Process Equipment Design

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LLOYD E. BROWNELLProfessor of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering of Michigan


EDWIN H. YOUNGAssociate of Chemical and Metallurgical University of Professor Engineering Michigan




. . ACC.


Lib. Asstt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r/C . . . . . . . . . .

357l l l

JOHN WILEY & SONS New York Chichester Brisbane Torontol








14(r .

C o p y r i g h t @ 1959 by John Wiley

8 Sons, Inc.


rights reserved.

Reproduction or translation of any part of thi\ work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 Unlted States Copyrtght Act without the permisbton of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for perm!sston or further tnformatton should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley&Sons, Inc.

l i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s C a t a l o g C a r d N u m b e r : 5?--5882 Printed in the United States of America

ISBN 0 4 7 1 1 1 3 1 9 0


This book was prepared primarily for se~io-and students in engineering. The needs of design engineers and consultants as well as those of students were considered in selecting the topics and methods of presentation. The book is based upon our experiences gained in industrial design offices and in 16 years of teaching courses in equipment design at the University of Michigan. We both have supervised research and development of process equipment, and have acted as consultants in this field. The book was originally prepared as class notes, which have been used for about ten years in teaching courses in process equipment design at the senior and graduate levels in the Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Department of the University of Michigan. Typical problems have involved the design of fraction@ing o w e r s , trm vacu>m cry&all&m, condensers, heat exch-rs, t high-pres?re reactors, and other types of process equipment. The design of process equipment requires a thorough knowledge of the functional process, the materials involved, and the methods of fabrication. The ___- ._.... design factors to be considered are many and varied and, in most cases, so interwoven that exact methods of attack are often impossible to formulate. Compromises are necessary and the design engineer often has only experience in similar or related fields to guide him in his choice. Thus, the engineer must realize that considerable engineering judgment is required in applying all recommended specific methods of design. One purpose of this book is to consolidate the basic concepts, industrial practices, and theoretical relationships useful in the design of processing equipment. Many of these considerations and much of this vital information are widely scattered throughout the technical literature, industrial bulletins, appropriate codes, and handbooks. It is not intended that this book should cover all the ramifications of design problems, but it will serve as a guide to the student and the practicing engineer for efficient and economical design of equipment for the processing industries. vii

... VIII


The organization is based on the premise t)hut t,he vessel is the basic part of most types of processing equipment. For example, a heat exchanger or evaporator is a vessel with tube bundles and a fractionating tower is a vessel with trays. The first 12 chapters are concerned in part with the development of fundamental relationships on which many of the code specifications are based. Chapter 13 is concertled entirely with code practice and covers selected code specifications not covered in the earlier chapters. Chapters 14 and 15 are concerned with the design of vessels beyond the scope of the ASME code. The sequence of chapters was selected to permit the introduction of a briet review of elementary theories of mechanics and strength of materials early in the book. More advanced theory is developed as needed in subsequent chapters. The integration of theory with practice in design eliminates the necessity of a separate section on erigineeritlg mechanics. The sequence of presentation allows for an orderly development of theoretical relatiotlships when the book is being used as a textbook in teaching design. The material presented covers the rauge from simple vessels for low-pressure service to thick-walled vessels for highpressure applications. Tl~tf rxperierlced designer will find the book useful as a reference in a design office. In all but a few cases derivations of equations and the method of analysis have been given so that the etlgirleer will utlderstaltd the assumptions and limitations involved. Also, example calculations and designs have been included to illustrate the use of the relationships and recommended procedures. We wish to acknowledge the assistance given by a large number of individuals and companies in providing subject material and illustrations on process equipment, design and in making reviews and suggestions. We are particularly iudebted to the following: C. E. Freese, Mechanical Consultant, and B. B. Kuist, The Fluor Corporation; W. H. Burrows, Chief Engineer, Manufacturing Department, Standard Oil Company of Indiana; A. E. Pickford, Department Head, .dpparatus Design, C. F. Braun and Company; H. B. Boardman, Director of ltesearch, L. P. Zick, Research Engineer, and E. N. Zimmerman, Chicago Bridge and Iron Company; W. T. Gur m and Walter Samans, American Petroleurn Institute; J. M. Evans, Chief Engineer, and F. L. Maker, Standard Oil Company of California; R. S. Justice, Chief Engineer, Gulf Oil Corporation; F. L. Plummer, Director of Engineering, Hamrnond Iron Works; W. D. Kinsell, Manager, Construction, Engineering Department, The Pure Oil Company; G. E. Fratcher, Director of Engineering, A. 0. Smith Company; F. E. Wolosewick, Sargeut and Lundy Engineers; P. E. Franks, Chief Engineer, Sinclair Refining Cornpany; D. W. Carswell and H. B. Peters, Chief Engineer, The Texas Company; W. T. Brown, Manager, Mechanical Division, and Harry Wearne, Construction Manager, Shell Oil Cornpany ; F. J. Feeley, Jr., Assistant Director, Engineering Design Division, Esso Hesearch aud Engineering Company; J. H. Faupel, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; W. H. Funk, Lukens Steel Company; and the following additional companies and organizat3ons: Horton Steel Works, Ltd.; BlawKnox Company; Graver Tank and Manufacturing Company; American Cyanamid Cornpany; Inland Steel Company; Ryerson Steel Company; Taylor Forge and Pipe Works; Aluminum Company of America; M. W. Kellogg Company; American Standard Association, Inc.; The Girdler Company, Inc.; Baldwiu-LimaHamilton Corporation; Bethlehem Steel Compally, Inc.; ITnited States Department of Interior, Bureau of Miues; Great Lakes Steel Corporation; McGraw-Hill



Book Company, Inc.; Iuivrrsal-Cyclops Steel Corporatiorr: at~d the United States Steel Corporation. We also wish to express our appreciation to the Amrricau Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Petroleum Institute for permissiou to use selected material from the 1956 edition of the Unfired Pressure Lessel Code and the API Specification for Welded Oil Storage Tanks and Production Tanks, respectivei). We are also indebted to Dr. J. McKetta, Mr. F. L. Standiford, Dr. H. H. Yang, and Dr. M. D. S. Lay, who assisted in the preparation of the course notes while enrolled in the Graduate School of the University of Michigan, and to Professor Donald L. Katz, Chairman, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Michigan, for encouragement and advice in the preparation of this book. Many individuals have given valuable suggestions, comments, and assistance in the preparation of this book and ally omissions irr ackuowledgment are not iutended.LLOYD E. BROWNELL EDMIK i-z. YOUNGAnn Arbor, Michigm! April, 1959


..Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 References Appendix A. B.Design Welding Conventions Conventionsxi

Factors Criteria Design

Influencing in of Vessel Shells





1 19

Design for Flat-Bottomed Cylindrical Vessels

36 58

Design of Bottoms and Roofs for Flat-Bottomed Cylindrical Vessels Proportioning Formed Stress and Head Selection for Cylindrical Vessels with

Closures in the Selection of Flat-Plate and Conical

76Vessels the Selection of Elliptical, for TorispheriVessels

Considerations for

Closures Stress cal,

Cylindrical in

98Closures Cylindrical Closures

Considerations and of

Hemispherical Cylindrical

Dished Vessels

120 141

Design under Design Design Design De&n Design




External of of of Tall

Pressure Vertical for Vessels Vertical Vessels Saddle Supports

155 183 203 219

Supports Horizontal



of Flanges of Pressure Vessels to Code Specifications

249 268 296 317 323 327

High-Pressure Multilayer

Monobloc Vessels



Contents C. Pricing of Steel Plate Allowable Stresses Typical Shell Tank Sizes and Capacities

330 335 346 349Rolled Structural Members

D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. 1. Author Index Subject Index

Accessories of Selected


353 362 364

Values of Constant C of Eq. 13.27 Charts for Determining Shell Thickness of Cylindrical and Spherical Properties Properties Strength Vessels of of of under External and Pressure Beam Formulas

Various Pipe Materials


381 386 392 395 399