Secondary-school Teachers Questioning Activities in L-t Process

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SECONDARY-SCHOOLTEACHERS'QUESTIONINGACTIVITIESIN LEARNING-TEACHINGPROCESSAss.PROF.DR.FILIZEVRANACARAssoc.PROF.DR.ABDURRAHMANKILIDuzceUniversityTechnicalEducationFacultyInstituteof EducationScienceIn this research,it is aimed to determine what kind of questionsteachersandstudentsaskinlearning-teachingprocess.Intheeffort,qualitativeresearchtechniquewasused. Theteachers ofDuzceVocational High School in Duzce city center make up theresearchgroup.For thisaim, observationwasperformedin thelessonsof13 teachers. Asdata-collectingtool,semi-structuredobservationformswere used. Datawas analyzedbyusing con-tent analysis technique. In the consequence of the analysis, basicand sub-categorieswere made up and the categories' percentageand frequencywere given. As a result ofthe research,itis seenthat teachers ask questions more than students, teachers and stu-dentsaskquestionsaboutthelessonorextra-curricular,theextra-curricular questions asked by the teachers are for acquiringinformation,theirquestionsaboutthelessonmostlyconsistoftheonesrequiringintellectualabilitytoprocess,rememberingthe acquired informationand receiving feedback and controlling.Extra-curricular questions of the students are mainly towardfm-ishingthelessonandtheirquestionsrelatedwithlessonaretowardunderstandingthe lesson.Keywords:Instructionprocessquestions,students'questions,teachers' questions, questioncategories.Introductioncommunication process, teacher asks ques-Leaming-teaching process is based ontions to students and answers the questionsthecommunicationbetweenteacher-stu-asked.Thestudentasksquestionstothedentandstudent-student.Theteacher and the other students and answerscommunicationexists as part ofa certainthe questions asked.The questions are thefeedback between teacher-student and stu-mostessentialmaterialforsupportingdent-student.Thankstothefeedbackthinking process because activating think-received, it is understood how and in whiching process are important for providing thelevelthemessagereceivedby thesourcepersonto leameffectively,is understood by the receiver. Without feed-The questions can be used fordifferentback, it is not done what is necessary fortaimsineducation.Thequestionscanbehe communication. During the process ofasked for the purpose of directing the stu-thecommunication,itisbenefitedfromdents to the target, providing them to thinkdifferentcatecheticalactivitieswiththeinhighlevelandeffectivelybydirectingaim ofdetermining how the person under-them to questioning, determining the effi-stands the message, providingthe personciencyofeducation,increasingstudent'stothinkondifferentproblemsituationsattendance,improvingthestudents'lis-andreceiving the person's opinion. In thistening skills and increasing tolerance and173174 /EducationVol. 132 No. 1respect (Sonmez, 2001). It can be benefit-edfromquestioningforthepurposeofproviding effecdveclassroom managementand decreasingclassroomproblems.Bond (2007).presents some suggesdonsaboutquestioningbypayingattendontoquestioningstrategiesdecreasingclass-room management problems These are :1.Write out some questions when plan-ning the lesson2.Establishexpectationsaboutthebehaviourbefore beginning the ques-tioning period3.Call on a variety ofstudents4.Cuestudentsbeforeaskingthe ques-tion5.Ask quesdons that are the appropriatelevel for eachstudent6.Askquesdonsthatelicitposidveorcorrectresponses7.Providestudentswithsufficientwaitdme after asking a quesdon and beforerespondingto theircomments8.Vary the way students respond to ques-dons9.Varythepersonwho respondsto thequestions10.Respondto everyanswer andcorrecterrors11.Ask follow-upquestions12.Encouragestudents to ask questionsTherearedifferentquestionformsinteaching-learning process. Grouping ques-tionsdiffersaccordingtothedifferentauthors.Sonmez(2001)gathersquestionformsin4groupsas1.Thequestionaccording to target level, 2. open and close-ended quesdon, 3. quesdons according tothe methodsand 4. quesdonaccordingtodirecting methods. In his research Bishop(1991) introduces what the quesdons usedforinclassroomdiscussionsandgroupsquesdonformsbyadapdngfromChris-tensenasopen-ended,diagnostic,informadon-seeking,challenge/testing,action, priorityandsequence,prediction,hypothedcal, extension and generalizadonones.By handling the quesdons with a cross-disciplinaryreview,Kearsley(1976)conductedquestionsinverbaldiscourseand made the following taxonomy of ques-tions' functions.( Shomoossi,1997)1. Echoic: those which ask for the rep-etition of an utterance or confirmationthatan utterance has been interpreted as intend-ed. (E.g. Pardon! what!)2. Epistemic: those which serve the pur-pose ofacquiringinformation:(a) Referendal; intended to provide con-textual informadon about situadons, events,acdons, purposes, relationships or proper-des (Wh-questions, for example).(b)Evaluative;askedtoestablishtheaddressee'sknowledgeoftheanswer(sometimes called display, test or known-informationquestions)3.Expressive:conveyingattitudinalinformadonto the addressee (e.g. Are youcoming or aren'tyou?)4. Social control: used to exertauthor-ity by maintaining control of the discourse.5. Attendonal: allows the quesdoner totakeoverthedirectionofthediscourse(meta-message is "listen to me" or "thinkabout this").6. Verbosity: asked only for the sake ofpolitenessor to sustain conversation(e.g.cocktail partyquestions)A QualitativeResearch.../175Marrin(2003)groupsthequestionformsinthreeasgenuinequestions,testquestionsandprovokingonesandindi-catedthat61% oftheteachersasktestquestions(How manysides in a triangle?How can we simplifythis fraction?), 25 %of them ask genuine questions (How manydifferenttrianglesdidyoufind?Whichmeasurementdidyouuse?) and14 % ofthemaskprovokingquestions(Whyisthat? How couldyou achieve that?).Inthe researchKoray, AltuncekicandYaman performedin 2005 theyclassifiedtheabilitytoaskquestionsofpreserviceteachersofScienceandTechnologyaccordingtothecognitiveareastepsoftaxonomy of Bloom and tried to as certaininwhichstepstheyaskquestionsmore.According to the results of the research. Itis ascertainedthat ability to ask questionsof the Science and Technology preserviceteachers are advanced in the step of " infor-mation and cognition " of Bloom taxonomybut the usage of the informationacquiredand ability to ask questions in the steps of"application, analysis, synthesis and eval-uation" includinghigh-levelthinkingarein low level.Notonlythe qualificationandquanti-tyofthequestionsaskedbytheteachersbutalsostudents'effectiveparticipationfortheactivitiesofaskingquestionareimportant in supporting thinking and learn-ingoftheperson.Theeffectivenessofquestionandanswertechniqueinlearn-ing-teachingprocessdiffersaccordingtothestudents'participation,theaimsandkinds ofthe questionsand how thistech-nique isperformedIn his research, Martin(2003)indicat-edthattheteachersspendlittletimeforaskingquestions,theyasklimitedques-tions with limited forms.It isdeterminedthat teachersspend20 % ofthe lessontoask questionsand theyask questionslike"what will we do then?" more.AimInthisresearch,itisaimedtodeter-minehowtheactivitiesofmutualaskingquestions of secondary-school teachers andstudentsare performedinapplicationsinlearning-teaching process. In this process,it is examined what are the questions askedby the teachers and the students and whatkindofquestionsareaskedintheclass.Withthisaim,itislookedforananswerfor the questions below:In Vocational High School (vocatioanalcourses);1.Howarethedistributionoftheques-tionsaskedaccordingtothelessonperiod?2.How is the distribution of the questionsaccording to adressing to the individualor group?3.Whatare thesubjectsoftheextracur-ricular questions teachers ask?4.What are the qualities of the questionsteachersask about the lesson?5.Whatare thesubjectsofthe extracur-ricular questionsstudents ask?6.What are the qualities of thequestionsstudentsask about the lesson?The MethodQualitative researchingtechniquewasused in this work. Duzce Vocational HighSchoolanditsvocationalteachersmade176 /EducationVol. 132 No. 1up thisworkinggroup ofthis researchinthe education academic year of 2007-2008.Inaccordancewithdeterminedtheaim,the lessons of13 teachers who were cho-sen randomlywereobserved.DataCollection and Analysisof the DataAs data collection tool, semi-structuredobservafionformwas used. The data wasgathered by means of observation in struc-ttired field type (Yildmm and Smisek, 2006). The dataacquiredas a consequence ofthe observation was examined by twodif-ferentresearcher and the observation dataperformedon three teacherswere omittedfromthe researchbecauseofsomecon-tradictions.The Analysisof the DataThe text acquired from the observationforms was analyzed by using the techniquecalled content analysis ( Silverman; 1993;Manninh and CuUumswan, 1998; YildinmandSimsek,1999;Bilgin,2007).Theseare the steps of the actitvity related to thecontent analysis:In the first step, all of the lessons wereexaminedand the questions were tran-scribedonebyoneaccordingtothelessonsandtheywerelisted.Codeswere givenIn terms of the subject of the questions(aboutlessonorextracurricular)anddistribution according to the lesson time(theintroductory,developmentandresult parts of the lesson), the questionswere classified and their frequencywereexamined.Thequestions'frequencywasexam-inedbybeingclassifiedaccordingtothesubjectofthequestion(aboutthelesson or extracurricula ) and theformof being asked (to the person or a group)Two researchers categorized these ques-tionsintermsofquestionforms(respectivelystudentquestionsandteacherquestions)independently.Theclassificationsperformedin the end ofthe study were compared and controlledintermsofconsistency.Becausedif-ferentdenominationswereperformedabout some question categories, denom-inationswereperformedagainintheendofthecooperationandnecessaryarrangements were made about the cat-egories.The last arrangements wereperformedabout the categories in the direction ofviewandsuggestionsafterthecate-gories and questionswere eamined bythe third expert.Theanalysisoftheresultswerepre-sentedas of percentageandfrequencybytabulatingdataindirectionofthecategoriesdetermined.Findings and CommentsThe findings are presentedin forms ofsubtitlesinparalelwiththeproblems.Accordingtothedataacquiredfromthelessons observed within the research, total179 questions wereinvestigated./.The questionsranging around the lessonperiodThe findings and cotmnentsaboutthefirst problemofthe researchare giveninTable 1.A QualitativeResearch.../ 177Table1. The questionsrangingaroundthe lessonperiodTeacher'squestionStudent'squestionTotalExtracurricularIntroduction12710,5137,5Development7474Resultf11314%61,57,5AboutthelessonIntroductionf%11684,51910,5Developmentf9326119%5214,566,5Resultf527%314Totalf13940179%7822100Table2. The distributionof theaccordingtoadressingto the individualorgroupTeacherquestionsStudentquestionsToplamThequestionsaskedindividuallyExtracurricularf%11642158Aboutthelessonf253661%142034The questionsaskedtothegroupsExtracurriculaif%1911-1911Aboutthelessonf%8447-8447Totalf13940179%7822ionAsitisseeninTable1, 78%ofthequestions are asked by the teacher and 22% of them are asked by the students. Thebiggest percentage (52 %) of teacher ques-tionsareaboutthelessonsandtheyareaskedindevelopmentpartofthelesson.The biggest percentage(14,5 % ) ofstu-dent questions are about the lesson and areaskedin development part ofthe lesson.Accordingto this situation,it can be saidthat the busiest communication(question-ing)betweentheteacherandthestudentisaboutthelessonandisperformedindevelopmentpartofthelesson.7% ofextracurricularteacher questions is askedin introduction part of the lesson and 6 %of them is asked in result part. It is seen thatthestudentsdonotaskanyextracurricu-larquestionsindevelopmentpartofthelesson.Thissituationcanbeinterpretedthattheydonotasketracurricularques-tions when they concentrate on the lesson.2.The distribution of the questionsaccord-ing to adressing to the individual or groupFindingsandcommentsrelatedto thesecondsub-problemoftheresearcharegiven in Table 2 above.According to Table 2,20 % of the ques-tionsaskedintheclassareaskedtotheperson by the teacher and 22 % of them areaskedtotheteacherbythestudentandtotally 42 % of ration are asked to the per-son. The ration of teacher's questions askedto the group is 58 % and it is seen that stu-dentsdonotaskquestionsrelatedtothe178/EducationVol. 132 No. 1Tabie 3. The categories andtbe distributionof tbe extracurricularteacberquestionsCategories/%Main categoryInformationseekingquestions (ISQ)Sub-categoryInformationseeking questionsabout personal situation(P)Informationseeking questions7about gnerai applications andsituations of tbe ciass/(GA)2723criticismorwarningquestions (CWQ)TotalInformationquestions abouttime-period(T)510301733100group.So, allofthe questionsofthe stu-dentsrefertotheteacher.Thissituationcanbeinterpretedasthestudent-studentinteraction is little. The big part of teacherquestionsrefersto the group.As a result, it is seen that both teachersandstudentsask questionsaboutthe les-sonbutteacherdirecttoextracurricularquestions more thanstudents.3. The subject and the distribution of theextracurricular teacher questionsThefindingsandthecommentsrelat-ed tothe third-sub problem of the researchare given in Table3. Etracurricularques-tionsaregroupedintobasicandsubcategoriesAsitisseeninTable3, theextracur-ricular questions are gathered in two maincategories.Theseareinformationques-tions and critical or waming questions.67% of the extracurricular questions teacherasksareinformationquestions.Informa-tionquestionsconsistofthreecategoriessuchas informationabout personalsitua-tion,informationaboutgeneralapplicationsoftheclassandinformationabouttime-period.Themostaskedques-tionsaretheoneswhichare27%ofinformationaboutthepersonalsituationof the students. These quesfionsare relat-ed to the questions to acquireinformationaboutchattingaboutstudents,theirfavouriteteam, the books they read. 23 %of them -general application of the class-and17 % of them -informationquestionsabout time-periodfollowthis group.Erom extracurricular teacher questionscritical or waming questions include 33 %ofthisration. Teachersask various ques-tionsforthepurposeofquestioningthebehaviours of the students, criticizing andwaming them. There are quotes about thequestionsaregiveninthemainandsub-categoryindicatedbelow.What's upMustafa?(ISQ-P)Which book do youread?(ISQ-P)Did youtalk about this with yourteacher?(ISQ-GA)Did we talk about the date of the exam?(ISQ-GA)A QualitativeResearch.../179Table,4,Thecategoriesandthe distributionof teacherquestionsaboutthelessonMaincategoriesThe questionsaboutthe preparationof the toolsandmaterialsof thelesson(PLM)Thequestionsformakingconnectionto thepreviouslesson(MC)The questionsrequiringremembering(R)Thequestionsrequiringintellectualoperationability(IO)The questionsseekingresons(SR)Feedback-controlquestions(F)Motivationquestions(M)Totalf3725424262109%362338,53,5242100What is thetime?(ISQ-T)How much time is leftforending the les-son?(ISQ-T)Don'tyou have a...