ollier 50%,

    Maffucci 100%], diaphyseal aclasis 20%, osteochondroma 0.25%)

    Pelvis (30%), Femur (20%) Types: Conventional, mesenchymal, clear cell,

    juxtacotical, dedifferentiated Most common malignant bone tumor of hand

  • GROSS PATHOLOGY: Large bulky tumor Made up of lobules of gray-white

    /somewhat translucent glistening tissue. Tumor permeating throughout the

    medullary cavity, growing through the cortex, and forming a relatively well-circumscribed soft tissue mass.

    At center necrotic/liquefied/cystic. Gelatinous appearance secondary to myxoid changes in matrix.

    May show calcification. The adjacent cortex is thickened or

    eroded, and the tumor grows with broad pushing fronts into the surrounding soft tissue.

  • HISTOPATHOLOGY: Tumor cells produce

    cartilaginous matrix; well, moderate or poorly differentiated.

    May have only minor or focal atypia

    Intracytoplasmic hyaline globules common in low grade tumors

  • EWINGS SARCOMAJames Ewing 1921GROSS PATHOLOGY: Diaphyseal in long bones;

    also pelvis, rib, scapula White tan grey mass like

    brain; or red like red currant gelly if hemorrhagic

    With necrosis & hemorrhage Cortical destruction Invasion to soft tissue

    around, no capsule


    Homogenous & denslypacked undifferentiatedsmall round blue cells likelymphocytes; regular nuclei, infrequent mitoses, scant clear cytoplasm.

    Abundant glycogen: PAS + diastase digestible

    Rare Homer- Wright pseudorosettes (7-8 tumor cells arranged in a circle about a central fibrillaryspace)

  • D/D : Small Round Cell Tumor Ewings: mic2 overexpression - CD99/013 . t(11;22)(EWS-FLI-1). NSE + PNET (Primitive neuroectodermal tumor): CD99/013. S100,

    chromogranin, synaptophysin; > 20% Homer Wright rosettes

    Lymphoma (reticulum cell sarcoma, NHL): CD 45, LCA Small cell carcinoma: keratin, synaptophysin, chromogranin Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma Neuroblastoma: neurofilament. S100, chromogranin, synaptophysin. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: actin, desmin, vimentin, MyoD1,



  • OSTEOCHONDROMAGROSS PATHOLOGY: Mushroom shaped Cartilage-capped bony outgrowth Cartilage cap usually regular and

    thin Sessile / Pedunculated Pedunculated : attached to skeleton

    by bony stalk; medullary cavity of the osteochondroma and bone are in continuity

    Diaphyseal aclasis: multiple heriditary exostosis

    Trevors disease: Epiphyseal side osteochondroma

  • Painful osteochondroma: Fracture Bursitis Malignant transformation: fluffy calcification in the

    cartilage cap, thickness of cartilage cap > 1 cm.

  • CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS Sequestrum is the necrotic

    bone that is embedded in the pus/infected granulation tissue.

    Involucrum is the new bone laid down by the periosteumthat surrounds the sequestra.

    Cloaca is the opening in the involucrum through which pus & sequestra make their way out.

  • Types of sequestrum.. Tubular: long bone Annular: amputation stump Ring: around pin tracts Flake, coke, rice grain: tubercular Button: histiocytosis Feathery: syphilis Match stick: sickle cell Coloured: fungal Black: gun shot Bombay: exposed bone after open fracture


    Paradiscal Loss of height

    of vertebra Caseating

    necrotic tissue Bone necrosis;

    sequestra Sclerosis

  • Kyphotic deformity Internal gibbus Severe cord compression

  • Granuloma or LH giant cell is notpathagnomonic of TB!

    Foreign body granuloma. Fat necrosis. Fungal infections. Sarcoidosis. Crohns disease.

  • MADURA FOOT Foot looks like tumor Multiple nodules & sinus

    Multiple circumscribed abcesses; extensive granulation tissue around.

    Bone destruction

  • Granulomatous fungal disease; involve subcutaneous tissue after traumatic inoculation; later spread to deep structures.

    Causes local tissue destruction including boneTypes: Actinmycetoma: Actinomadura sps, Nocardia Eumycetoma: Aspergillus sps,

    Discharge colored granules: Red (Actinomadura pelletieri), white / yellow (Actinomadura madurae, Pseudoallescheriaboydii), black (Exophiala jeanselmei, Madurella mycematis)

    Pus contains sulfur granules, a tangled mass of branching bacteria (Splendore Hoppelli body)

  • Slide Number 1DESCRIBING GROSS SPECIMENSlide Number 3Slide Number 4Slide Number 5GIANT CELL TUMORSlide Number 7GIANT CELL VARIANTSGiant cellOSTEOSARCOMASlide Number 11Slide Number 12CHONDROSARCOMASlide Number 14Slide Number 15EWINGS SARCOMASlide Number 17D/D : Small Round Cell TumorOSTEOCHONDROMASlide Number 20Painful osteochondroma:CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITISTypes of sequestrum..TUBERCULAR SPONDYLITIS (POTTS) SPINESlide Number 25Slide Number 26MADURA FOOTSlide Number 28Slide Number 29Slide Number 30