Reconstruction ( 1865-1877)

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Reconstruction ( 1865-1877). Key Questions. 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union?. 4 . What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?. 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Reconstruction ( 1865-1877)

  • Key Questions1. How do we bring the South back into the Union?2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war?3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen?4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?

  • President Lincolns Plan10% PlanProclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)As soon as 10% of a states voters took a loyalty oath to the Union, the state could set up a new government.If the states constitution abolished slavery and provided education for African-Americans, the state would regain representation in Congress.Members of the Republican party opposed the plan.The radical-Republicans in Congress insisted that the Confederates had committed crimes and should be punished.They advocated full citizenship, including the right to vote and taking former Confederate land and giving it to freed slaves. (Shermans idea)Lincolns plan did not go through without support from Congress. Pocket-veto.

  • Wade-Davis Bill (1864)Congress rejected Lincolns plan believing it was too niceThis bill required that a majority of a states prewar voters swear loyalty to the Union.Demanded the guarantee of African-American equality.Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH)Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)

  • Jeff Davis Under Arrest

  • Freedmens Bureau (1865)Created a few weeks before Lincolns death.Goal was to provide food, clothing, healthcare, and education for both black and white refugees in the South.It helped reunite families and negotiated fair labor contracts between former slaves and white land owners.

  • Freedmens Bureau School

  • President Andrew JohnsonWas Lincolns Vice-President He offered pardons for Confederates who swore loyalty.His deal breaker was that all states coming back into the Union would have to ratify the 13th Amendment.Wanted major Confederate leaders to write him personally to apply for a pardon.Anti-aristocrat- resented wealthy plantation owners.Did not want African-Americans to be able to vote.Wanted states to determine the freedoms of former slaves.By December, 1865, most states had met the requirements of readmission.

  • Growing Northern Alarm!Laws that sought to limit the rights of African Americans and keep them as landless workers.The codes required African Americans to work in only a limited number of occupations, most often as servants or farm laborers.Some states prohibited them from owning land and some stipulated that any black person who did not have job could be arrested and sent to work as prison labor.A lot of Southerners used violence and intimidation to enforce the black codes. BLACK CODES

  • Slavery is Dead?

  • Congress Breaks with the PresidentCongress sought to overturn the black codes by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1866.Suspended any state laws that limited African American rights.Johnson vetoed the law.How would anything get better if Johnson did not support Congress?

  • 14th AmendmentRatified in July, 1868.Defined citizenship and guaranteed equal rights under the law.Protected freedmens rights from presidential vetoes.Any state that refused to allow black people to vote would risk losing the number of seats in the House of Reps.

  • Radical Plan for ReadmissionCivil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision.Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments.In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.

  • Reconstruction Acts of 1867Military Reconstruction ActRestart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.Divide the 10 unreconstructed states into 5 military districts.

  • Reconstruction Acts of 1867Command of the Army ActThe President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.Edwin StantonTenure of Office Act

    The President needed Senate approval to remove certain officials from office.

  • President Johnsons ImpeachmentJohnson removed Stanton in February, 1868.Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.The House impeached him for trying to fire Stanton on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 47!

  • The Senate Trial11 week trial.Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).

  • 1868 Presidential Election

  • President Ulysses S. Grant

  • 15th AmendmentRatified in 1870.The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.Womens rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!

  • Blacks in Southern PoliticsCore voters were black veterans.Blacks were politically unprepared.Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867.The 15th Amendment guaranteed federal voting.

  • Ku Klux KlanFormed in Tennessee in 1866.They roamed the countryside, especially at night, burning homes, schools, and churches, and beating, maiming, or killing African Americans.Dressed in white robes and hoods, mounted on horses.Designed to scare people away from voting.

  • The Invisible Empire of the South

  • Was it a failure or success?Grants cabinet and administration was unknowingly corrupt.He gave government jobs to untrustworthy friends who used their positions to make money. Spoils system?13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments = success towards equality.Southern opposition= failure.

  • The 1866 Bi-ElectionA referendum on Radical Reconstruction.Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan.Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state.

  • The Balance of Power in Congress

    StateWhite CitizensFreedmenSC291,000411,000MS353,000436,000LA357,000350,000GA591,000465,000AL596,000437,000VA719,000533,000NC631,000331,000

  • The 1868 Republican Ticket

  • The 1868 Democratic Ticket

  • Waving the Bloody Shirt!Republican Southern Strategy

  • Grant Administration ScandalsGrant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption.Credit Mobilier Scandal.Whiskey Ring.The Indian Ring.

  • The Tweed Ring in NYCWilliam Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Halls political machine) [Thomas Nast crusading cartoonist/reporter]

  • Who Stole the Peoples Money?

  • And They Say He Wants a Third Term

  • The Election of 1872Rumors of corruption during Grants first term discredit Republicans.Horace Greeley runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate.Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank. Greeley died on November 29, 1872!

  • 1872 Presidential Election

  • Popular Vote for President: 1872

  • The Panic of 1873It raises the money question.debtors seek inflationary monetary policy by continuing circulation of greenbacks.creditors, intellectuals support hard money.1875 Specie Redemption Act.1876 Greenback Party formed & makes gains in congressional races The Crime of 73!

  • Legal ChallengesThe Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) Bradwell v. IL (1873) U. S. v. Cruickshank (1876) U. S. v. Reese (1876)

  • Sharecropping

  • Tenancy & the Crop Lien System

    Furnishing MerchantTenant FarmerLandownerLoan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop. Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest. Merchant holds lien {mortgage} on part of tenants future crops as repayment of debt. Plants crop, harvests in autumn. Turns over up to of crop to land owner as payment of rent. Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt. Rents land to tenant in exchange for to of tenant farmers future crop.

  • Black & White Political Participation

  • Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South

  • Black Senate & House Delegates

  • Colored Rule in the South?

  • The Failure of Federal EnforcementEnforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act].The Lost Cause.The rise of the Bourbons.Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs).

  • The Civil Rights Act of 1875Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places.Prohibited discrimination in jury selection.Shortcoming lacked a strong enforcement mechanism.No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!

  • Northern Support WanesGrantism & corruption.Panic of 1873 [6-year depression].Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars.Key monetary issues:should the government retire $432m worth of greenbacks issued during the Civil War.should war bonds be paid back in specie or greenbacks.

  • 1876 Presidential Tickets

  • Regional Balance?

  • 1876 Presidential Election

  • The Political Crisis of 1877Corrupt Bargain Part II?

  • Hayes Prevails

  • Alas, the Woes of ChildhoodSammy TildenBoo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayess got my Presidency, and he wont give it to me!

  • A Political Crisis: The Compromise of 1877