r e Rese Journal of Aquaculture - Longdom Commercial shrimp farming depends largely upon formulation

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  • Open Access

    Volume 3 • Issue 6 • 1000149 J Aquacult Res Dev ISSN: 2155-9546 JARD, an open access journal

    Open Access

    Hasan et al., J Aquacult Res Dev 2012, 3:6 DOI: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000149

    Open Access

    Keywords: Feeding frequency; Growth; Cost efficient; Penaeus monodon;Yield

    Introduction In recent years, the culture of Penaeus monondon Fabricius

    received maximum importance owing to its unique taste, high nutritive value and persistent demand in world market and good profitability. Commercial shrimp farming depends largely upon formulation of high energy balanced feed, which constitutes nearly 55% of the total operation costs for shrimp culture [1]. Feed management is a key factor affecting water quality and production economics in aquaculture [2- 4]. Failures in shrimp production are mainly due to post larvae (PL) quality, feed, water and soil quality or disease but in most cases origin of problem is poor feed management [5]. However, environmental, social and economic considerations demand the need to improve feed management and feed formulations [6]. Feed is the initial source of pollutants as overfeeding or poor quality feeds can severely affect water quality and production of shrimp [6]. Thus, daily inputs of supplementary feed must be reasonable and should take into account growth of the shrimp as well as nutrient capacity of the pond ecosystem. Supplementary feed in shrimp farming is not only the initial source of physiological wastes, but it accounts for 55-60% of the operational costs in intensive and 40-50% in semi-intensive culture system [7,8]. It was reported that increased feeding rate beyond the natural carrying capacity of the pond deteriorates the water quality [9]. Out of total feed applied to pond, only 16.7% (by dry weight) is converted into shrimp biomass, the rest is leached or otherwise not consumed, egested as faeces, eliminated as metabolites, etc. [10]. Negative effects of supplementary feed are not isolated but promote diseases and other water quality related problems which affect production [2,11]. Therefore, feed management strategy should be aimed at optimizing feed inputs, reducing feed conversion ratios and the potential impact on the culture and effluent water [11]. Both feed management and quality

    play important role in governing production and profitability [1]. As frequency of feeding is the main part of management and Smith et al. [12] described that feeding strategy can have a significant impact on pond water quality, growth, health and survival of P. monodon which contribute to the profitability of production. Protein is the central to feed formulation system and the most important constituent in prawn nutrition [13]. Minimum dietary protein requirement for P. monodon was reported to 35-50% [14]. On the other hand, multiple daily feeding and distribution is desirable as shrimp eat slowly and almost continuously [15]. However, increased feeding frequency was reported to reduce nutrient leaching and improves feed utilization efficiency [16]. Feed management has an impact on feed conversion efficiency as well as minimizing pond bottom and water quality deterioration due to over feeding [17].

    Impact of feeding frequency inside ponds is not well understood and no clear information is available as farmers usually differ in practice applying feed 2-6 times daily. However, some information on feeding frequency of 2-4 times per day is applicable in shrimp ponds [1,12,17]. Although feed intake pattern and consumption rate of shrimp varies

    Hasan BMA1, Guha B1 and Datta S2* 1Netaji Subhas Open University, 1 Woodburn Park, Kolkata, West Bengal, India 2Regional Research Station, New Alluvial Zone, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India

    *Corresponding author: Datta S , Regional Research Station, New Alluvial Zone, Bid- han Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Gayeshpur-741234, Nadia, West Bengal, India, Tel: +913325895851; Fax: +913325895851, E-mail: drsubhendudatta@rediffmail.com

    Received June 28, 2012; Accepted August 18, 2012; Published August 28, 2012

    Citation: Hasan BMA, Guha B, Datta S (2012) Optimization of Feeding Efficiency for Cost Effective Production of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Semi-Intensive Pond Culture System. J Aquacult Res Dev 3:149 doi:10.4172/2155- 9546.1000149

    Copyright: © 2012 Hasan BMA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Optimization of Feeding Efficiency for Cost Effective Production of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Semi-Intensive Pond Culture System

    Abstract Experiment with four different daily feeding frequencies, i.e., three (T1), four (T2), five (T3) and six times (T4)

    were conducted with supplementary feed (38% crude protein) in the earthen ponds (5000 m2) to determine the optimum feeding frequency for cost effective commercial production of Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Post larvae of black tiger shrimp (initial weight 0.02 ± 0.001 g) with stocking density of 20 m-2 were cultured for 110 days to evaluate the growth and production by studying different parameters of feed utilization efficiency as feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed efficiency ratio (FER), production yield; and adequate growth levels as average body weight (ABW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), and survival of cultured shrimp. During production cycle, various water quality parameters of the ponds were found within normal range for aquaculture except for NH4-N, NO3-N and PO4-P which were significantly lower in T3 (p

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    Volume 3 • Issue 6 • 1000149 J Aquacult Res Dev ISSN: 2155-9546 JARD, an open access journal

    under different agro-climatic conditions, a site-specific standardized feeding program is essential for effective feeding management [1]. Information regarding feed management in shrimp farming is meager from both economic and environmental perspectives. In the present study, same quality and quantity of feed with different feeding frequencies (3-6 times per day) were used in all the experimental ponds. Efficient production of cultured shrimp was determined by estimating feed utilization efficiency (FCR, PER, FER, production yield) and growth level (ABW, WG, SGR and survival). As feed is one of the expensive inputs inside ponds, the demand of maximized feed utilization is the need of the hour and paramount important to shrimp farmers. Thus the aim of present study was to determine the optimum feeding frequency for cost effective production of Penaeus monodon in the brackishwater ponds of West Bengal, India.

    Materials and Methods Experimental ponds

    Black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1798) was cultured for 110 days between August and December, 2010 in twelve earthen ponds (0.5 ha or 5000 m2 each) randomly selected in Kar shrimp farm (Mahishadal, East Medinipur, West Bengal, India; Lat 21°5’ N, Long 88º46’ E). Three ponds each were used to culture the shrimp for different feeding frequencies: (i) 3 times (T1), (ii) 4 times (T2), (iii) 5 times (T3), and (iv) 6 times (T4) day-1. Ponds were selected for each treatment following the random block design (RBD) [18]. All the experimental ponds were rectangular in shape with facility of both inlet and outlet structures with average of 1.2 meter water depth. Soil was clayey loam and aeration was maintained for all ponds during the culture period.

    Rearing in ponds

    Similar pond management practices like sun drying, tilling, liming, and eradication of predators were performed once prior to water filling as described by Hasan et al. [19] in all the experimental ponds during culture. Culture techniques and inputs were same for all ponds of four treatments. The ponds were ploughed conventionally and limed (1.5 ton ha-1) to improve the soil condition alkaline. Initial water filling in ponds was done directly with water pumped from Haldi river creek after being filtered by fine mesh bag net of 300 micron and chlorination (30 ppm with 60% active ingredients) was done for disinfection and killing of pathogens. After three days of declorination, organic fertilizers (poultry litter @ 250 kg ha-1) and inorganic fertilizers (urea @20 kg ha-1; single super phosphate @ 5 kg ha-1) were applied to improve the primary productivity of the cultured ponds. Routine application of urea @6 kg ha-1 and single super phosphate @2 kg ha-1 were performed twice a month to maintain development of natural food. Agricultural lime and dolomite each were applied once a month @ 50 kg ha-1 during production period. No water exchange was done during initial 20 days and later it was limited to 0-10% in every alternate days from pre-treated reservoir. During raining, only surface draining was maintained to retain salinity. Good quality and disease-free post larvae of 20 days old

    Hatchery, A.P., India), then acclimatized and stocked @ 20 pieces m-2 in all the ponds where water quality were almost in same ranges within aquaculture standard (temperature 28.4-28.6°C, dissolved oxygen >4.0 mg l-1, pH 7.9-8.1, Secchi’s disc transparency 35-45 cm and salinity 7-8 g l-1) [20]. Harvesting happened after 110 days of culture as per market demand and good quality of shrimps. A bag net was fitted on outlet canal with 20 # mesh (pore size) of width 1 meter and length of 4 meter. The water level in the pond was reduced to 60 -70 cm and outlet was

    opened and shrimp was caught at night, collected with ice and sold to processors on farm-gate price.

    Feeding managem