of 14 /14
Get eTOC Alert › Get New Article Alerts › Science and Engineering of Composite Materials Editor-in-Chief: Hoa, Suong V. Editorial Board Member: Rand, Omri / Hamada, Hiroyuki / Brandt, Andrzej M. / Ehrenstein, Gottfried Wilhelm / Hui, David / Lee, L. James / Medraj, Mamoun / Nakai, Asami / Nicolais, Luigi / Seferis, James C. / Tan, Kiang Hwee / Ton-That, Minh Tan / Xiao, Xinran / Zako, Masaru / Zhong, W.H. Katie 4 Issues per year Increased IMPACT FACTOR 2012: 0.579 My Content (1) My Searches (0) (0) Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the rapid growth of the science and technology of composite materials, there is a need for published documentation on their structure, properties, and the integration of structure-property relations with processing, design and fabrication. Science and Engineering of Composite Materials is a quarterly publication which provides a forum for discussion of all aspects related to the structure and performance under simulated and actual service conditions of composites. The publication covers a variety of subjects, such as macro and micro and nano structure of materials, their mechanics and nanomechanics, the interphase, physical and chemical aging, fatigue, environmental interactions, and process modeling. The interdisciplinary character of the subject as well as the possible development and use of composites for novel and specific applications receives special attention. Previously published by Freund Publishing House Ltd. E-mail: [email protected] Supplementary Information Online submission of manuscripts Hinweise_f_r_Autoren_de Instructions for Authors Rate Card Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

  • Upload
    others

  • View
    1

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts...

Page 1: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

Get eTOC Alert › Get New Article Alerts ›

Science and Engineering of Composite Materials

Editor-in-Chief: Hoa, Suong V.Editorial Board Member: Rand, Omri / Hamada, Hiroyuki / Brandt, Andrzej M. /Ehrenstein, Gottfried Wilhelm / Hui, David / Lee, L. James / Medraj, Mamoun / Nakai,Asami / Nicolais, Luigi / Seferis, James C. / Tan, Kiang Hwee / Ton-That, Minh Tan /Xiao, Xinran / Zako, Masaru / Zhong, W.H. Katie

4 Issues per yearIncreased IMPACT FACTOR 2012: 0.579

My Content (1) My Searches (0)

(0)

Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information

Comments (0)

Aims and Scope

In view of the rapid growth of the science and technology of composite

materials, there is a need for published documentation on their

structure, properties, and the integration of structure-property relations

with processing, design and fabrication. Science and Engineering of

Composite Materials is a quarterly publication which provides a forum

for discussion of all aspects related to the structure and performance

under simulated and actual service conditions of composites. The

publication covers a variety of subjects, such as macro and micro and

nano structure of materials, their mechanics and nanomechanics, the

interphase, physical and chemical aging, fatigue, environmental

interactions, and process modeling. The interdisciplinary character of

the subject as well as the possible development and use of

composites for novel and specific applications receives special

attention.

Previously published by Freund Publishing House Ltd.

E-mail: [email protected]

Supplementary Information

Online submission of manuscripts

Hinweise_f_r_Autoren_de

Instructions for Authors

Rate Card

Publication Ethics and Publication

Malpractice Statement

Page 2: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

LIBRARIES TRADE AUTHORS SOCIETIES PRESS

TEXTBOOKSABOUT DE GRUYTER

The Publishing House

Human Resources

Walter de Gruyter Foundation

E-PRODUCTS & SERVICES

eProducts

Patron Driven Acquistion

Marketing & Sales Materials

Services

Advertising Rates

Rights & Permissions

IMPRINTS AND PUBLISHERPARTNERS

Birkhäuser

De Gruyter Open

De Gruyter AkademieForschung

De Gruyter Mouton

De Gruyter Oldenbourg

De Gruyter Saur

Publisher Partners

HELP & CONTACTINFORMATION

Contact Us / Company Details

FAQ

Give Feedback

NEWS

Conferences

News and Social Media

Blogs

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.

Copyright © 2011–2014 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH

Powered by PubFactory

Page 3: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

Get eTOC Alert › Get New Article Alerts ›

Science and Engineering of Composite Materials

Editor-in-Chief: Hoa, Suong V.

30,00 € / $42.00

Received:

Accepted:

Published Online:

Previous Article Next Article

Volume 21, Issue 2 (Mar 2014)

Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbonand basalt fibers

I.D.G. Ary Subagia / Yonjig Kim

Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero,

Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Korea

Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

Advanced Wind Power System Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Korea

Corresponding author: Yonjig Kim, Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National

University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 561-756 South Korea; and Advanced Wind Power System Research

Center, Chonbuk National University, Korea, e-mail: (email); and Advanced Wind Power System Research Center,

Chonbuk National University, Korea

Citation Information: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials. Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 211–217, ISSN

(Online) 2191-0359, ISSN (Print) 0792-1233, DOI: 10.1515/secm-2013-0003, August 2013

Publication History

2013-01-03

2013-06-23

2013-08-08

Abstract

This paper investigated the effect of the incorporation of basalt fibers on the tensile properties of carbon fiber-reinforced

epoxy laminates manufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. The purpose of this research was to design a

carbon-basalt/epoxy hybrid composite material that is of low cost in production, is lightweight, and has good strength and

stiffness. The tensile strength and stiffness of the hybrid laminates demonstrated a steady, linear decrease with an

increase in basalt fiber content, but the fracture strain gradually increased together with the increase in the basalt layer

content. In this study, the incorporation of basalt fibers into the carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) showed lower

tensile strength than CFRP but has higher tensile strain. Furthermore, we found that the arrangement and enhancement

of basalt fiber into the CFRP significantly influence the mechanical properties of interply hybrid composites.

Keywords: bonding; carbon fiber-reinforced plastic; composites; tensile test; vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

(VARTM)

My Content (4) My Searches (0)

(0)

SEE ALL FORMATS AND PRICING

Volume Issue Page

ISSUES

VOLUME 21 (2014)

Issue 3 (Jun 2014) , pp. 303-

470

Issue 2 (Mar 2014) , pp. 151-

302

Issue 1 (Jan 2014) , pp. 1-149

VOLUME 20 (2013)

Issue 4 (Nov 2013) , pp. 301-

405

Issue 3 (Aug 2013) , pp. 203-

299

Issue 2 (May 2013) , pp. 105-

202

Issue 1 (Feb 2013) , pp. 1-104

VOLUME 19 (2012)

Issue 4 (Dec 2012) , pp. 331-

429

Issue 3 (Sep 2012) , pp. 209-

330

Issue 2 (Jun 2012) , pp. 93-207

Issue 1 (Jan 2012) , pp. 1-92

VOLUME 18 (2011)

MOST DOWNLOADED

ARTICLES

1. Masthead

2. Masthead

3. Masthead

1, 2 1, 3

1

2

3

Page 4: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

Comments (0)

LIBRARIES TRADE AUTHORS SOCIETIES PRESS TEXTBOOKS

ABOUT DE GRUYTER

The Publishing House

Human Resources

Walter de Gruyter Foundation

E-PRODUCTS & SERVICES

eProducts

Patron Driven Acquistion

Marketing & Sales Materials

Services

Advertising Rates

Rights & Permissions

IMPRINTS AND PUBLISHERPARTNERS

Birkhäuser

De Gruyter Open

De Gruyter AkademieForschung

De Gruyter Mouton

De Gruyter Oldenbourg

De Gruyter Saur

Publisher Partners

HELP & CONTACTINFORMATION

Contact Us / Company Details

FAQ

Give Feedback

NEWS

Conferences

News and Social Media

Blogs

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.

Copyright © 2011–2014 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH

Powered by PubFactory

4. Masthead

5. Modeling Mechanical

Properties Of Knitted Fabric

Composites - Part I: Overview

And Geometric Description by

Huang , Zheng-Ming and

Ramakrishna , S.

View Top 20 Most Downloaded

Articles

Page 5: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

EDITOR-IN-CHIEFSuong V. Hoa, Montreal, QC

EDITORSOmri Rand, HaifaHiroyuki Hamada, Kyoto

EDITORIAL BOARDAndrzej M. Brandt, WarsawGottfried W. Ehrenstein, ErlangenDavid Hui, New Orleans, LAL. James Lee, Columbus, OHMamoun Medraj, Montreal, QCAsami Nakai, KyotoLuigi Nicolais, NaplesJames C. Seferis, Seattle, WAKiang Hwee Tan, SingaporeMinh Tan Ton-That, Quebec, QCXinran Xiao, Lansing, MIMasaru Zako, Osaka W. H. Katie Zhong, Pullman, WA

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Unauthenticated | 114.79.28.162Download Date | 3/29/14 5:55 AM

Page 6: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

ABSTRACTED/INDEXED IN Celdes; CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture); CNPIEC; EBSCO Discovery Service; Elsevier: Compendex, Engineering Village, SCOPUS; Google Scholar; Index Copernicus; Inspec; J-Gate; Naviga (Softweco); Paperbase; Pirabase; Polymer Library; Primo Central (ExLibris); ProQuest: Advanced Technologies Database with Aerospace, Aerospace Database, Aluminium Industry Abstracts, ANTE/Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering, Ceramic Abstracts/World Ceramics Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts, Computer and Information Systems Abstracts, Copper Technical Reference Library, Corrosion Abstracts, Earthquake Engineering Abstracts, Electronics and Communications Abstracts, Engineered Materials Abstracts, Engineering Research Database, Materials Business File, Materials Research Database, Mechanical & Transportation Engineering Abstracts, METADEX (Metals Abstracts), Solid State and Superconductivity Abstracts, Technology Research Database; SCImago (SJR); Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest); TDOne (TDNet); TEMA Technik und Management; Thomson Reuters: Current Contents/Engineering, Computing, and Technology, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Science Citation Index Expanded; Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb; WorldCat (OCLC)

The publisher, together with the authors and editors, has taken great pains to ensure that all information presented in this work (programs, applications, amounts, dosages, etc.) reflects the standard of knowledge at the time of publication. Despite careful manuscript preparation and proof correction, errors can nevertheless occur. Authors, editors and publisher disclaim all responsibility for any errors or omissions of liability for the results obtained from use of the information, or parts thereof, contained in this work.The citation of registered names, trade names, trademarks, etc. in this work does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from laws and regulations protecting trademarks etc. and therefore free for general use.

ISSN 0792-1233 ∙ e-ISSN 2191-0359

All information regarding notes for contributors, subscriptions, Open access, back volumes and orders is available online at www.degruyter.com/secm

RESPONSIBLE EDITOR Prof. Suong V. Hoa, Concordia Center for Composites, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Demaisonneuve West # EV 4-145, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1M8, Tel.: + 1- 514-848-2424, Email: [email protected]

JOURNAL MANAGER Dr. Gunda Stöber, De Gruyter, Genthiner Straße 13, 10785 Berlin, Germany, Tel.: +49 (0)30 260 05-279, Fax: +49 (0)30 260 05-298, Email: [email protected]

RESPONSIBLE FOR ADVERTISEMENTS Panagiota Herbrand, De Gruyter, Rosenheimer Straße 143, 81671 München, Germany, Tel.: +49 (0)89 76902-394, Fax: +49 (0)89 76902-350, Email: [email protected]

© 2014 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

TYPESETTING Compuscript Ltd., Shannon, Ireland

PRINTING Franz X. Stückle Druck und Verlag e.K., EttenheimPrinted in Germany

Unauthenticated | 114.79.28.162Download Date | 3/29/14 5:55 AM

Page 7: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

Science and Engineering of Composite Materials 2014 | Volume 21 | Issue 2

Contents

Original articles

Khalil Faghihi, Amir Rahimi and Akram FeyziSynthesis and properties of new clay-reinforced aromatic polyimide/nanocomposite-based 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 1,3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)propane 151

Peng Li Microstructures and surface performance of laser melting deposited composites on a Ti alloy 159

Yuemei Lu, Qianming Gong, Fangping Lu and Ji LiangSynthesis of porous carbon nanotubes/activated carbon composite spheres and their application for vitamin B12 adsorption 165

Mohammad Sayyar, Anagi M. Balachandra and Parviz SoroushianEnergy absorption capacity of pseudoelastic fiber-reinforced composites 173

Krishnan Ravi Kumar, Kothavady Mylsamy Mohanasundaram, Ramanathan Subramanian and Balasubramaniam AnandavelInfluence of fly ash particles on tensile and impact behaviour of aluminium (Al/3Cu/8.5Si) metal matrix composites 181

Mehmet Baharoğlu, Gökay Nemli, Bünyamin Sarı, Nadir Ayrilmis, Selahattin Bardak and Emir ZekoviçEffect of paraffin application technique on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard 191

Umberto Prisco Thermal conductivity of flat-pressed wood plastic composites at different temperatures and filler content 197

Shih-Hsuan Chiu, Sigit Tri Wicaksono, Kun-Ting Chen and Sheng-Hong Pong Morphology and properties of a photopolymer/clay nanocomposite prepared by a rapid prototyping system 205

I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Yonjig Kim Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon and basalt fibers 211

Halit Gun and Gorkem KosePrediction of longitudinal modulus of aligned discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites using boundary element method 219

Yeliz Pekbey, Goudarz Ghanizadeh Hesar, Hasan Yildiz and Farshid Khosravi MalekiDetermination of the critical load and energy release rate in mode II delamination using a meshfree method 223

Gunnur Yavuz, Musa Hakan Arslan and Omer Kaan BaykanShear strength predicting of FRP-strengthened RC beams by using artificial neural networks 239

Atilla Ozutok, Emrah Madenci and Fethi KadiogluFree vibration analysis of angle-ply laminate composite beams by mixed finite element formulation using the Gâteaux differential 257

Hong-Liang Dai and Yan-Ni RaoNonlinear dynamic behavior of a long temperature-dependent FGM hollow cylinder subjected to thermal shocking 267

Y. Mohammed, Mohamed K. Hassan, Abu El-Ainin H and A.M. HashemEffect of stacking sequence and geometric scaling on the brittleness number of glass fiber composite laminate with stress raiser 281

Jing Li, Goichi Ben and Junhe Yang Fabrication of hemp fiber-reinforced green composites with organoclay-filled poly(butylene succinate) matrix by pultrusion process 289

Wajid Ali Khan and Jim MethvenCorrelation of the heater’s duty cycle and specific energy consumption, and reduction in energy consumption in the pultrusion process 295

Unauthenticated | 114.79.28.162Download Date | 3/29/14 5:55 AM

User PC
Highlight
Page 8: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

DOI 10.1515/secm-2013-0003      Sci Eng Compos Mater 2014; 21(2): 211–217

I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Yonjig Kim*

Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon and basalt fibers

Abstract: This paper investigated the effect of the incor-poration of basalt fibers on the tensile properties of car-bon fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates manufactured by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. The purpose of this research was to design a carbon-basalt/epoxy hybrid composite material that is of low cost in production, is lightweight, and has good strength and stiffness. The ten-sile strength and stiffness of the hybrid laminates demon-strated a steady, linear decrease with an increase in basalt fiber content, but the fracture strain gradually increased together with the increase in the basalt layer content. In this study, the incorporation of basalt fibers into the car-bon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) showed lower tensile strength than CFRP but has higher tensile strain. Further-more, we found that the arrangement and enhancement of basalt fiber into the CFRP significantly influence the mechanical properties of interply hybrid composites.

Keywords: bonding; carbon fiber-reinforced plastic; composites; tensile test; vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM).

*Corresponding author: Yonjig Kim, Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 561-756 South Korea, e-mail: [email protected]; and Advanced Wind Power System Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Korea I.D.G. Ary Subagia: Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Korea; and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

1 IntroductionIn recent years, hybrid composites have been increasingly developed to improve the drawbacks of single-fiber com-posites. Hybrid composites are materials consisting of two or more different fiber types, which act as reinforcement, and a polymer resin as matrix, which holds the fibers [1]. Recently, composite material has been applied to many technological products like automotive and aerospace products [2], marine parts, sports equipment [3], windmill blades [4, 5], and lightweight construction materials [6].

This is largely because of the good mechanical properties and light structure of composite materials [7, 8]. Carbon fiber as reinforcement of polymeric matrix composite presents several advantages such as high modulus, high strength and stiffness, good creep resistance, low density, heat and flame resistance, and good compatibility with the epoxy matrix [9]. However, carbon fibers are relatively brittle and very expensive [10]. Recently, glass fibers have been recommended as one of the most popular reinforce-ments that can hybridize carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The principal advantages of glass fibers are low cost, high tensile strength, high chemical resistance, and excellent insulating properties [11]. However, glass fibers also have several disadvantages, which include a rela-tively low tensile modulus and high density, relatively low fatigue resistance, and high hardness, which causes exces-sive wear on molding dies and cutting tools, although it has a low price. In addition, glass fiber is toxic [12].

In the past few years, with the increase in interest regarding ecofriendly material, several types of fibers like organic and inorganic fibers were introduced to com-pounds with carbon fiber [13]. Recently, basalt fiber was introduced as a new type of reinforcing fiber [14, 15] that is more competitive than glass fibers [16]. Basically, basalt fibers are natural fibers that are produced from basalt volcanic rock by melting [10]. Good mechanical proper-ties, noncombustibility, high resistance to temperature, nontoxicity, and good chemical stability are the main advantages of basalt fiber. It is also economically and environmentally viable [4, 14]. Several studies have shown the potential of basalt fibers as reinforcement materials to improve the properties of fiber-reinforced composites. The effect of temperature, adhesion time, and surface treatment on the mechanical properties of thermoplas-tic basalt plastics were studied by Bashtannik et al. [17]. Czigany et  al. [18] studied the characteristics of basalt fiber-reinforced hybrid polypropylene. Wei et  al. [19] studied the tensile strength of basalt fiber with nano-SiO2-epoxy coating. In their work, the incorporation of nano-SiO2 coating increased the tensile properties of basalt fiber compared to pure epoxy coating. Manikandan et al. [20] reported that basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) has better mechanical properties compared with glass fiber-reinforced polymer. Other studies have reported on the

Brought to you by | Chonbuk National UniversityAuthenticated | [email protected] author's copy

Download Date | 3/7/14 1:57 AM

Page 9: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

212      I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Y. Kim: Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon

effect of nanoparticle addition to the mechanical proper-ties of composites from carbon and basalt fiber [21] and different filler fibers [22–25]. However, very few studies have been carried out on the combination of carbon and basalt fiber laminates.

In this work, we investigated the tensile properties of carbon- and basalt fiber-laminated composites, specifi-cally focusing on the effect of the number of basalt fiber layers and arrangement position on the carbon fiber com-posite laminates. The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of basalt fiber as an effective competitor of glass fiber for the reinforcement of composites. Tensile tests were carried out. The failure surfaces of the composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

2 Experimental

2.1 Materials

In the present study, we used plain woven carbon fiber (C120-3K; fabric weight = 200 ± 10 g/m2; fabric thickness = 0.25 ± 0.02 mm) purchased from Hyun Dai Fiber Co. Ltd. (Korea), and plain woven basalt fiber (EcoB4 F210; fabric weight = 210 ± 10 g/m2; fabric thick-ness = 0.19 ± 0.20  mm) provided by Secotech (Korea). The resin matrix used was a modified bisphenol A  epoxy resin (HTC-667C; specific gravity = 1.16 ± 0.02; viscosity = 1.2 ± 0.5 kg/m.s) with a modified aliphatic amine hardener and was supplied by Jet Korea Co. (Korea).

2.2 Composite fabrication

The panels of laminates were manufactured by a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. VARTM is an adaptation of the resin transfer molding (RTM) process that exploits vacuum pressure of  < 101.32500 kPa to draw off resin to the impregnate preforms. VARTM presents many benefits in composite fabrication such as low cost, low void contents, and stable product thickness [22, 26, 27]. The schematic of the present VARTM process is shown in Figure 1. In this work, a bronze plate with dimensions of 300 mm × 300 mm was prepared and oiled with a liquid wax (for safe release) on the top of plate. Sealant tape was then placed around the plate. The carbon and basalt fibers were both cut with a dimension of 250 mm × 250 mm and arranged on the mold according to the laminate design. Next, epoxy resin with a hardener mixture ratio of 5:1 after degassing in vacuum desiccators (at -70 cmHg for 40 min), was directly

Figure 1 Schematic layout of VARTM: (1) bronze plate, (2) laminate fiber, (3) release films, (4) breather net, (5) vacuum tube, (6) plastic bag, and (7) sealant tape.

Table 1 Properties of CFRP, BFRP, and hybrid composite with different numbers and arrangement positions of basalt fiber into the carbon fiber/epoxy.

Sample Sample code

Number of fibers Basalt fiber fraction (wt%)

CF BF

CFRP C 10 0 62BFRP B – 10 61.9C4B1C5 B1 9 1 6.19C4B2C4 B2 8 2 12.4C3B3C4 B3 7 3 18.6C3B4C3 B4 6 4 24.8C2B5C3 B5 5 5 30.9B2C6B2 BC 6 4 24.8C2B2C2B2C2 CB 6 4 24.8

injected into the impregnated preform at a pressure of -80 kPa using a vacuum pump (Airtech Ulvac G-100D, ULVAC Kiko Incorporated, Japan). The panel was then dried inside an oven at 65oC for at least 2 h. In this work, we laminated 10 layers of fibers in every panel, constituting about 62 wt% of the hybrid composite. The thickness of panels manufac-tured through VARTM was approximately 2 mm. The details of the combination of the fibers are shown in Table 1.

2.3 Tensile test and characterization

In the present study, tensile tests were performed to determine the stress-strain behavior of each composite (carbon-basalt fibers/epoxy) in accordance with ASTM D 638 [28]. Five dog-bone-type specimens were cut for each composite panel using water-jet machining (see Figure 2). The tensile tests were performed in a universal testing machine (Unitect-M, R&B Research and Business, Korea) at a constant crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min at room tem-perature. The strain was measured through an extensom-eter with a gage length of 50  mm (Extensometer model 3542-0200-50-ST, Epsilon Tech. Corp, WY, USA). The failed surface characterization of each specimen was investi-gated and analyzed using SEM. Microscopic analyses were

Brought to you by | Chonbuk National UniversityAuthenticated | [email protected] author's copy

Download Date | 3/7/14 1:57 AM

Page 10: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Y. Kim: Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon      213

performed aiming to recognize the failure mode of each hybrid composite.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Tensile properties

Figure 3 illustrates the typical stress-strain curves obtained from the tensile test for each laminate, and Table 2 gives the summary of the mechanical properties. Here, the basalt fabric layers were placed between carbon fabric layers (i.e., B1–B5). It can be directly noticed that the behaviors of each laminate all showed a linear trend. The slope of the stress-strain curves demonstrated a proportional decrease with the increase in the number of basalt fibers in the composite laminates. However, the tensile strain showed an increasing trend with the increase in the number of basalt fabric layers. This signi-fies that at the highest number of basalt layers, i.e., B5, the composite laminate showed the highest tensile strain. In

Figure 2 Schematic of dog-bone-type specimen for tensile test.

Figure 3 Stress-strain curves of CFRP, BFRP, and hybrid composites with different numbers of basalt fiber layers.

Table 2 Mechanical properties of CFRP, BFRP, and hybrid composites with different contents of basalt fiber into the carbon fiber/epoxy laminate.

Hybrid code

Tensile strength σ (MPa)

Young’s modulus E (GPa)

Tensile strain ε

CFRP 687 65 1.062B1 630 60 1.07B2 602 55 1.095B3 558 50 1.1B4 536 45 1.14B5 502 40 1.2BFRP 402 18 2.2

contrast, the tensile strength of the composites with the basalt fiber has values slightly lower than that of CFRP but much higher than BFRP (see Figure 3). In other words, the enhancement depending on the content of basalt fiber has a significant impact on the ultimate strength, elastic modulus, and strain of the composite laminate. As a result of basalt reinforcement in CFRP, the interply hybrid com-posites could take more strain before incurring failure [1, 29].

Figure 4 shows photographic images of the failed samples after the tensile test. The laminate with only one layer of basalt fiber in CFRP (Figure 4A) showed a brittle mode of failure. However, the damage modes of compos-ite laminates B2, B3, B4, and B5 (Figure 4B–D) demon-strated many dispersed failure fibers. B4, with four plies of basalt fiber, incurred flat damage on carbon layers after the tensile test and disperse fiber failure on the basalt layer (Figure 4D), which means that the interply hybrid composites can take more strain before failure under tensile loading. Similar results were also reported by other research groups [30, 31] when they investigated the behav-ior of FRP and hybrid FRP.

From Table 2, the results of the mechanical proper-ties depending on the basalt content show a linearly decreasing tensile strength and Young’s modulus values of the hybrid composites with the increase in the number of basalt layers. This signifies that the incorporation of basalt fiber significantly affected the tensile behavior of hybrid composites. However, an increase of basalt fibers also raises the strain behavior of hybrid composite.

Here, we can make the approximate relations for the tensile strength and the Young’s modulus of the interply hybrid composites as a function of the number of basalt fiber layers, x. It has been derived as follows:

σH = -37x+687 (MPa) (1)

EH = -5x+64 (MPa) (2)

Brought to you by | Chonbuk National UniversityAuthenticated | [email protected] author's copy

Download Date | 3/7/14 1:57 AM

Page 11: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

214      I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Y. Kim: Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon

3.2 Hybridization effect

To investigate whether the arrangement of basalt fibers in the hybrid composite laminate has some effect on its tensile properties, we tested several types of specimens that have different arrangements, i.e., BC, CB, and B4 (see Table 3). In all cases, the specimens were made by using four and six plies of basalt and carbon fibers, respec-tively. In the present study, placing the basalt fibers in

A B

C

E

D

Figure 4 Optical images of failed hybrid composite under tensile loading: (A) B1, (B) B2, (C) B3, (D) B4, and (E) B5.

Table 3 Effect of the positioning of basalt or carbon fiber in the hybrid epoxy laminate.

Hybrid code

Tensile strength σ (MPa)

Young’s modulus E (GPa)

Tensile strain ε

B4 536 45 1.14BC 571 49.5 1.15CB 556 47.5 1.17

the outermost layer and the carbon layer in the innermost layers showed an increase in tensile properties of the com-posite compared to B4. Figure 5 shows the stress-strain curves of hybrid composite for B4, BC, and CB. Here, the hybrid composite with basalt layers placed in the exterior of BC has higher tensile strength and strain compared with the carbon layers placed in the exterior of B4. The tensile strength values of hybrid composite were about 571 and 536  MPa for hybrid composites BC and B4, respectively. At the same time, the Young’s modulus of BC was about 49.5 GPa, which was higher than that of B4 (∼47 GPa). Furthermore, the hybrid composite with dispersed stacks of basalt layers between the carbon layers, i.e., CB, had a tensile strength and Young’s modulus of about 556  MPa and 47.5 GPa, respectively, which were lower compared with that of BC, but higher than that of B4 (see Table 3). The tensile strains of hybrid composites of B4, BC, and CB have almost similar values (Table 3). This result indicates

Brought to you by | Chonbuk National UniversityAuthenticated | [email protected] author's copy

Download Date | 3/7/14 1:57 AM

Page 12: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Y. Kim: Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon      215

that the variation of the basalt-reinforcing position has a major effect on the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of this type of hybrid composite. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of BC are higher than that of B4 by 6.5% and 5.3%, respectively.

3.3 Fracture characterization

Figures 6 and 7 show the SEM images of the fractured sur-faces of the present samples after the tensile test. Figure 6A shows cross-sectional damage of the BFRP, which shows rumpled failure features, whereas in Figure  6B, we can observe that the CFRP failed via a tensile mode failing by

Figure 5 Stress-strain curves of the hybrid composites with differ-ent stacking varieties: B4, BC, and CB under tensile loading.

A B

Figure 6 Low- and high-magnification SEM images for the cross section of the fracture surface of the hybrid composites: (A) BFRP and (B) CFRP.

flat features. Figure 7 shows the SEM images of cross sec-tions of the failed tensile specimens. B4 (Figure 7A) shows few carbon fiber-matrix debonding and basalt fiber shows damage in dispersed failures. In the hybrid composite BC (Figure 7B), there are some carbon fiber pullouts, debond-ing, and fiber-matrix delamination. Some longitudi-nal delaminations also occurred in basalt layers. In this case, the interfaces between carbon fiber and basalt fiber were delaminated caused by the effect of residual stress between the layers during tensile loading. At present, the carbon layers failed in a flat manner and basalt layers failed in a rumpled manner. This is due to the fact that carbon fiber is brittle and basalt fiber is relatively ductile. In the hybrid composite, with an alternatively sequenced manner (Figure  7C), some rumpled failures occurring on the basalt layer, causing delamination between the carbon layer and basalt layers, were observed, as similarly attempted by Wei et al. [19]. This made its tensile strength lower than that of other hybrid composite arrangements, even though the strain on this arrangement was a little higher (see Table 3). This phenomenon is attributed to the brittle failure of carbon fibers, where the specimen broke through all layers with an abundant rupture [32].

4 ConclusionsIn this study, the effect of the position and contents of basalt fiber on the tensile properties of carbon-basalt/epoxy hybrid composite, which was prepared by VARTM, has been examined. The increase in the number of basalt fiber layers stacked in between carbon fiber layers led to a decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus but an increase in tensile strain of the hybrid

Brought to you by | Chonbuk National UniversityAuthenticated | [email protected] author's copy

Download Date | 3/7/14 1:57 AM

Page 13: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

216      I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Y. Kim: Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon

composites. The results suggest the possible control and balance of the tensile properties of the interply hybrid composite laminates by controlling the number of basalt fiber layers. The tensile properties of carbon-basalt/epoxy hybrid composite depended on the basalt fiber position. Here, the BC composite, wherein carbon fiber layers were inserted between basalt layers, had the highest tensile strength and Young’s modulus. The change in the type of arrangement of the basalt fiber in

the hybrid composite leads to the variation of the frac-ture mechanism of the composite under tensile loading. For B4 and CB, the delamination between carbon and basalt occurred before the fracture of reinforcing fibers, whereas for BC, the delamination occurred after the carbon layer had broken.

Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National

A

B

C

A’

B’

C’

Figure 7 Low- and high-magnification SEM images for the cross section of the fracture surface of the hybrid composites: (A-A’) B4, (B-B’) BC, and (C-C’) CB.

Brought to you by | Chonbuk National UniversityAuthenticated | [email protected] author's copy

Download Date | 3/7/14 1:57 AM

Page 14: Science and Engineering of Composite Materials · Overview Details Submission of Manuscripts Abstracting & Indexing Editorial Information Comments (0) Aims and Scope In view of the

I.D.G. Ary Subagia and Y. Kim: Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon      217

Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Minis-try of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0022359). I.D.G. Ary Subagia acknowledges the support from the Degree General High Education (DGHE) postgraduate abroad scholarship of the Republic of Indonesia for his

Ph.D. program at Chonbuk National University in South Korea.

Received January 3, 2013; accepted June 23, 2013; previously pub-lished online August 8, 2013

References[1] Pandya KS, Veerraju Ch, Naik NK. Mater. Des. 2011, 32,

4094–4099.[2] Yang WB, Zhang LT, Liu YS, Cheng LF, Zhang WH. Appl. Compos.

Mater. 2007, 14, 277–286.[3] Taketa I, Ustarroz J, Gorbatikh L, Lomov SV, Verpoest I.

Composites, Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2010, 41(8), 927–932.[4] Hu W, Han I, Park SC, Choi DH. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 2012, 26,

129–135.[5] Ryou H, Chung K, Lim JH. Met. Mater. Int. 2008, 14, 679–687.[6] Arumugam V, Shankar RN, Sridhar BTN, Stanley AJ. J. Mater. Sci.

Technol. 2010, 26, 725–729.[7] Zhou YX, Wang Y, Jeelani S, Xia YM. Appl. Compos. Mater. 2007,

14, 17–31.[8] Hopmann C, Michaeli W, Puch F. Sci. Eng. Compos. Mater. 2012,

19, 331–338.[9] Goto K, Kawahara I, Hatta H, Kogo Y, Shiota I. Compos.

Interfaces 2005, 12, 603–616.[10] Wei B, Cao HL, Song SH. Mater. Des. 2010, 31, 4244–4250.[11] Artemenko SE. Fibre Chem. 2003, 35, 226–229.[12] Feih S, Thraner A, Lilholt H. J. Mater. Sci. 2005, 40, 1615–1623.[13] Jayabal S, Natarajan U, Sathiyamurthy S. Bull. Mater. Sci. 2011,

34, 293–298.[14] Czigany T, Poloskei K, Karger-Kocsis J. J. Mater. Sci. 2005, 40,

5609–5618.[15] Chen ZF, Lee S, Ng M, Tang JM, Wan LL, Liu M, Lee L. Sci. Eng.

Compos. Mater. 2008, 15, 165–174.[16] Wei B, Cao HL, Song SH. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 2010, 527, 4708–4715.

[17] Bashtannik PI, Kabak AI, Yakovchuk YY. Mech. Compos. Mater. 2003, 39, 85–88.

[18] Czigany T. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2006, 66, 3210–3220.[19] Wei B, Song SH, Cao HL. Mater. Des. 2011, 32, 4180–4186.[20] Manikandan V, Jappes JTW, Kumar SMS, Amuthakkannan P.

Composites, Part B: Eng. 2012, 43, 812–818.[21] Lee JH, Rhee KY, Park SJ. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 2010, 527,

6838–6843.[22] Rachmadini Y, Tan VBC, Tay TE. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 2010,

29, 2782–2807.[23] Zeng Y, Liu HY, Mai YW, Du XS. Compos. Part B: Eng. 2012, 43,

90–94.[24] An Q, Rider AN, Thostenson ET. Carbon 2012, 50, 4130–4143.[25] Kim HS. Met. Mater. Int. 2011, 17, 697–704.[26] Bender D, Schuster J, Heider D. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2006,

66, 2265–2271.[27] Simacek P, Advani SG. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2007, 67,

2757–2769.[28] ASTMD638-10. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA,

2008.[29] Liu Q, Hughes M. Composites, Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2008,

39, 1644–1652.[30] Zweben C. J. Mater. Sci. 1977, 12, 1325–1337.[31] Wu ZS, Wang X, Iwashita K, Sasaki T, Hamaguchi Y. Composites,

Part B: Eng. 2010, 41, 396–402.[32] Zhang J, Chaisombat K, He S, Wang CH. Mater. Des. 2012, 36,

75–80.

Brought to you by | Chonbuk National UniversityAuthenticated | [email protected] author's copy

Download Date | 3/7/14 1:57 AM