Preventing Injuries Chapter 12. Unintentional vs. Intentional Injuries can be unintentional – Accidents Injuries can be unintentional – Accidents Injuries

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  • Preventing InjuriesChapter 12

    Psychology 314

  • Unintentional vs. IntentionalInjuries can be unintentional Accidents

    Injuries can be intentional Violent acts

    Psychology 314

  • Unintentional InjuriesAccident versus unintentional injuryAccident suggests:chance, fate, inevitabilityUnintentional injury considers:individual behaviorsenvironmental conditionslawsenforcement

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  • Injury-related deathThere were 146,400 injury-related deaths in 1997.Motor vehicle traffic 42,473Firearm-related 32,436 Poisoning 17,692Falls 12,555

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  • Psychology 314

    Chart1

    424731

    32436guns

    17692poisoning

    12555falls

    lables+Sheet1!$B$1:$B$4

    Injury-related deaths 1997

    Sheet1

    42473motor vehicles

    32436guns

    17692poisoning

    12555falls

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Unintentional Injuries-ChildhoodLeading cause of death for childrenAutomobile accidentsDrowningBurns, Falls, SuffocationPoisoning has decreased

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  • Unintentional Injuries-YouthLeading cause of death for adolescentsMotor Vehicle Accidents Alcohol/SeatbeltUnintentional gunshot wounds

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  • Unintentional Injuries-Adulthood Until 40, car accidents still are leading cause of death. After that, steep decline.Job related deaths

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  • Reducing Unintentional InjuriesChanging Individual BehaviorChanging the EnvironmentChanging the Law

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  • Changing Individual BehaviorPreventing Home InjuriesPrevention programs geared to parents

    Preventing Work InjuriesPersonalizing workplace safety

    Vehicle-Related InjuriesSeatbelts, Helmets and Alcohol

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  • Worksite wellness80% of large companies (more than 50 employees) have a wellness programinsurance costsprevention versus cureproductivityabsenteeismturnoverenergyinjuries

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  • Changing the EnvironmentInspectionEducationModification

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  • Changing the LawGenerally more effective than individual or environmental interventionsSeatbeltsHazardous MaterialsDrinking Age

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  • Effective legislationLaws increasing the penalty ineffectiveLaws increasing the certainty of getting caught effectiveLaws that raise taxes on alcoholic beverages also effective.

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  • Intentional Injuries

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  • Intentional InjuriesSuicideHomicideChild AbuseDomestic ViolenceNon-relational

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  • Intentional Injuries-ChildhoodChild AbuseInjuryDeath

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  • Intentional Injuries-YouthGun ViolenceSuicideSexual Assault

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  • Homicide and suicideGuns kept in the home are 43 times more likely to kill a family member or friend than to kill in self-defense

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  • SuicideFor young people 15 to 24 years old, suicide is the third leading cause of death, behind unintentional injury and homicide.

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  • SuicideSuicide is the third leading cause of death for teens. Every 46 minutes, a young person kills himself or herself-- over 60% of the time with a firearm. In 1994, 3,344 youths aged 15-24 committed suicide with firearms.

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  • SuicideIn 1992, more teenagers and young adults died from suicide than died from cancer, heart disease, HIV infection or AIDS, birth defects, pneumonia and influenza, stroke, and chronic lung disease combined.

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  • Suicide PreventionOne survey of high school students found:24% seriously considered suicide9% made an attempt3% sought medical attentionInterventionstreatment for depression, substance abusecrisis counselingeducational programs

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  • Guns and SuicideImpulsiveness appears to play an important role in suicide, especially youth suicide. It is not uncommon for adolescents to have passing suicidal impulses and the availability of a gun increases the likelihood suicide will be completed.

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  • Guns and SuicideResearch indicates a gun in the home is about 43 times more likely to be used for suicide or murder than self-defense.

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  • Guns and SuicideFor every case of self-protective homicide involving a firearm kept in the home, 37 suicides, 4.6 criminal homicides and 1.3 unintentional deaths occur (an overall ratio of 43 to 1) (Kellermann and Reay, 1986).

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  • Intentional Injuries-Adulthood

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  • Preventing violenceMurder rate not escalatingBlack males have far higher death rate from homicide. 8 to 10 times that of whitesCauses of violencepoverty, injusticeavailability of weaponsglorification of violence

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  • Domestic violenceViolent crimes occur more frequently within families than among strangers.Major health problem in the U.S.

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  • Domestic violenceA woman is more likely to be assaulted, raped or murdered by a current of former male partner than by any other assailant.Text suggests that 25% of women and 30% of men endorse violence in some disputes.

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  • Reducing Intentional InjuriesHomeSchool/CommunityWorkplaceInstituitional

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  • HomeChild AbusePreventionTreatmentDomestic ViolencePreventionTreatment

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  • School/CommunityDirect

    Indirect

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  • WorkplaceSpillover DV

    Dangerous Employees

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  • InstitutionalChild Abuse at School/Daycare

    Elder Abuse

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  • Preventing SuicideEducational Programs

    Telephone Hotlines

    Limit Access to Guns

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    http://www.abanet.org/gunviol/suicide.html

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