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Recommendations for preparing to teach 3

RecommendationsforPreparingLessonPlans

Updated: Nov 2010 by Warwick Thorn, Academic Manager, Teach International

This document is in three parts.

PART 1 Procedure to prepare a lesson plan from a topic.. Page 2-16

PART 2 Procedure to prepare a lesson plan from a course book unit or part unit..Page 17-25

PART 3 Reminders and help on how to teach your lesson.Page 26-37

Do not overlook this document, because there seems a lot of material. Depending on your practice teaching arrangement, you only need to follow either Part 1 or Part 2 and then you can use Part 3 to hone your skills as you progress.

If you follow the step by step guidelines in Part 1 or 2 your lesson plans will come together with minimal stress - one step at a time!

TeachersGrammar reference book

At this point in your training, you need a grammar reference book. If you do not yet have a grammar book, you should buy one now! Visit a bookstore where there are ESOL resources for sale and ask for teachers grammar reference books (University bookstores are a good place to start). There are suggested Grammar reference books on page 124 of your TESOL manual. Have a look for one that you feel helps you. Try:

( Practical English Usage (3rd Edition) by Michael Swan, OUP.

( Grammar for English Language Teachers: With exercises and a key by Martin Parrot. CUP. ISBN: 9780521477970

( A Practical English Grammar (4th Edition) by A.J. Thomson & A.V. Martinet, OUP. ISBN: 9780194313421

Simpler students grammar book

If you also need a simpler grammar book, useful for setting student homework and for your own understanding of levels, try: ( Essential Grammar in Use Edition With Answers : A Self-Study Reference and Practice Book for Elementary Students of English (Paperback) by Raymond Murphy, CUP.AND ( English Grammar In Use with Answers and CD ROM : A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students of English by Raymond Murphy, Cambridge. ISBN: 9780521532891

If you want something in between the above options, have a look at:( Oxford Practice Grammar Basic, OUP. ( Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate, OUP. ( Oxford Practice Grammar Advanced, OUP.

PART 1: PROCEDURE TO PREPARE A LESSON PLAN FROM A TOPIC

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INTRODUCTION

This resource will help you prepare lesson plans for your practice teaching component and/or in the early days of your teaching.

This document will use the established approach in terms of lesson stages that we introduced to you during the in-class component. You will be shown how to construct a lesson plan starting with a topic in mind, establish a communicative aim and context, and only then to establish a grammar or linguistic aim.

The trick to gain confidence with your teaching is to plan well so you know what you are going to teach and how. Then you can go over it in your mind and even act out how you will present and demonstrate through the lesson. This document is to help you plan well.

In addition to this document, you will also benefit by reading and viewing the video in http://www.teachinternational.com/downloads/PracticeTeaching.html and using some Starter Lesson Plans for your first few lessons..

PROCESS TO UNDERSTAND THE CONSTRUCTION OF A LESSON PLAN

The process outlined below helps you construct a lesson plan starting from a topic and is focussed on designing a lesson with a communicative speaking emphasis.

You will start by using a communicative aim as a primary aim and from a dialogue that you devise, establish a grammar/linguistic aim. There are various other ways to construct lesson aims, but you will see as you read through this document that using this approach enables you to be very clear about the communication you want to see students demonstrate at the end of the lesson. Using the communicative aim as a primary aim provides you with a method of discovering some useful grammar/linguistic patterns that you can also teach, while allowing you to focus on what real world communication you want you students to be able to do after they leave your lesson..

Following on from the steps below, there is a sample completed lesson plan provided.

LESSON PLANNING

STEP 1: Decide on your topic and start imagining a dialogue in that contextImagine that you were given the lesson topic of festivals. Whatever topic you have or choose, once you have decided on it, you can start imagining a dialogue in that context. It may help to google the topic on the internet. Imaging people talking about festivals in their country. That would be a common enough conversation, wouldnt it?

You might think of talking about Australian festivals, but, no, dont do that because youll be doing all the talking.

Okay, so that is just some basic thinking on the topic for a likely common conversation that could be of interest for the students.

STEP 2: Work out your communicative lesson aim

It is common to have two aims for one lesson. The first aim should be communicative and the second being a grammar/linguistic aim.

For the topic festivals here is a Communicative aim: Students will be able to talk about local festivals in Australia and in their own countries.

Notice how this aim is somewhat specific. It is more specific than Students will be able to talk about events, which would not be specific enough and your lesson would likely wander. It is less specific than Students will be able to talk about South American festivals, which would limit you being able to apply the communication to an area of student interest.

This Communicative aim guides your ideas for the activities of your lesson, will be reflected in the dialogue you come up with and in the free practice activity at the end of the lesson.

STEP 3: Work out a dialogue related to the communicative aim

From your Communicative aim you can come up with some kind of dialogue that represents the communicative aim. This involves you imagining what people in the real world would be talking about in the situation. For example, you can imagine people talking about festivals from different countries. This fits with your communicative aim, right? Now, type out what that dialogue might look like. It could look like this:

A: Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival?B: Yes, they parade through downtown streets.A: Do they wear any costumes?B: Yes, really colourful ones.A: Is there any dancing?

B: Yes, they like to dance and play music.A: Is there any special meaning behind the Carnival?B: Apparently they like to celebrate their culture and there is also a religious reason to say farewell to

the pleasures of the flesh.

We try and make this dialogue as natural as we can.

STEP 4: Work out your Grammar/linguistic aim

The second aim should cover dominant grammar/linguistic pattern of the language. To work this out, look at the dialogue for some dominant language patterns or structure. Lets underline where we can see some grammar/linguistic patterns. The two most common dominant patterns are grammatical and functional. There are more actually: 1st look for a grammar or functional phrases and decide on the most dominantif you could not find a pattern2nd look for idiomatic expressionsif you still cannot find a pattern3rd look for vocabulary (usually in specialist contexts like banking)

if you still cannot find a pattern4th look decide on a pronunciation pattern

Okay, so lets look for a grammar pattern or functional phrases and decide on the most dominant.

Actually in this case we can see either would work. Dont confuse functional phrases with grammar though. For your lesson decide on one, whichever seems more dominant or useful to you.

Grammatical focus

Functional focus

A: Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival?B: Yes, they parade through downtown streets.A: Do they wear any costumes?B: Yes, really colourful ones.A: Is there any dancing?

B: Yes, they like to dance and (to) play music.A: Is there any special meaning behind the Carnival?B: Apparently they like to celebrate their culture and there is also a religious reason to say farewell to the pleasures of the flesh.

A: Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival?B: Yes, they parade through downtown streets.A: What about costumes? Do they wear any?B: Yes, really colourful ones.A: How about dancing? Do they dance?

B: Yes, they like to dance and (to) play music.A: Is there any special meaning behind the Carnival?B: Apparently they like to celebrate their culture and there is also as a religious reason to say farewell to

the pleasures of the flesh.

Whatever we call the underlined text is what your grammar/linguistic aim is.

If you look for the pattern above in the index of your grammar reference book, you will find like + infinitives. Now, you can write your grammar aim as that or a slight variation such as like + infinitives (to dress/dance/march).

In the case above we have focussed more on what we call functional language rather than on any structured grammar. This is why we call it a Grammar/linguistic aim - sometimes there are clusters of phrases that clearly perform a function or functions within the language.

With functional phrases it is best to teach clusters of phrases to students and what the phrases are doing. Examples of functions are: ( Expressing preferences and obligations, ( Expressing feeling about a situation, ( Complaining and apologising with questioning, ( Describing other people and professions, ( Asking for and giving more detailed personal information, ( Describing different professions, ( Explaining habits, ( Desc