Painting Pre-Historic to Baroque

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Painting Pre-historic to baroque lecture notes

Text of Painting Pre-Historic to Baroque

Pre-Historic To Baroque

PAINTING Is the art of applying colored pigments on to a flat surface, like canvas, paper, wood or plaster.METHOD S: 1. Oil 2. Water Color 3. Fresco 4. Tempera

Prehistoric Painting The earliest known Western paintings were executed deep within caves of southern Europe during the Palaeolithic period, some 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. The early development of painting continued in the Mediterranean littoral.

Lascaux Caves:

the Prehistoric Sistine Chapel A cave complex in south-western France

Lascaux Caves:

the Prehistoric Sistine Chapel

12 September 1940

Jacques Marsal Georges Agnel Simon Coencas Marcel Ravidat ROBOT

Lascaux Caves:the Prehistoric Sistine Chapel

Altamira Caves:

as Picasso famously exclaimed AFTER ALTAMIRA, ALL IS A DECADENCE

Located near Santilliana del Mar in Cantabria, Northern Spain

Altamira Caves:

as Picasso famously exclaimed AFTER ALTAMIRA, ALL IS A DECADENCE

Discovered in 1879 by Maria de Santuola most exceptional evidence of Magdalenian culture in southern Europe

Chauvet Caves:Ardeche departement, Southern France

spectacular artwork

spectacular artwork soon regarded as one of the most significant pre-historic art sites in the world

Chauvet Caves:


Magura Caves:

peeking into the prehistoric world

Panel Painting The most respected form of art, according to authors like Pliny or Pausanias, individual, mobile paintings on wooden boards, techniques used - encaustic (wax) painting and tempera. depicted figural scenes - including portraits and still-lifes They were collected and often displayed in public spaces. Pausanias describes such exhibitions at Athens and Delphi not one of the famous works of Greek panel painting has survived, nor even any of the copies that doubtlessly existed, and which give us most of our

One of the Pitsa panels, the only surviving panel paintings from Archaic Greece.

The most important surviving Greek examples are the: Pitsa panels- fairly low quality from circa 530 BC Fayum mummy portraits - a large group of much later Graeco-Roman archaeological survivals from the dry conditions of Egypt, Severan Tondo Byzantine icons - also derived from the encaustic panel painting tradition.

Fayum mummy portraits

The Severan Tondo, a panel painting of the imperial family, circa 200 AD

Greek Orthodox Icon

Wall Painting The tradition of wall painting in Greece goes back at least to the Minoan and Mycenaean Bronze Age, with the lavish fresco decoration of sites like Knossos, Tiryns and Mycenae. Wall paintings are frequently described in Pausanias, and many appear to have been produced in the Classical and Hellenistic periods.

Symposium scene in the Tomb of the Diver at Paestum, circa 480 BC.

The most notable examples are: a monumental Archaic 7th century BC scene of hoplite combat from inside a temple at Kalapodi (near Thebes) the elaborate frescoes from the 4th century "Grave of Phillipp" the "Tomb of Persephone" at Vergina in Macedonia Greek wall painting tradition is also reflected in contemporary grave decorations in the Greek colonies in Italy, Some scholars suggest that the celebrated Roman frescoes at sites like Pompeii are the direct descendants of Greek tradition, and that some of them copy famous panel paintings.

Reconstructed colour scheme of the entablature on a Doric temple.

Polychromy: painting on statuary and architecture

Polychrome - many color Much of the figural or architectural sculpture of ancient Greece was painted colourfully.

Polychromy on Architecture Painting was also used to enhance the visual aspects of architecture. Such architectural polychromy could take the form of bright colours directly applied to the stone or of elaborate patterns, frequently architectural members made of terracotta Sometimes, the terracottas also depicted figural scenes, as do the 7th century BC terracotta metopes from Thermon.

Traces of paint depicting embroidered patterns on the a peplos of an Archaic kore,

Reconstructed colour scheme on a Trojan archer from the Temple of

Polychromy on Sculpture Most Greek sculptures were painted in strong colours. The paint was frequently limited to parts depicting clothing, hair, and so on, with the skin left in the natural colour of the stone, but it could also cover sculptures in their totality. The painting of Greek sculpture should not merely be seen as an enhancement of their sculpted form, but has the characteristics of a distinct style of art. The polychromy of stone statues was paralleled by the use of different materials to distinguish skin, clothing and other details in chryselephantine sculptures, and by the use of different metals to depict lips, nipples, etc, on high-quality bronzes like the Riace Warriors.

Vase painting The most copious evidence of ancient Greek painting survives in the form of vase paintings. It should be noted that strictly speaking, vase painting was a separate skill or art from potting. It should also be kept in mind that vase painting, all be it by far the most conspicuous surviving source on ancient Greek painting, was not held in high regard in antiquity, and is never mentioned in Classical literature.

In this early Greek painting from around 800 B.C.E., Odysseus leaps up to blind Polyphemus the cyclops. Known as the Orientalizing style, Egyptian and Minoan influences are mixed with a Greek interest in illustrating motion.

Roman Our knowledge of Ancient Rome painting relies in large part on the preservation of artifacts from Pompeii and Herculanum, and particularly the Pompeian mural painting, Pompeian mural painting, which was preserved after the eruption of Vesuvius in 79. AD.

Pompeian painter with painted statue and framed painting Pompeii

Roman Nothing remains of the Greek paintings imported to Rome during the 4th and 5th centuries, or of the painting on wood done in Italy during that period. Pliny explicitly states around 69-79 AD that the only true painting was painting on wood and that this had nearly disappeared by his time, to the benefit of the muralists, which was more indicative of the wealth of the owners than their artistic tastes.

Variety of subjects Roman painting provides a wide variety of themes: animals, still life, and scenes from everyday life. During the Hellenistic period, it evoked the pleasures of the countryside and represented scenes of shepherds, herds, rustic temples, rural mountainous landscapes and country houses.

Boscotrecase , Pompeii. Second style

Innovations The main innovation of Roman painting compared to Greek art was the development of landscapes, in particular incorporating techniques of perspective. The art of the ancient East would have known the landscape only in terms of civil or military scenes.

Periods Roman mural painting is generally distinguished by four periods, as originally described by the German archaeologist August Mau and dealt with in more detail at Pompeian Styles.

Triumphal paintings From the 3rd century BC, a specific genre known as Triumphal Paintings appeared, as indicated by Pliny. These were paintings which showed triumphal entries after military victories, represented episodes from the war, and conquered regions and cities. Summary maps were drawn to highlight key points of the campaign These paintings have disappeared, but they likely influenced the composition of the historical reliefs carved on military sarcophagi, the Arch of Titus, and Trajan's Column.

Ranuccio also describes the oldest painting to be found in Rome, in a tomb on the Esquiline Hill: "It describes a historical scene, on a clear background, painted in four superimposed sections. Several people are identified, such Marcus Fannius and Marcus Fabius. These are larger than the other figures...In the second zone, to the left, is a city encircled with crenellated walls, in front of which is a large warrior equipped with an oval buckler and a feathered helmet; near him is a man in a short tunic, armed with a spear...Around these two are smaller soldiers in short tunics, armed with spears...In the lower zone a battle is taking place, where a warrior with oval buckler and a feathered helmet is shown larger than the others, whose

Roman This episode is difficult to pinpoint. One of Ranuccio's hypotheses is that it refers to a victory of the consul Fabius Maximus Rullianus during the second war against Samnites in 326 BC. The presentation of the figures with sizes proportional to their importance is typically Roman, and finds itself in plebeian reliefs. This painting is in the infancy of triumphal painting, and would have been accomplished by the beginning of the 3rd century BC to decorate the tomb.

Panel paintings In Greece and Rome, wall painting was not considered as high art. The most prestigious form of art besides sculpture was panel painting, i.e. tempera or encaustic painting on wooden panels. Since wood is a perishable material, only very few examples of such paintings have survived, namely the Severan Tondo from circa 200 AD, and the well-known Fayum mummy portraits. They usually depict a single person, showing the head, or head and upper chest, viewed frontally. The background is always monochrome, sometimes with decorative elements. In terms of artistic tradition, the images clearly derive more from Graeco-Roman traditions than Egyptian ones.

Medieval painting refers to most of the art produced in Europe during a period of about 1,000 years. This period began with the fall of the Roman Empire in the A.D. 300s and 400s and ended with the beginning of the Renaissance in the 1300s. Medieval Euro