Superorder Osteoglossomorpha IB 463 - Ichthyology Blake Bushman Blake Ruebush Blake Ruebush

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Text of Superorder Osteoglossomorpha IB 463 - Ichthyology Blake Bushman Blake Ruebush Blake Ruebush

  • SuperorderOsteoglossomorphaIB 463 - IchthyologyBlake Bushman Blake Ruebush

  • TaxonomyKingdom - AnimaliaPhylum - ChordataClass - ActinopterygiiSuperorder OsteoglossomorphaOrder HiodontiformesHiodontidae mooneyes Order - OsteoglossiformesOsteoglossidae bony tonguesPantodontidae butterfly fishNotopteridae featherfin knifefishesMormyridae elephantfishes Gymnarchidae

  • TaxonomyConsidered the living sister group of all other teleostsHiodontiformes ParaphyleticGreenwood 1970Osteoglossiformes Monophyletic CharacteristicsNasal bone gutter0-2 Uroneural bones15 or fewer caudal fin rays

  • HistorySuperorder Greenwood, Rosen, Weitzman, and Myers 1966Since 1970 many fossils have been found on all continents except AntarticaRelated fossil groups Lycopteridae and KuyangichthidaeHiodontiformes McAllister 1968, Taverne 1979Most primitive living teleosts

  • General Facts217 speciesMost primitive living teleostsLive in freshwaterMostly tropical

  • DistributionAll continents except Europe S.A. arapaisua or pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (one of the worlds largest freshwater fish)N.A.mooneye, Hiodon tergisus goldeye, Hiodon alosiodes

  • Hiodontidae - MooneyesResemble shadLateral line and untoothed keelNo spines, 1 dorsal fin2 speciesgoldeye, Hiodon alosoidesmooneye, Hiodon tergisus

  • Osteoglossidae - bony tonguesS.A., Africa, Asia, AustraliaLarge, thick scalesBony platesLarge eyes

  • Osteoglossidae arapaima, Arapaima gigas Amazon River BasinOne of the largest FW fish in the world450 cm, 440 lbsGray with orange speckling near caudal finPopular food and sport fish

    50% of body weight is boneless meat

  • Pantodontidae butterfly fish

    West Africa riversCalm water with surface coverWing-like pectoral finsJump and glideAverage TL 10 cmUpturned mouths

  • Notopteridae - Featherfin knifefishesAfrica and S.E. AsiaSmall dorsal finAdults brownJuveniles brown with barsBrackish waterCan grow to 61 cm

  • Mormyridae elephant fishes

    200 speciesHighly evolved electric senseProduces and detects electrical fieldsMouth extended into a trunk NocturnalTurbid waters Nile River, Africa9-50 cm (largest found 1.5m)

    Largest cerebellum of any fish (human ratio)Large learning capacityPlay behavior

  • GymnarchidaeTropical Africa, Nile RiverElongate bodyNo anal, caudal, or pelvic finsWave-like motionAverage size 90 cm150 cm max.Electric organ

  • Anatomy / Sensory SystemsHiodontiformesLarge eyesNo scales on headNo spines in finsOsteoglossiformesWell-developed teeth on tonguePrimary bite between tongue and parasphenoid (roof of mouth)Caudal fin rays no more than 17-18

  • Anatomy / Sensory Systems Osteoglossidae - Arapaima Emit pheremones from head to signal danger to larvae Surface every 10-20 minutes for respiration


    Hiodontidae semibuoyant eggs, drift in streams

    Osteoglossomorpha mouthbrooders and nest builders

    Arapaima eggs and larvae guarded by male and occasionally by female for up to 14 weeks

  • ReproductionPantodontidae non-guarding, open water sub-stratum egg scatterers; 80-220 eggs

    Notopteridae eggs laid in small clumps of vegetatin, 1,200-3,000 eggs

    Mormyridae male protects eggs and larvae, 30-200 eggs in a nest

    Gymnarchidae guard eggs

  • Predator Prey InteractionsMormyridae small crustaceans, insect larva, other invertebrates

    Notopteridae insects, crustaceans, and small fishes

    Pantodontidae surface feeders insects, insect larva, crustaceans, small fishes

    Hiodontidae aquatic insects, invertebrates, small fishes

  • Predator Prey Interactions

    Osteoglossidae arapaima fish, birds, small mammals (very opportunistic)

  • Conservation ConcernsOsteoglossidae arapaima Some areas of the Amazon are being overfished Large fish scarce likely due to larger fish being harvested more frequently

  • Popular Aquarium SpeciesSouth American arowana

    African flying fish

    Notopterid featherfins

    Mormyrdi elephant fishes

  • Interesting FactsOsteoglossidae - Arapaima Scales are sold as fingernail files (6 cm long) Bony tongue is used to prepare dried guarana Notice Large Scales

  • Review Questions 1When do most Osteoglossomorpha spawn?

    On what continents are Osteoglossomorpha found?

    What is significant about the brain of the Mormyridae (elephant fishes)?

  • Review Questions 2Describe the fins of Gymnarchidae and how they move through the water.

    What are the concerns about future arapaima populations?

  • References"Featherfin Knifefish." Animal-World. 3 Sept. 2007. 18 Sept. 2008 . Fenner, Bob. "The Elephantfishes, family Mormyridae, In Aquariums." Wet Web Media. 15 Sept. 2008 . "Freshwater butterflyfish." Wikipedia. 8 July 2008. 16 Sept. 2008 . Froese, Rainer. "Gymnarchus niloticus." Discover Life. 24 July 2008. 18 Sept. 2008.Kirschbaum, Frank. "Osteoglossiformes." 15 Sept. 2008 . Li, Guo-Qing and Wilson, Mark V. H. 1999. Early divergence of Hiodontiformes sensu stricto in East Asia and phylogeny of some Late Mesozoic teleosts from China. Mesozoic Fishes 2 Systematics and Fossil Record, G. Arratia & H.-P. Schultze (eds.): 369-384.Helfman, Gene S., Collette, B.B., and Facey, DE. 1997. The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Science, Inc."Mormyridae." Discover Life. 4 Oct. 2004. The Polistes Corporation. 15 Sept. 2008 . Ortaez, Kareen A., ed. "Notopterus notopterus." Discover Life. 24 July 2008. 18 Sept. 2008 .Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes. Peterson Field Guides, Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 36."Pantodontidae." High Beam Encyclopedia. 16 Sept. 2008 . Peters. "Pantodon buchholzi." 24 July 2008. 18 Sept. 2008 . Pictures