PHY 201 (Blum)*Some basic electronics and truth tables Some material on truth tables can be found in Chapters 3 through 5 of Digital Principles (Tokheim)
PHY 201 (Blum)*Logic Digital Electronics In Logic, one refers to Logical statements (propositions which can be true or false). What a computer scientist would represent by a Boolean variable. In Electronics, one refers to inputs which will be high or low.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Boola Boola! The expression (Booleans) and the rules for combining them (Boolean algebra) are named after George Boole (1815-64), a British mathematician.
PHY 201 (Blum)*
PHY 201 (Blum)*Boolean operatorsAND: when two or more Boolean expressions are ANDed, both must be true for the combination to be true.OR: when two or more Boolean expressions are ORed, if either one or the other or both are true, then the combination is true.NOT: takes one Boolean expression and yields the opposite of it, true false and vice versa.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Representations of Standard Boolean Operators
Boolean algebraexpressionGate symbolNOT AAA AND BABA OR BA+BA XOR BABA NOR B(A+B)A NAND B(AB)
PHY 201 (Blum)*Our NotationNOT is represented by a prime or an apostrophe. A means NOT A OR is represented by a plus sign. A + B means A OR B AND is represented by placing the two variables next to one another. AB means A AND B The notation is like multiplication in regular algebra since if A and B are 1s or 0s the only product that gives 1 is when A and B are both 1.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Other Notations means NOT AA means NOT AAB means A OR BA&B means A AND BTokheim uses the overbar notation for NOT, but we will use the prime notation because it is easier to type.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Other vocabularyWe will tend to refer to A and B as inputs. (Electronics)Another term for them is Boolean variables. (Programming)Still another term for them is propositions. (Logic) And yet another term for them is predicates. (Logic and grammar)
PHY 201 (Blum)*(AB) ABNote that the output is different
PHY 201 (Blum)*A Truth Table A Truth table lists all possible inputs, that is, all possible values for the propositions. For a given numbers of inputs, this is always the same. Then it lists the output for each possible combination of inputs. This varies from situation to situation.
PHY 201 (Blum)*The true one Traditionally we take a 1 to represent true and a 0 to represent false. This is just a convention. In addition, we will usually interpret a high voltage as a true and a low voltage as a false.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Generating Inputs The truth-table inputs consist of all the possible combinations of 0s and 1s for that number of inputs. One way to generate the inputs for is to count in binary. For two inputs, the combinations are 00, 01, 10 and 11 (binary for 0, 1, 2 and 3).For three inputs, the combinations are 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111 (binary for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7). For n inputs there are 2n combinations (rows in the truth table).
PHY 201 (Blum)*Expressing truth tablesEvery truth table can be expressed in terms of the basic Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT operators.The circuits corresponding to those truth tables can be build using AND, OR and NOT gates. The input in each line of a truth table can be expressed in terms of ANDs and NOTs.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Note that these expressions have the property that their truth table output has only one row with a 1.
PHY 201 (Blum)*In a sense, each line has an expression
Input AInput BExpression00(NOT A) AND (NOT B)AB01(NOT A) AND BAB 10 A AND (NOT B)AB11 A AND BAB
PHY 201 (Blum)*Its true; its trueThe following steps will allow you to generate an expression for the output of any truth table. Take the true (1) outputs.Write the expressions for that input line (as shown on the previous slide).Then feed all of those expressions into an OR gate.Sometimes we have multiple outputs (e.g. bit addition had a sum output and a carry output). Then each output is treated separately.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Example: Majority RulesIf two or more of the three inputs are high, then the output is high.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Row ExpressionsThe highlighted rows correspond to the high outputs.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Sum of productsEach row is represented by the ANDing of inputs and/or inverses of inputs. E.g. ABC Recall that ANDing is like Boolean multiplicationThe overall expression for the truth table is then obtained by ORing the expressions for the individual rows. Recall that ORing is like Boolean additionE.g. ABC + ABC + ABC + ABCThis type of expression is known as a sum of products expression.
PHY 201 (Blum)*MintermThe terms for the rows have a particular form in which every input (or its inverse) is ANDed together. Such a term is known an a minterm.
MintermsPHY 201 (Blum)*
PHY 201 (Blum)*Majority rulesABC + ABC + ABC + ABCANDsNOTsOR
PHY 201 (Blum)*Majority rulesABC + ABC + ABC + ABCANDsNOTsOR
PHY 201 (Blum)*Another Example
PHY 201 (Blum)*Another Example (Cont.)ABC + ABC + ABC + ABCThe expression one arrives at in this way is known as the sum of products.You take the product (the AND operation) first to represent a given line. Then you sum (the OR operation) together those expressions. Its also called the minterm expression.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Yet Another Example
PHY 201 (Blum)*Yet Another Example 2 (Cont.)ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC + ABCBut isnt that just the truth table for A+B+C?There is another way to write the expression for truth tables.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Another Example (Cont.)In this approach, one looks at the 0s instead of the 1s.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Another Example (Cont.) One writes expressions for the lines which are 1 everywhere except the line one is focusing on. Then one ANDs those expressions together. The expression obtained this way is known as the product of sums.
PHY 201 (Blum)*ExpressionsThis is not yet a truth table. It has no outputs.
ABCExpression000A + B + C001A + B + C010A + B + C011A + B + C100A + B + C101A + B + C110A + B + C111A + B + C
PHY 201 (Blum)*Return to Example 1
PHY 201 (Blum)*Return to Example 1 (Cont.)The product of sums expression is (A+B+C)(A+B+C)(A+B+C)(A+B+C) Each term has all of the inputs (or their inverses) ORed together. Such terms are known as maxterms. Another name for the product of sums expression is the maxterm expression.
MaxtermPHY 201 (Blum)*
PHY 201 (Blum)*Comparing minterm and maxterm expressions
ABCMinterm ExpressionMaxterm Expression000A B CA + B + C001A B CA + B + C010A B CA + B + C011A B CA + B + C100A B CA + B + C101A B CA + B + C110A B CA + B + C111A B CA + B + C
PHY 201 (Blum)*Venn Diagram A Venn diagram is a pictorial representation of a truth table. Venn diagrams come from set theory. The correspondence between set theory and logic is that either one belongs to a set or one does not, so set theory and logic go together.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Venn (Cont.)Belongs to set True Does not belong to set False
PHY 201 (Blum)*Overlapping setsA true, but B falseB true, but A false A false and B falseA and B trueThe different regions correspond to the various possible inputs of a truth table. The true outputs are represented by shaded regions of the Venn diagram.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Majority rules Venn Diagram
PHY 201 (Blum)*Truth Table for (A+B)C+BC
PHY 201 (Blum)*Venn Diagram for (A+B)C+BCABC
PHY 201 (Blum)*Ohms LawV = I R, where V is voltage: the amount of energy per charge.I is current: the rate at which charge flows, e.g. how much charge goes by in a second.R is resistance: the difficulty a charge encounters as it moves through a part of a circuit.
PHY 201 (Blum)*CircuitA circuit is a closed path along which charges flow. If there is not a closed path that allows the charge to get back to where it started (without retracing its steps), the circuit is said to be open or broken. The path doesnt have to be unique; there may be more than one path.
Open circuit, closed circuitPHY 201 (Blum)*
PHY 201 (Blum)*An analogyA charge leaving a battery is like you starting the day after a good nights rest; you are full of energy.Being the kind of person you are, you will expend all of your energy and collapse utterly exhausted into bed at the end of the day; the charge uses up all of its energy in traversing a circuit.
PHY 201 (Blum)*Analogy (cont.)You look ahead to the tasks of the day and divide your energy accordingly the more difficult the task, the more of your energy it requires (resistors in series).The tasks are resistors, so more energy (voltage) is used up working through the more difficult tasks (higher resistances). The higher the resistance, the greater the voltage drop (energy used up) across it.
Resistors in seriesPHY 201 (Blum)*
PHY 201 (Blum)*One charge among man