Read, Think and Discuss

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This book consists of a range of texts, beginning with very simple ones, that are meant to help and encourage students to read with confidence and pleasure. Many of the texts have been chosen from books that have proved popular before, while a few additional passages have been included to widen the range of the material. Apart from the information in sorne sections, information that should be part of the general knowledge of all high level students, the themes and subjects of the stories too are about issues of general as well as personal interest, such that students should think about them keenly.

Transcript

  • Read

    Think

    and

    Discuss

    Editedby

    Oranee |anszConsultant English

    Univ ersity Grants Commission

    Publishedby the

    S ab aragamuw a U niv ersitY Pre s s

    ofl'ts .

    t-

  • @ English (Jnit, (Jniversity Grants CommissionGeneral English Language Training (GELT) Readers

    3rd Edition, tggg(This edition includes a variation in the speech course, to allow for pair work too)Chief Ediror : Rajive Wijesinha,

    Coordinator EnglishUnivg rs.ity Grants Commission

    This book should not be repwduced in any form without written permission fun t*epublis\ers' The uGC is.grateful'to the English Association of sri Lankafor permission toreprint material from publications ln its Student Reader Series. Inquiries about saeh rnterialshould be addressed to the Engtish Association.

    /SBN 955 - 583 _ 034

    -7

    F o r S abara g arnuw a lJniv e rsity p re s sEditorial Board '

    Chairman Prof, J. D. SomasundaraNirmali HettiarachchiM Y M SideekRalf StarkloffProf RaJtva Wijesinha

    n,

    " \

  • 1.

    2.

    3. Llves and*Mcmorles

    4. Hletorlcsl gketeheg

    A Course ln Readln$ and Thlntlng

    PREFNCE

    A Speech Couroe

    Fables and Folk Tales

    6. Modern Fablcs

    7. Modern Stor{ee

    Toble of Contents

    Lakdasa DissanaYakeMatratttra GandhlMark TWaitr

    The RenalssanceThe Arabs ln SPalnThe Conquest of South ArnerieaSouth Atnerican IndePendence

    Nonchi l.lona and KotlYa the CatThe Competition'the Nightingale and ttre RoseThe Butterfly that StamPed

    The Mudallyar's WifeThe Htding PlaceTtre [.ost OneCounterparts

    '. Miss Brill

    Page No.

    v

    .o l

    IO

    ,

    $I" li

    i

    141618

    2l252933

    38

    50566570

    76BO838996

    6.

    ,}:

  • PREFACE

    This booh consisls of a rgnge of texts, beginning witlt uery sitnple ones, tlrat are nreant to helpand encou.ra.ge students to read witlt con{idence and pleasure. Manty of the texts haue been elrcsen frontboaks that haue proued populdr before, wltile a few additional passages haae been irtcluded to widentlrc range of the material. Apart ft'ont the information in sorne sections, informatidtt that should bepart of the generat knowledge of all h.igh leuel students, the thentes and su|jects of the stories too areabout issues of general as well o.s personal interest, suclr, th.at students should thinh about them heenly.

    The texts are followed by a range of exercises tftat lnue been designed to fulfit a nu.mber ofpurposes. Firstly of course the exercises are designed to develop language ability, and it should bestressed' that this is of uarious hinds. In adQitiott to actual reading comprehensiott, the exercises shouldbe used to prontote utrbal conrmunication too. Many of thent d.entaid, graup work, but euen with.regard to the others discussiort amongst students should be encouraged. Eqiatty intportantly, studentsshould get accustonted to writittg. It will be most helpful for them if, after d.iscussion, ilrey write downanswers to most if not all questions. It goes witltout sayirtg th,at such unswers ntust be carefullyrnarhed' Renrcmber that written worla that is not gone tlrou.gh. carefully seiues little purpose"

    ^ Irl' doing the exercises so as to best fulfit tlrcir intellectual and, irnaginatiue potential, students

    should be encouraged to use tlrc. uarious techniques introduced in the Courrn, -in

    Speech and inReading and Thinking tlmt fornt the first and fifth, sections of th.is book respectiuely. Tlrcse cou,rses,deueloped carefully to plug serious deficiencies in our seconclary ed.ucatiol systenz, are the btachbone ofthis book, and they should be gone through alottgside tlrc uarious texts. Note too that the sections neednot be gohe tllrouglt' consecutiuely: students sltould shift from one area to another- freely, so long as

    .tlrcy feel contfortable with the language leuel of a Jtarticular text. Within sectiorts, i.t ntay be obseiued.,tlrc texts are progressiuely ntore difficult with regard to the language and. the structur-es used,.

    Many of tlrc texts at'e also accompanied. by questions aimed at familiarizing stud.ents with thentost basic af the su'b-ski.Ils of rea,ding, nanrcly th.e abit,;,ty to identi.fy r:elati.onshi.p{ u;ithin a sentence.Such exercises are based otr the Handbooh of English Granunani that has beeit speci/i.cally prepared.for deueloping granrmatical awareness in old,er students who haue not had, iu"i, opportu-rritin"preuiously. The new edition refers to exercises based on this booh, and tlrcse shoutcl be gine tlrougltsystematically. Teachers should also rernember that most such, grarnmatical exercises can be done withany leuel of text, and they should be prepared to adapt accordingly, and, make up sintilar. questions oftlrcir own for tlrc ntatet'ial that is rnost suitable for tlteir stud.enti it particular stages in th.iir progress.R^etnentber th'at written answerE to questions tnust be carefully morkid., because unless tltis is clone stu-dents will not get accustonted to the basic princip,les that ntust be obseruecl i.f lan.guage is to be ntean-ingfiil.

    Oth'er exercises giuen lwe are irdenrled. to d,euelop anotlter sub-skill tlnt is oftert igrtored, ttarnely,the ability to infer,tlze nrcan'ing of new words fi-otn. tieir context, ie. tlrcir positioit in tlrc setfience and.t-he mednings of the other word's tlnt go with, tlrcnt. Rernember that the best way to deuelop uocabu-l-ary ls not by writin.g down lists of iord.s witlt. their nteanings in. Sinh.ala or iantil, but rather by?:i"s willing to guess and tltrougih reali.zing that you can under-sland, the rneanin.g of a sentence euenif you do not know the nteaning of all tlrc iord.s i.rt. it, just as you cdt also und,er-stand tlte nteaningof a paragraph euen if you do not und.erstand, euery sbntence iiz it precisely. In the process you usillunderstan'd tlrc general sense both of the unfantiliai words as well is the uir"l"o, ,nritnr"ur, ind thttsdeuelop your uocabulary practically rather than mechanically.

  • Apart f ront such quest ions, 'exercises thut require conrnt.ut t icat iue act i ,s i ty anr l euen dtantat icinvoluenrcnt haue been includ.ed. T'lrcse are nteant'to stintulate interest etJen a.ntottgst stud,ents irtitiallydiffident about the language, and to help tlrcnt throu.gh actiue participati.oit anJ prabtice'to deuelipth.e confidence they require. Tlrcse exercises,'it sltould be noted, also encoiragi ind..ependent an'dintaginatiue tlrcugltt for i,t is througlt. such opportunities for self-erpressiort tltat stuilents will bewilling to engage actiuely with tlrc language"

    The exercises giuett are of course only a satrtple of wlwt cottld be d,one, artd teaclters slrculd. tlirthof similar ones witlt. regard to ali tlrc articles, In. partiutlar, once students haue nrastered simple sen-tences, a great deal of practice slrculd be giuen in u.nderstah.dhry and producirtg comltlex sentences ofthe sort used in tlre uarious sectiotts of this booh.

    -

    t ,

    Except for tltose prepared by Mrs. Jansz, tlrc writers of tlrc uariotrs texts used itt tltis' booh are "-ngted iy ,llry separate sectiorts. Many of tlrcse uere preuiously publislrcd in the low-cost read.ers pro-duced' by'tlt'e English .Associqtion of Sri Lanha, and. our tlnnhs are due to the Associa.tion as well astlte writers for pernissiort to reprint tlrcnt.

    Oranee Jansz Rajiva Wijeslnha

    vt

  • Part 1A Speech Course

    INTRODUCTION

    Our observation of classrooms reveals that there is little opportunity for students to actually speakin English. Even though we have repeatedly requested teachers to divide the classroom into smallinteracting groups, we did not see this happening whenever we visited classes. What we did observe wasthe teacher dominating the classroom with the students passively l istening. The teacher happily pracl isesthe language while the student looks on, quile mute! This guide is meait for the teacher io un"ouragestudents to talk, while refraining strictly a guicle or facilitator, not a dictator

    This speech course should accompany the reading and gi-anrmar courses which have been prescribed,Students should be made aware from the start of the grammar syl labus, and this wil l enable students tocorrect themselves as the course proceeds. Tlie first tasks laid down do not involve true speech, theyare contrived and admittedly art i f icial, but this is for the purpose of building correct habits of languageuse and teachers are requested to adhere strictly to the given procedure.

    The course is specif ical ly designed for mixed abil i ty :groups and has been divided into two.parts.Part I consists of 30 tasks of which at least 20 must be canied out before proceeding to part ll" Thereis no t ime l imit in which Part I must be completed, but each task should be done quite t lroroughty with atlstudents before proceecling to the next task. lf weaker students are holding back the better ones, peerpressure should be used to encourage the weaker students to work faster.

    When dividing the class into groups, please make sure that there is an even mix of abil ir ies in eachgroup' ie' there should be at least one very good and one very weak student in each small group. This isto enable the better student to act as a peer tutor in the group, so that correction of dialogues can beundertaken by students i lremselves, before you do the f inal iorrections -.-"-.

    '

    Part ll of rhe course consists of units which carry exercises in promoting speech. However theseexercises are also based on techniques devised for t'he promotion of "laterai thinking;' wf,icfr could bedescribed as a way of loosening up rigid patterns of thinking and bringing about a greater d;;;;;;flexibility in looking at a problem.-ln theJe exercises, s