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  • Sense of place, protected areas and tourism:

    Two Tasmanian case studies

    Chia-Chin Lin

    BS (Horticulture); MS (Horticulture), National Chung-Hsing University;

    Master of Environmental Planning, University of Tasmania

    Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    University of Tasmania

    January 2012

  • Declaration of Originality

    This thesis contains no material which has been accepted for a degree or

    diploma by the University or any other institution, except by way of

    background information and duly acknowledged in the thesis, and to the best of

    the my knowledge and belief no material previously published or written by

    another person except where due acknowledgement is made in the text of the

    thesis, nor does the thesis contain any material that infringes copyright.

    (Chia-Chin Lin)

    (Date)

  • ii

    Authority of Access

    This thesis may be made available for loan and limited copying in accordance

    with the Copyright Act 1968.

    (Chia-Chin Lin)

    (Date)

  • iii

    Acknowledgements

    This thesis could not have been completed without the support and guidance of

    many people. Most importantly, I thank my supervisors, Dr. Michael

    Lockwood, Dr. Lorne Kriwoken, and Dr. Jim Russell. They have given me

    great support and direction over the years, with seemingly endless patience.

    Thanks to my family and friends, in particular to my parents, brother and aunt;

    and to Paul, for their unconditional support.

    I would like to thank all the staff and fellow students from the School of

    Geography and Environmental Studies.

    Lastly, a special thanks to all the survey and interview participants for their

    valuable time to complete my surveys and accept my interviews. I would also

    like to thank the individuals and various organisations who assisted me,

    especially the Peninsula Environmental Network, Tasmanian Conservation

    Trust, Tasmanian Land Conservancy, Tasmanian National Parks Association,

    and members of the staff of the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service.

  • iv

    Abstract

    The focus of the research was to explore the meaning of ‘sense of place’ and develop a

    better understanding of the concept in the context of protected areas. The nature and

    magnitude of changes in sense of place arising from tourism developments were also

    investigated. In this context, I sought to elucidate the usefulness of sense of place in two

    endeavours: (a) guiding the governance and management of protected areas, and (b)

    making empirical contributions to the resolution of issues associated with recreation and

    tourism.

    Through an analysis of the literature, I identified limitations in previous research

    concerning sense of place for natural areas, and developed a conceptual model that

    explained the factors associated with formation of people’s senses of place, and the

    relationships between sense of place, tourism impacts and tourism developments. This

    model was used to illustrate how the consideration of sense of place can contribute to

    protected area governance and management, particularly in relation to recreation and

    tourism.

    I examined the validity of the model, and explored the meaning and utility of sense of

    place in the context of protected areas and tourism, by collecting data on each of the

    component concepts and variables. This empirical work involved the deployment of

    both qualitative and quantitative methods in case studies involving two Tasmanian

    natural areas: Tasman National Park and Recherche Bay. In-person interviews as well

    as questionnaire surveys were conducted with stakeholders to examine people-place

    relationships, perceptions of existing and potential tourism impacts, and attitudes to

    current and proposed tourism developments.

    The results demonstrate that sense of place is an overarching idea that encompasses a

    variety of dimensions, including place attachment. People’s senses of place for my

    study sites can also be classified into non-exclusive and exclusive forms. Non-exclusive

    senses of place, which are not restricted to my study sites, but can be evoked wherever

    similar place features and qualities exist, include place atmosphere, functional

    attachment and intellectual attachment. Exclusive senses of place are constituted by

    feelings of belongingness or identification that are restricted to associations with

    particular sites. They are emotion-driven and are aroused by past experiences people

    have had in a particular place. My analysis also determined factors that can influence

  • v

    the intensity of attachments to the study sites. These factors include ownership of

    property at that place, the place where respondents had resided the longest, frequency of

    visitation to the study sites, frequency of visitation in the past year, types of recreational

    activities, purpose of visitation, and time of visitation.

    These findings were used to develop guidance on contemporary protected area

    governance practices in terms of using sense of place as an additional dimension when

    including stakeholders in decision-making procedures. Understandings concerning the

    meanings people bestow on the environment helped identify place characteristics that

    are fundamental to developing appropriate management objectives and strategies. I also

    show how protected area authorities can incorporate understandings of sense of place

    into recommendations for sustainable tourism planning and management. An

    understanding of how users perceive, choose and interact with various settings provides

    a basis for managers to identify the services, facilities and range of recreation

    opportunities that they are to maintain. The extent to which findings from the two

    Tasmanian case examples might apply to other protected areas, particularly in regions

    experiencing rapid expansion of tourism developments, is also considered. I conclude

    with suggestions for further research.

  • vi

    Table of Contents

    Declaration of Originality............................................................................................... i

    Authority of Access ........................................................................................................ ii

    Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................ iii

    Abstract...........................................................................................................................iv

    Table of Contents .......................................................................................................... vi

    List of Tables...................................................................................................................ix

    List of Figures...............................................................................................................xiv

    Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 1

    1.1 Rationale of the thesis ........................................................................................ 1

    1.2 Contribution and purpose of the thesis............................................................... 4 1.3 Methods .............................................................................................................. 5

    1.4 Thesis overview ................................................................................................. 7

    Chapter 2 Governance and management of protected areas ................................... 9

    2.1 Characteristics and significance of protected areas ........................................... 9 2.1.1 Values ....................................................................................................... 9 2.1.2 IUCN categories and related framework issues ..................................... 11

    2.2 Governance of protected areas ......................................................................... 13 2.2.1 Significance of governance .................................................................... 14 2.2.2 Governance types ................................................................................... 14

    2.2.3 A new paradigm ..................................................................................... 16 2.3 Tourism and recreation in protected areas ....................................................... 26

    2.3.1 Tourism and recreation in protected areas ............................................. 26 2.3.2 Concerns for tourism and recreation in protected areas ......................... 29 2.3.3 Planning approaches for tourism and recreation management in protected

    areas........................................................................................................ 30

    2.4 Summary of implications for this thesis .......................................................... 35

    Chapter 3 Sense of place .................

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