Paintings, drawings and prints : the art of Goya : The Art institute of

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  • PAINTINGS

    DRA\VINGS

    AND PRINTS

  • I

    1. Self Portr a it. 1810 (or lat er ) . Oil , 26 x 20 in ches. Lent b y Th e Smith College Mu se um of Art, Northampton, Massa chu sett s .

    Lik e R embran dt, Goya depicte d him self at all periods duri ng hi s life-tim e. Here, at th e age of about sixty -five, he subj ect s th e tra gic ma sk of hi s face to th e scrutiny of str ong light. Ne ith er deafness, bodily sufferin g, nor mental strif e could imp ede hi s ind omit able will to live and creat e. T echni cally, th e portr ait show s Goya's redu ced sca le of colors: only a few pat ches of dull red va ry th e loomin g grays and blacks. Pi gment is thinl y applied , but du e to hi s mast erly comm and of light Goya 's forms appe ar solidly in space.

  • PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS

    AND PRINTS

    Edited by DANIEL CATTON RrcH

    with a note on The Technique of Goya by F. ScHMID

    THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO

  • COPYRIGHTED

    by The Art Institute of Chicago,

    1941. Printed in the United States

    of America by R. R. Donnelley & Sons

    Company , The Lakeside Press, Chicago.

  • LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION

    The Art Institute of Chicago gratefully acknow ledges the

    genero us cooperation of the following lenders to the ex-

    hibition:

    Mr. W. G. Ru ssell Allen, Boston; Mr. and Mrs. Paul M.

    Byk, New York; The Honorable Oscar B. Cintas, Havana;

    Mr s. Richard E. Danielson, Boston; The Charles Deering

    Collection; Mr. Henry S. Ferriss, Madison, New Jersey; Mrs.

    P.H. B. Frelinghuysen, Morristown, New Jersey; The Col-

    lection of the late J. Horace Harding, New York; Mrs. Ed-

    ward S. Harkness, New York; Miss Ethel Haven, New York;

    Mr. Philip Hofer, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mr . Samuel

    H. Kress, New York; Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey McCormick,

    Chicago; Mr . Robert W. Reford, Montreal; Mr. Godfrey S.

    Rockefeller, Greenwich, Connecticut; Mr. Frank Channing

    Smith, Jr., Worcester, Massachusetts; Mr. and Mrs. Michael

    M. van Beuren, New York; Miss Edith Wetmore, New York;

    Mrs. Felix Wildenstein, Rid gefield, Connecticut.

    Brooklyn Museum; Fine Arts Society of San Diego;

    Fogg Museum of Art, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mas-

    sachusetts; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York;

    Mu seum of Fine Arts, Boston; William Rockhill Nelson Gal-

    lery of Art, Kansas City; Phillips Memorial Gallery, Wash-

    ington, D. C.; Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of

    De sign, Providence; Smith College Mu seum of Art, North-

    ampton, Massachusetts; The Taft Museum, Cincinnati ;

    Wadsworth Atheneurn, Hartford, Connecticut; Worcester

    Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusett s.

    Paul Drey Gallery, New York; Durlacher Brothers, New

    York; F . Kleinberger and Company, In c., New York; Arnold

    Seligmann, Rey and Company, Inc., New York; E. and A.

    Silberman Galleries, Inc., New York; Julius H. Weitzner,

    Inc., New York; Mr. E. Weyhe, New York; Wilden stein and

    Company, Inc., New York.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    We wish to express app reciation to th e following for the as-

    sistance which they rendered in assembling the exhibition:

    Mr. Francis Henry Taylor, Director, and Mr. Harry B.

    Wehle, Curator of Paintings, of The Metropolitan Museum

    of Art, New York; Mr. George Harold Edgell, Director, Mr.

    William George Constab le, Curator of Paintings, and Mr.

    Henry Preston Rossiter, Curator of Print s, of the Museum of

    Fine Arts , Boston; Mr. Laurance P . Robert s, Director, Mrs .

    Cecile B. Seiberling , and Miss Una John son of The Brooklyn

    Museum; Mr. Edward Forbes, Director, and Mr. Paul J.

    7

    Sachs, Associate Director, of the Fogg Museum of Art, H ar-

    vard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mr. A. Everett

    Austin, Jr., Director of the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford,

    Connecticut; Mr. Alexander Dorner, Dire ctor of the Museum

    of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Pr ovidence; Mr.

    Charles H . Sawyer, Director of the Worcester Art Museum,

    Worcester, Massachusetts; Mr. Jere Abbott, Director of The

    Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachusetts;

    Mr. Walter H. Siple, Director of the Taft Museum, Cincin-

    nati; Mr. Duncan Phillips, Dir ector, Phillips Memorial

    Gallery, Washington, D. C.; Mr. Paul Gardner, Dir ector of

    the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City;

    Mr. Reginald H. Poland, Director, Fine Arts Gallery, San

    Diego.

    Dr . Chandler R. Post of Harvard University, Cambridge,

    Massachusetts; Mr. A. Hyatt Mayor, Associate Curator of

    Prints of The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Miss Ethelwyn

    Manning, Librarian of the Frick Art Reference Library; Mr.

    Henri Marceau, Assist ant Director of the Phil adelphi a Mu-

    seum of Art; Mr. Winslow Ames, Dir ector of the Lyman

    Allyn Museum, New London, Connecticut; Mrs. Adelyn D.

    Breeskin, Curator of Prints of The Baltimore Museum of

    Art; Mr. Martin Baldwin, Curator of The Art Gallery of

    Toronto; Mr. Max Epstein, Chicago; Mr. Alfred M. Frank-

    furter, New York; Mr. Jon ce I. McGurk, New York; Mr.

    Theodore Bolton, New York; Miss Elizabeth du Gue Trapier

    of The Hi span ic Society of America, New York; Mr. Jo se

    Gudiol, Visitin g Professor at The Toledo Museum of Art; Mr.

    Walter M. Walters, New York; Mr. Jose Lazaro, New York;

    Mr. William Sawitzky, Stamford, Conne cticut; Mr. Cleve-

    land F. Morgan, Montreal; Miss Inglis Griswold, New York.

    Mr. Charles R. Hen schel, New York; Miss Lelia Wittler,

    New York; Mr. Robert M. Levy, New York; Mr . J ames St.

    L. O'Toole, New York; Mr. C. M. de Hauke, New York;

    Mr. Felix Wildenstein, New York.

    Libr ary of Congress, Washington, D. C.; New York Public

    Library; Library of Th e Metropolitan Museum of Art, New

    York; Frick Art Reference Library, New York; The Public

    Library of the City of Boston ; Harvard College Library,

    Cambridge, Massachusetts; Fogg Museum Library, Harvard

    Un iversity , Cambridge, Massachusetts; Yale University,

    School of the Fine Arts Library, New Haven, Connecticut;

    Princeton Univer sity Library, Princeton, New Jer sey; Uni-

    versity of Michigan General Library, Ann Arbor; Library of

    The University of Wisconsin, Madi son ; Chicago Public Li-

    brary; The University of Chicago Libraries; The Newberry

    Library, Chicago; The John Crerar Library, Chicago.

  • STAFF FOR THE EXHIBITION

    Appreciation is due the following member s of the staff for

    their ass ist ance in assemb ling the exhibition and in the

    prep arat ion of the catalogue :

    Miss Etheldred Abbot and members of the Reference

    Staff, Mr. Lester B. Bridaham, Mr. Hugh Edwards, Mrs.

    Marion Rawl s Herzog , Miss Marie Hinkes, Miss Selma

    John son, Mr. G. E. Ka ltenbach, M iss Ruth Kellogg, Miss

    Petrone) Luk ens, Mi ss He len Mackenzie, Miss Daisy M .

    Meyer, Miss Dorothy Odenheimer, Mr. Meyric R. Roger s,

    Mrs. Nancy Sande rs, Mr . Car l 0. Schniewind, Mr. Walt er

    J. Sherwood, Mr. Frederick A. Sweet, Miss Marie Swift,

    Miss Margaret Wareing.

    TRUSTEES AND OFI

  • FRANCISCO JOSE DE GOYA YLUCIENTES was born on March 30, 1746, in the miserable village of Fuendetodos, thirty-five miles from Saragossa. His father, Jose, a master gilder, and his mother, Dona Gracia Lucientes, a mem-ber of the Aragonese nobility, had left Saragossa to seek aid from the wife 's relatives. The young Francisco, whom the elders of Fuendetodos re-called as "wild and mischievous," must have early shown talent for at the age of twelve he is said to have painted a curtain and doors for a reliquary in the village church. (When shown this dubious work of art in 1807, Goya ex-claimed: "Don't tell anyone I painted that!")

    LIFE IN SARAGOSSA. EARLY TRAINING

    2

    In 1760 the family were back in Saragossa where the father's trade of gilding must have brought the son into contact with painters. Francisco attended the Escuela Pia of a certain Father Joaquin where he met Martin Zapater, destined to become his life-long friend and with whom he corresponded for more than twenty-five years. At fourteen he was apprenticed to Jose Luzan y Martinez, the best known artist in town. Luzan was the master of the three Bayeu brothers, all associated with Goya later on, and had himself studied in Naples with a pupil of Solimena. For a provincial capital Saragossa was remarkably up-to-date, boasting a drawing school with excellent teachers and even a collection of plaster casts sent from Italy. But Goya had his eyes on Madrid where Fran-cisco Bayeu had already won notable success.

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    2. St. Francis of Paula. 1770-1775. Etching, 51/4x3% inches. 2nd state (D.2). Inscribed (in reverse): Cari (for Caritas). Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

    In December, 1763, at the age of seventeen, he competed with four other young men for a scholarship in the Academy of San Fernando-the first of a number of competitions which he was fated to lose.

    MADRID. THE TRIP TO ITALY

    In 1766 he once more entered a competition in Madrid sponsored by the Academy, this time for an historical subject. Again he failed to win a prize and we know nothing of his move-ments, until, suddenly in April, 1771, Goya submits, from Rome, a picture to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Parma for the compe-tition of that year. The subject assigned was Hannibal, Victorious, Looks for the First Time from the Alps on Italy. A mediocre Italian walked away with the honors and by July, 1771, Goya was back in Spain.

  • EARLY ETCHINGS

    Abo:ut this time or a little later, Goya started etching. His head of St. Francis of Paula, the famous preaching saint (for whom Goya was named), recalls Domenico Tiepolo in subject and method. The delicate, broken line and flickering light show the artist's debt to the Venetian roco-co. The original study for the etching belongs to Don Eduardo Carderera Ponzan, Madrid.

    RELIGIOUS FRESCOES IN ARAGON. REMOVAL TO MADRID

    For the next few years Goya was constantly employed at decorating churches in and about Saragossa. Late in 1771 he was retained to fresco the small choir of the Chapel of the Virgin del Pilar in the Pilar Cathedral. In the Car-thusian Monastery of Aula Dei, near by, he covered enormous walls with rapidly executed murals, recalling, in their theatric lighting and ruddy shadows, the tradition of Luca Giordano, as interpreted by Luzan. By 1775 he had married Josefa Bayeu, sister of the painters, and a year later, on June 18, 1776, received his first state commission from Raphael Mengs (undoubtedly Francisco Bayeu proposed his name) to paint cartoons for the Royal Manu-facture of Tapestries in Madrid.

    CHARLES III AS A PATRON

    A patron of the arts, Charles called the two most famous fresco painters of Europe to deco-rate the new Royal Palace. Mengs, the cold neo-classicist, and Tiepolo, last of the great Venetians, were competitors from the start, but Mengs outlived his rival to become the absolute dictator of the period. Friend of Winckelmann and arch-academician, Mengs is not always given his due. He was a court painter of great ease and faci lit y; and his sitters, though por-trayed with a certain hard realism, are not de-void of spirit. The world owes him one tremen-dous debt for he persuaded Charles III not to burn the great nudes by Titian and Rubens in the Royal Collections which the prudish mon-arch feared to be detrimental to morality. The influence of Mengs, directly and through Fran-cisco Bayeu, is strongly imprinted on Goya's early portraits.

    THE TAPESTRY CARTOONS

    One of Charles Ill's projects was the revival of tapestry-weaving which since 1720 had been under the direction of a family of Flemish crafts-men at the Santa Barbara factory. Men gs was put in charge in 1762 and by 1776 when Goya received his commission a new, fresher type of subject had replaced dreary Spanish imitations of Teniers. Francisco Bayeu preceded Goya in choosing scenes from daily life, but Goya sur-passed his brother-in -law in decorative resource and delightful harmonies of color . From 1776 to 1791 he did over forty cartoons for tapestries in the Royal Palaces of Aranjuez, the Escurial, and the Prado . In them Goya translated the lively genre painting of eighteenth-century Venice into Spanish. Pietro Longhi and the Guardi brothers are often hinted at. Conven -tions of trees and sky recall Boucher and Fra-gonard. French influence was rampant in Ma-drid and Goya picked up certain traits from the most French of his contemporaries, Luis Paret y Alcazar (1747- 1799). But the tapestry cartoons show Goya's originality first. No Spanish painter before him had displayed such racy humor or such sympathy with the common people. No rococo artist drew with more gusto or juxtaposed color in just this inventive way .

    SPAIN UNDER CHARLES III

    When Charles III, "the best of the Bourbons," ascended the throne in 1759 he found a decaying Spain. The colonies were no longer pouring riches into the treasury. Nobles and clergy held vast lands and power. Roads were poor and food hard to get. Madrid was dubbed "the dirtiest capital in Europe." The whole country was living a half-medieval existence, sustained only by its enormous pride and feeling of invincibility. By a series of vigorous refor,;,~ the King brought Spain at least part way into the eighteenth century. The J eauita were banished in 1767. Trade was stimulated. Communications were improved. The unproduc-tive clergy was reduced. A puritan by habit, Charles I II frowned on dancing and the theatre, disliked bullfighting. But through his reign the new, liberal spirit of the French philosophers was abroad and the prosperity he achieved made possible the court commissions and career of Goya.

    10

  • 3. Confidences in a Park (A Maja and two Majos). 1776-1778. Oil, 72 x 391/2 inches. Lent by Mr. Samuel H. Kress, New York.

    In his painted cartoons Goya did not always respect the tech-niqu e of tapestry. In the Palace Archives it is charged that he sent in '' dandies and girls with so much decoration of coifs, fal-lals, gauzes, etc., that much time is wasted on them and the work is unproductive." Majas and Majos were gay members of Madrid's lower classes who over -dressed in a fantastic manner. For such a cartoon Goya regu-larly received about 7,000 reals ($350). Most of these tapestry designs disappeared for a cen-tury. In 1869 a great bundle of them was discovered in storage in the Royal Palace.

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    3

  • DISCO"'ERV OF VELAZctUEZ

    In 1777 or 1778, Goya, now admitted to the Palaces on Royal service, discovered Velazquez and immediately projected a series of etchings, reproducing eighteen of his most famous can-vases. Perhaps Goya intended to bring out an illustrated gallery portfolio, of the type so pop-ular in his day. Though the etchings are dull, the study of his great predecessor had profound results. From now on he became increasingly interested in a unifying light and atmosphere. The crudity of his early handling was slowly replaced by subtler methods. Later Goya re-marked to a biographer that his three masters

    were "Nature, Velazquez, and Rembrandt." The tapestry cartoons and etchings seem to

    have pleased the Court. On January 9, 1779, Goya was presented to the Royal Family: "I was honored by the King, the Prince and Prin-cess (later Charles IV and Que...