Red Sea – Dead Sea Conveyance Project Feasibility Study ... Sea – Dead...Red Sea – Dead Sea Conveyance, Feasibility Study Dr. Doron Markel – Israeli Water Authority Red Sea

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  • Red Sea Dead Sea Conveyance,

    Feasibility Study

    Dr. Doron Markel

    Israeli Water Authority

    Red Sea Dead Sea

    World Bank Study Manag. Unit

  • The Water Shortage of the Middle East

    The Middle East region is characterized by stressed

    water conditions with occasional droughts.

    Since the 1900s the population of the region has grown

    by 20 million people.

    As a result, inflows, previously flown to the Dead Sea,

    are used for human needs.

    http://www.google.co.il/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=_SG83hST1bWB2M&tbnid=f0AyfuNeV9j4uM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hayadan.org.il%2Fnext-mega-drought-070512%2F&ei=zlSfU_uiJYykyASIw4HIDg&bvm=bv.68911936,d.b2U&psig=AFQjCNGU36ZWEGOvAVK49vc2Tp-c6qnj0Q&ust=1403037067766404

  • Dead Sea Drainage Basin

    Annual Inflow To DS

    1900s 1,300 - 1,500 mcm/y

    Today 100 - 150 mcm/y

    Annual Loss 700 - 800 mcm/y

  • -430

    -428

    -426

    -424

    -422

    -420

    -418

    -416

    -414

    -412

    -410

    -408

    -406

    -404

    -402

    -400

    -398

    -396

    -394

    -392

    -390

    19771978

    19791980

    19811982

    19831984

    19851986

    19871988

    19891990

    19911992

    19931994

    19951996

    19971998

    19992000

    20012002

    20032004

    20052006

    20072008

    20092010

    Dead

    Sea W

    ate

    r L

    evel

    (m A

    SL

    )

    Dead Sea Level Drop

    :

  • The shrinking of the Dead Sea

    - 390 m

    ~1020 km2

    1960

    - 420 m

    ~ 635 km2

    2006

    Computer

    projection

    2050

    - 550 m

    ~ 520 km2

  • Environmental Impacts

    Sinkholes have appeared along extensive areas

    on the shore of the Dead Sea.

  • Project Goals

    2. Supply drinking water to the thirsty ME

    1. Stabilizing the Dead Sea level

    http://www.google.co.il/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&docid=USK8qHyyXAHMOM&tbnid=XmrlZ-N_cAUpdM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tapuz.co.il%2Fblog%2Fnet%2Fviewentry.aspx%3FentryId%3D2112429&ei=THmbU7PBMsmv0QXcp4HABw&bvm=bv.68911936,d.ZWU&psig=AFQjCNG7vMq9rKpVx7PQXYSN41QlMHcoRg&ust=1402784097528438

  • We seek for one integrative

    solution for both problems.

    Desalinating sea water while

    discharging the reject brine to

    the Dead Sea and using the

    elevation differences for

    hydropower.

    Integrative Solution

  • Kinneret Dead

    Med Kinneret - Dead

    Med Dead 2

    Red - Dead

    Supply drinking water

    Med Dead 1

    Dead Sea reclamation Alternatives

  • May 9, 2005

    Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority agree to initiate the RSDS FS

    Ben-Eliezer Al-Khatib

    Abu-Saud

  • Study Structure

    Dead Sea

    Gulf of

    Aqaba /

    Eilat

    Impact on

    Waddi Arava Hydropower /

    Desalination

    Sub Study A Sub Study B Sub Study D Sub Study C

    Physical

    Oceanogr.

    Environ.

    Social

    Impacts

    Economic

    Aspects

    Biological

    Oceanogr.

    Rout

    Alternatives

    Ecological

    Impacts

    Evniron.

    Social

    Impacts

    Hydrology &

    Hydrodynam.

    Geochem.

    Aspects

    Evniron.

    Social

    Impacts

    Economic

    Aspects

    Technical

    Aspects

    Energy

    Balance

    Evniron.

    Social

    Impacts

    Economic

    Aspects

    Overall Economic, Financial and Legal Aspects

    Hydrol.

    Impacts

    Coordinating and integrating of the whole study

    Legend

    COB

    ERM

    Add. St.

  • Study Organizational Setup

    Coyne et. Bellier

    Donors

    Palestinian

    Authority Jordan Israel

    4

    4

    4

    2

    Steering

    Committee Donors

    Committee Independent

    Panel of Experts

    Reports

    Funds Flow

    Study

    Management

    Unit

    Advisory

    Group World Bank

    Appoints

    Coyne et. Bellier ERM

    Consultants Red Sea Study team

    Dead Sea Study team

    Study

    of Alt.

  • Steering Committee, Aqaba, May 2010

  • Physical Model geochemical Model biological Model

    Environmental Assessment

    Mitigation

    TETHIS, IUI, IOLR

    Assessing the impact on the ecology of the Red Sea

  • Conclusion: Seawater pump from the Gulf of Eilat will not harm the ecological system of the gulf, giving a pump depth of 120-160 m.

    TETHIS, IUI, IOLR

    Red Sea Models Results

  • Assessing the impact on the Hydro-Chemical System of the Dead Sea

    Inflows

    Natural + Artificial

    Meteorological data

    (solar radiation, air

    temperature and humidity,

    wind speed)

    Multi - component, Hydrodynamic+

    geochemical 1D & 2D models

    Evaporation rate

    Energy

    balance

    Water Level

    Saturation &

    salt precipitation

    Algal Blooms

    Density

    (new eq. of state)

    Chemical

    composition

    Environmental Assessment

    & Mitigation

    TAHAL, GSI

  • TAHAL, GSI

    Dead Sea Models Results

    Conclusions: Discharge of up to 400 mcm/y of seawater or reject brine to the Dead Sea will not cause any environmental risk.

    Stages Approach The project should be built in stages of 200-300 MCM/y every ~10 y.

  • Feasibility Study Results

    Conclusions:

    Pipeline is preferred over tunnel due

    to the stages approach (operational

    profit and pilot).

    Total cost of a full project is $10

    billion, (55% commercial).

    Appropriate engineering solutions

    to leakage or a catastrophic pipe

    break were suggested.

    COB

  • Study of Alternatives SoA team

    Conclusions:

    2 main comprehensive alternatives

    (RD & MD1).

    Since stages approach is accepted,

    pipeline is preferred over tunnel.

    Jordan River rehabilitation is possible

    only based on treated sewage.

    Possible to combine alternatives

    starting from Red-Dead Pilot.

  • Pilot/Phase 1 Project:

    will produce drinking water

    faster.

    will enable the exploration

    of the impact on the Dead

    Sea at field scale.

    Will initiate the project

    through a careful step, in

    order to minimize the

    environmental risks.

    Red Sea Dead Sea Conveyance Pilot Desalination in Aqaba & brine discharge to the Dead Sea

    ISRAEL JORDAN

    Intake

    Desalination Plant

    Discharge

    Dead Sea

    Red Sea

    0 20 km

    Sea Water Desalinated Water Reject Brine

    http://www.google.co.il/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=ByUwepnffurRaM&tbnid=oagoOil_6-NKDM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.clker.com/clipart-15343.html&ei=vJl8Uun_CInM0QXNy4H4Bg&psig=AFQjCNElbVh0hDPDX1lMsSOeZcHomBL2hA&ust=1383983912714707

  • Larry Silverman, US State Dept.

    Silvan Shalom, Israel

    Hazim Naser, Jordan

    Shadad Attily, Palestinian Auth.

    Inger Andersen, World Bank

    MOU signing, Washington, December 9th, 2013

  • Red Sea Dead Sea Conveyance Pilot Desalination in Aqaba & brine discharge to the Dead Sea

    ISRAEL JORDAN

    Intake

    Desalination Plant

    Discharge

    Dead Sea

    Red Sea

    0 20 km

    Sea Water Desalinated Water Reject Brine

    MOU December 9th, 2014:

    A desalination plant of 80-100

    mcm/y will be built in Aqaba, while

    its reject brine will be conveyed to

    the Dead Sea.

    Israel will buy 30-50 mam/y, for

    the Israeli Arava needs.

    Jordan will use the rest desalinated

    water for Aqaba and Amman.

    Israel will sell to Jordan 30-50

    mcm/y from its water sources at

    the north.

    Israel will sell 20-30 mcm/y to the

    Palestinian Authority through the

    current water system.

    http://www.google.co.il/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=ByUwepnffurRaM&tbnid=oagoOil_6-NKDM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://www.clker.com/clipart-15343.html&ei=vJl8Uun_CInM0QXNy4H4Bg&psig=AFQjCNElbVh0hDPDX1lMsSOeZcHomBL2hA&ust=1383983912714707

  • Larry Silverman, US State Dept.

    Silvan Shalom, Israel

    Hazim Naser, Jordan

    Shadad Attily, Palestinian Auth.

    Inger Andersen, World Bank

    MOU signing, Washington, December 9 2013