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  • (Semaphore)

  • A semaphore telegraph, optical telegraph, shutter telegraph chain, Chappe telegraph, or Napoleonic semaphore is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles. Information is encoded by the position of the mechanical elements; it is read when the shutter is in a fixed position.

    The system was invented in 1792 in France by Claude Chappe, and was popular in the late 18th to early 19th century

  • Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing

    Project Management Process Groups

    4. IntegrationProject

    Management5. Scope

    6. Time

    7. Cost

    8. Quality

    9. Human Resources

    10. Communications

    11. Risk

    12. Procurement

    13. Stakeholder

    Kno

    wle

    dge

    Are

    as

    8.3 Control Quality

    8.38.28.1

  • 8.1 Plan Quality Management - define quality

    8.2 Perform Quality Assurance - confirm quality

    8.3 Control Quality - assess quality

    Planning Process Group

    Executing Process Group

    Initiating Process Group

    Closing Process Group

    Monitoring & Controlling Process Group

    Project Quality Management

    232 2013 Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fifth Edition

    8 - PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

    .1 Project management plan

    .2 Stakeholder register

    .3 Risk register

    .4 Requirements documentation.5 Enterprise environmental factors.6 Organizational process assets

    .1 Cost-benefit analysis

    .2 Cost of quality

    .3 Seven basic quality tools

    .4 Benchmarking

    .5 Design of experiments

    .6 Statistical sampling

    .7 Additional quality planning tools.8 Meetings

    .1 Quality management plan

    .2 Process improvement plan.3 Quality metrics.4 Quality checklists.5 Project documents updates

    Figure 8-3. Plan Quality Management Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

    Project Quality Management

    8.1Plan

    QualityManagement

    8.2Perform Quality

    Assurance

    8.3ControlQuality

    P

    Q

    ProjectDocuments

    R

    R

    P

    11.2IdentifyRisks

    5.2Collect

    Requirements

    4.2Develop ProjectManagement

    Plan

    13.1Identify

    Stakeholders

    Enterprise/Organization

    11.2IdentifyRisks

    Figure 8-4. Plan Quality Management Data Flow Diagram

    Licensed To: Maureen MacDonald PMI MemberID: 2720945This copy is a PMI Member benefit, not for distribution, sale, or reproduction.

    2432013 Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fifth Edition

    8 - PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    8

    Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

    .1 Quality management plan

    .2 Process improvement plan.3 Quality metrics.4 Quality control measurements.5 Project documents

    .1 Quality management and control tools.2 Quality audits.3 Process analysis

    .1 Change requests

    .2 Project management plan updates.3 Project documents updates.4 Organizational process assets updates

    Figure 8-8. Perform Quality Assurance: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

    Project Quality Management

    8.2Perform Quality

    Assurance

    8.1Plan QualityManagement

    8.3ControlQuality

    P

    QQ

    P

    Q

    C

    P

    P ProjectDocuments

    ProjectDocuments

    4.5Perform

    IntegratedChange Control

    4.2Develop ProjectManagement

    Plan

    Enterprise/Organization

    Figure 8-9. Perform Quality Assurance Data Flow Diagram

    The quality assurance process implements a set of planned and systematic acts and processes defined within the projects quality management plan. Quality assurance seeks to build confidence that a future output or an unfinished output, also known as work in progress, will be completed in a manner that meets the specified requirements and expectations. Quality assurance contributes to the state of being certain about quality by preventing defects through the planning processes or by inspecting out defects during the work-in-progress stage of implementation. Perform Quality Assurance is an execution process that uses data created during Plan Quality Management (Section 8.1) and Control Quality (Section 8.3) processes.

    Licensed To: Maureen MacDonald PMI MemberID: 2720945This copy is a PMI Member benefit, not for distribution, sale, or reproduction.

  • 2492013 Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fifth Edition

    8 - PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    8

    Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

    .1 Project management plan

    .2 Quality metrics

    .3 Quality checklists

    .4 Work performance data

    .5 Approved change requests.6 Deliverables.7 Project documents.8 Organizational process assets

    .1 Seven basic quality tools

    .2 Statistical sampling

    .3 Inspection

    .4 Approved change requests review

    .1 Quality control measurements.2 Validated changes.3 Verified deliverables.4 Work performance information.5 Change requests.6 Project management plan updates.7 Project documents updates.8 Organizational process assets updates

    Figure 8-11. Control Quality: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

    Project Quality Management

    8.3ControlQuality

    8.2Perform Quality

    Assurance

    8.1Plan QualityManagement

    Projectocuments

    A erequests

    Wo P

    PQ sQ s

    Organizational

    updates

    controlmeasurements

    4.2Develop ProjectManagement

    Plan

    4.5Perform

    IntegratedChange Control

    4.3Direct and

    Manage ProjectWork

    4.2Develop ProjectManagement

    Plan

    4.4Monitor and

    Control ProjectWork

    4.5Perform

    IntegratedChange Control

    5.5ValidateScope

    Enterprise/Organization

    ProjectDocuments

    Enterprise/Organization

    ProjectDocuments

    Projectocuments

    updates

    Verifiedeliverables

    Changerequests

    ValidatedchangesWoperformanceInformation

    Figure 8-12. Control Quality Data Flow Diagram

    Licensed To: Maureen MacDonald PMI MemberID: 2720945This copy is a PMI Member benefit, not for distribution, sale, or reproduction.

    To monitor and record results of executing the quality management plan

    To identify causes of poor process or product quality and recommend and/or take action to eliminate them

    To validate that deliverables and work meet the requirements necessary for final acceptance

    A QC department may be responsible for this

    8.3 Control Quality

    What & Why? P

    MBO

    K p

    . 249

  • 2492013 Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fifth Edition

    8 - PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    8

    Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

    .1 Project management plan

    .2 Quality metrics

    .3 Quality checklists

    .4 Work performance data

    .5 Approved change requests.6 Deliverables.7 Project documents.8 Organizational process assets

    .1 Seven basic quality tools

    .2 Statistical sampling

    .3 Inspection

    .4 Approved change requests review

    .1 Quality control measurements.2 Validated changes.3 Verified deliverables.4 Work performance information.5 Change requests.6 Project management plan updates.7 Project documents updates.8 Organizational process assets updates

    Figure 8-11. Control Quality: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

    Project Quality Management

    8.3ControlQuality

    8.2Perform Quality

    Assurance

    8.1Plan QualityManagement

    Projectocuments

    A erequests

    Wo P

    PQ sQ s

    Organizational

    updates

    controlmeasurements

    4.2Develop ProjectManagement

    Plan

    4.5Perform

    IntegratedChange Control

    4.3Direct and

    Manage ProjectWork

    4.2Develop ProjectManagement

    Plan

    4.4Monitor and

    Control ProjectWork

    4.5Perform

    IntegratedChange Control

    5.5ValidateScope

    Enterprise/Organization

    ProjectDocuments

    Enterprise/Organization

    ProjectDocuments

    Projectocuments

    updates

    Verifiedeliverables

    Changerequests

    ValidatedchangesWoperformanceInformation

    Figure 8-12. Control Quality Data Flow Diagram

    Licensed To: Maureen MacDonald PMI MemberID: 2720945This copy is a PMI Member benefit, not for distribution, sale, or reproduction.

    Quality Assurance:

    Performed during the planning and executing phases to confirm that the stakeholders requirements will be met

    Quality Control:

    Performed during the executing and closing phases to show that the projects acceptance criteria has been met

    8.3 Control Quality

    What & Why? P

    MBO

    K p

    . 249

  • 2492013 Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fifth Edition

    8 - PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    8

    Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs

    .1 Project management plan

    .2 Quality metrics

    .3 Quality checklists

    .4 Work performance data

    .5 Approved change requests.6 Deliverables.7 Project documents.8 Organizational process assets

    .1 Seven basic quality tools

    .2 Statistical sampling

    .3 Inspection

    .4 Approved change requests review

    .1 Quality control measurements.2 Validated changes.3 Verified deliverables.4 Work performance information.5 Change requests.6 Project management plan updates.7

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