Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) Conservation: Interface with ... Snow leopard Tibetan wolf Himalayan Brown

Embed Size (px)

Text of Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) Conservation: Interface with ... Snow leopard Tibetan wolf Himalayan...

  • Aishwarya Maheshwari

    Species Conservation Programme

    WWF-India

    Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) Conservation:

    Interface with human

    WWF-India Initiative

  • The basic objectives are:

    Minimize snow leopard-human conflicts: Reduce loss of

    livestock depredation

    Improve livestock guarding practices

    Increase household income by providing

    • incentives/ compensation against livestock loss

    • enhance community based livelihood schemes

  • India is practicing the following:

    Livestock insurance schemes by NCF and ISLT in Spiti,

    Himachal Pradesh

    Improved livestock guarding practices: predator proof

    corral pens in Leh, Ladakh by SLC and Dept. of Wildlife

    Protection, Govt. of J & K

    Community based livelihood schemes such as Home

    stays and Eco-tourism in Leh and Spiti by NCF, ISLT and

    WWF-India

  • Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action

    (APPA) in Hemis National Park, Ladakh

    Hemis National Park: 4000 sq km area in the Trans-

    Himalayas of Leh, Ladakh

    Considered as prime snow leopard habitat

    Almost 1600 people live in 16 small settlements

    Communities reported considerable livestock loss during

    depredation by snow leopard (Bhatnagar et al. 1999)

    Jackson R., Wangchuk R. and Hillard D. Grassroots measures to protect the endangered

    snow leopard from herder retribution: lessons learned from predator-proofing corrals in

    Ladakh.

    Bhatnagar Y.V., Wangchuk R. and Jackson R. 1999. A survey of depredation and related

    wildlife-human conflicts in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

  • APPA Contd.

    Main Agenda

    Expectation from communities in terms of their

    involvement, contribution and responsibility

    Features with examples :

    1. Community based livelihood schemes

    Groups at village levels

    Eco-tourism and Home Stays

  • 2. Conservation awareness programmes

    Awareness meetings/ workshops for

    Villagers, shepherds, students, tourist

    Operators and other stakeholders

    3. Reduce Livestock depredation

    Construction of predator proof corral

    Pens with local participation and

    involvement

  • 4. Strength environmental stewardship

    Long term objective of the programme:

    Mixture of all three features at landscape level

    and can be measured through research

    tools

  • Distribution and Habitat

    • First focused surveys on snow leopard in Uttarakhand

    • Almost 10 Protected Areas were surveyed

    • 13 evidence of snow leopard in Uttarakhand in the form of scats (9) and pugmarks (4).

    – Three snow leopards are identified genetically (WII, unpub.)

    • Potential areas identified in Uttarakhand

    • No evidence in the areas surveyed of Himachal Pradesh

  • Large carnivore-human conflicts in

    Uttarakhand-2008

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    % l

    o ss

    Livestock depredation (%) by snow leoaprd in

    Uttarakhand 2008

    % loss 6.25 0.67 0.4

    GPV AWLS Munsiari

    Livestock depredation (%) by large

    carnivores in GPV, AWLS and Munsiari

    Wolf, 19.6

    Black bear,

    51.3

    Brown bear,

    9.0

    Leopard,

    10.3

    Snow

    leopard, 9.8

    n=388

  • 0

    10000

    20000

    30000

    40000

    50000

    60000

    70000

    80000

    C o

    st o

    f li

    v es

    to ck

    Livestock total cost and loss (USD) by snow

    leopard

    Total lives tock value (USD) 59535 31329 72794

    Loss (USD) 3721 392 291

    GPV AWLS Munsiari

    Snow leopard-human conflicts in

    Uttarakhand-2008

  • ⇒Targets⇒ ⇓Threats⇓

    Snow

    leopard

    Snow leopard

    habitat

    Snow leopard-human

    conflicts

    Low

    Tourism Low

    Human settlements Low

    Grazing Low

    Developmental

    activity

    Medium

    Target threat rating Low Low

    Threats to snow leopard and its

    habitat

  • Kargil, Ladakh?

  • Diet of Snow leopard Wild prey: 55 %

    Domestic Livestock: 45 %

    Precentage frequency (%) of prey species in the diet of

    snow leopard

    Asiatic ibex

    28%

    Goat

    9% Rodent

    18%

    Cow

    18%

    Dzo

    9%

    Long ta i led

    marmot

    9%

    Sheep

    9% n=09

    Figure 3. Percentage frequency (%) of prey species in the

    diet of Tibetan wolf

    Asiatic ibex

    9%

    Cow

    9%

    Sheep

    18%

    Donkey

    9%

    Rodent

    37%

    Goat

    9%Unidentified

    9%

    n=06 Diet of Tibetan wolf Wild prey: 46 %

    Domestic Livestock: 45 %

  • Reports of predation (%) by carnivores , 2009

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    Snow

    leopard

    Tibetan wolf Himalayan

    Brown bear

    Red fox Unidentified

    predator

    Carnivores

    % C

    as es

    Large carnivore-human conflicts

    Total livestock 13356 and loss 427 by

    Snow leopard: 18%

    Tibetan wolf: 41%

    Unidentified: 37%

    Total value (USD) of livestock loss by large carnivores

    in Kargil and Drass

    0

    5000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    30000

    Snow

    leopard

    Tibetan wolf Himalayan

    brown bear

    Unidentified

    Large carnivores

    Co st

    in U

    SD

    Total livestock cost= $ 3035159/- Total livestock loss= $ 62596/-

    n=118

  • Ongoing and Future Efforts

    Mitigate carnivore-human conflicts in Kargil, Ladakh

    Initiation of predator-proof corral pens

    Conservation awareness meetings

    Mitigate unappreciated common issues between locals

    and Govt. on livestock loss

    Mobilizing Govt. to restructure compensation

    mechanism and continuous flow of funds