Reflection Light Barrier With Delay

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................... i LIST OF TABLES........................................................................... ii LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................... iii 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................... 1 1.1 1.2 2. 3. Introduction ................................................................1 Components Used: .........................................................2

BLOCK DIAGRAM .................................................................. 3 OPTICAL SENSOR CNY 70 ..................................................... 4 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Optical Sensor: .............................................................4 CNY 70:......................................................................5 Features:- ...................................................................6 Applications of CNY 70: ...................................................7 Object Detection using CNY 70: .........................................7

4.

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS .......................................................... 9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 Integrated circuit: .........................................................9 Introduction to Timers: ................................................. 10 Schematic diagram: ..................................................... 11 Pin diagram of 555 Timer:.............................................. 12 Functional Block Diagram of 555 Timer: ............................. 13 Definition of Pin Functions: ............................................ 13 Astable Multivibrator: ................................................... 15 Monostable Multivibrator: .............................................. 20 LM 393 ..................................................................... 22 Equivalent Circuit of LM 393 ........................................... 23 Pin Configuration of LM 393 ............................................ 24 Advantages of LM 393 ................................................... 24

5.

RESISTORS AND CAPACITORS ................................................. 25 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Resistors: ................................................................. 25 Theory: .................................................................... 26 Capacitors: ............................................................... 27 Capacitor types: ......................................................... 28

6.

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION AND WORKING ....................................... 32 6.1 6.2 6.3 Circuit Diagram: ......................................................... 32 Operation: ................................................................ 32 Design of Astable Multivibrator: ....................................... 33

7.

CIRCUIT TESTING AND RESULTS .............................................. 34 7.1 7.2 Testing Procedure: ...................................................... 34 Results .................................................................... 35

8.

TIME AND COST ANALYSIS ..................................................... 36 8.1 8.2 Time Analysis ............................................................. 36 Cost Analysis ............................................................. 37

9.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE ........................................... 38 9.1 9.2 9.3 Conclusion ................................................................ 38 Applications .............................................................. 38 Future Modifications .................................................... 38 39

APPENDIX

DATASHEETS ...................................................................... 39

LIST OF TABLESTable 5-1 Specifications of different types of capacitors ..................... 31 Table 7-1 Astable multivibrator output .......................................... 35 Table 7-2 Reflector distance vs Potentiometer resistance .................... 35 Table 8-1 TIME ANALYSIS ........................................................... 36 Table 8-2 COST ANALYSIS ........................................................... 37

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LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1 Block Diagram ............................................................ 3 Figure 3.1 Electronic symbol ........................................................ 5 Figure 3.2 Reflective Type Sensor ................................................. 6 Figure 3.3 CNY 70 Schematic ....................................................... 6 Figure 3.4 CNY 70 operation principle............................................. 7 Figure 3.5 Collector Current vs. Distance ......................................... 8 Figure 3.6 Forward Current vs. Forward Voltage ................................ 8 Figure 4.1 Integrated Circuit........................................................ 9 Figure 4.2 Schematic of IC 555 .................................................... 11 Figure 4.3 Pin configuration of IC 555 ............................................ 12 Figure 4.4 Functional Block Diagram of 555 ..................................... 13 Figure 4.5 Astable circuit........................................................... 15 Figure 4.6 Table of different frequencies of 555 Timer ....................... 17 Figure 4.7 Output voltage waveforms ............................................ 18 Figure 4.8 Wave forms representing duty cycle ................................. 19 Figure 4.9 Monostable Circuit...................................................... 20 Figure 4.10 Input and output voltage waveforms ............................... 21 Figure 4.11 Equivalent circuit of LM 393 ......................................... 23 Figure 4.12 Pin configuration of LM 393 .......................................... 24 Figure 5.1 resistor code ............................................................ 25 Figure 5.2 Resistor color code ..................................................... 26 Figure 5.3 Capacitor ................................................................ 28 Figure 5.4 Types of capacitors ..................................................... 30 Figure 5.5 Symbols for different type of capacitors ............................ 31 Figure 6.1 Circuit Diagram ......................................................... 32

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Reflection Light Barrier With Delay

1. INTRODUCTION1.1 IntroductionThe aim of this project is to design an automatic fridge door alarm circuit, which beeps when the refrigerator door is open for more than predefined time interval. The motivation for doing this project is the fact that the energy consumption in our house to be made more efficient. If the door of the refrigerator is open for long period then the coolness inside the fridge reduces for time lapse. Refrigerator consists of a temperature sensor that maintains a constant temperature value inside the refrigerator.

Usually the condenser in the refrigerator is on only for some time and is switched off when the required coolness in the refrigerator is achieved. A closed loop circuit consisting of temperature sensors, senses and regulates the temperature control in the refrigerator. If the refrigerator door is open for long period then the condenser is on for long duration of time and hence consumes more power. Hence, by keeping the refrigerator door open for long time the losses incurred are :1. The refrigerator condenser consumes more power and hence electricity bill is more. 2. Coolness of the refrigerator is lost soon. 3. Consumes more time to reach the required level of coolness inside the refrigerator. 4. Energy efficient utilization factor is reduced. 5. Vegetables in the refrigerator (especially leafy vegetables) are spoiled soon due to water generated by the exposure of cool vegetables to normal temperature.

Hence, to overcome all these losses we design a small, simple and low power circuit that generates an alarm when the refrigerator door is open. The alarm from the circuit is generated after a fixed amount of time.

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Reflection Light Barrier With Delay

1.2 Components Used:1. Photo Transceiver 2. Dual op-amp IC 3. Timer IC 4. Resistors CNY70 LM393 NE555 1M (1) 470k (1) 100k (2) 47k (2) 1k (1) 5. Potentiometer 6. Capacitors 1M (1) 220F (3) 1F (1) 100nF (2) 7. Electronic Buzzer 8. DC Battery 1 +9V (1)

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Reflection Light Barrier With Delay

2.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

As shown in block diagram there are mainly five blocks: Sensor, comparator, Low Pass Filter, Timer Circuit, Buzzer Block.

Figure 2.1 Block Diagram

The Basic Blocks are explained below: Reflection barrier device: This block senses the input light and generates the corresponding voltage signal which will drive the comparator. Comparator: This block compares the reference signal and the input signal and produces the corresponding voltage. Active low pass filter: This block consists of active low pass filter designed by operational amplifier which removes any pips present in the comparator output and maintains stable output at input of the timer. Timer circuit: The timer circuit acts as an astable multivibrator which produces square pulse as output and this train of pulses are fed to the output load. Buzzer O/P: The load connected at the output stage is buzzer. This buzzer produces sound when train of pulses is given as input from the astable multivibrator.

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Reflection Light Barrier With Delay

3.

OPTICAL SENSOR CNY 70

3.1 Optical Sensor:Sensor is a physical device which senses and measures physical quantities and converts them into electrical si

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