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  • Supporting dyslexia and

    inclusive practice

  • Supporting dyslexia and inclusive practice - 3 Enquiry and research

    Page 2 of 25 18th September 2017

    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732

    Supporting Dyslexia Inclusive Practice

    3 Enquiry and research

    This version of the content may include video, images and

    interactive content that may not be optimised for your device.

    Copyright © 2017

    Intellectual property

    Unless otherwise stated, this resource is released under the terms

    of the Creative Commons Licence v4.0

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/deed.en_GB.

    Written by the Addressing Dyslexia Toolkit and Dyslexia Scotland with the support of the Opening Educational Practices in Scotland Project

    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/deed.en_GB http://www.addressingdyslexia.org/ http://www.dyslexiascotland.org.uk/ https://oepscotland.org/ https://oepscotland.org/

  • Supporting dyslexia and inclusive practice - 3 Enquiry and research

    Page 3 of 25 18th September 2017

    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732

    Contents

     Introduction

     3.1 Dyslexia

     3.2 The co–occurrence of dyslexia with other areas of

    additional support

     3.3 Good practice for identification

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    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732

    Introduction

    There is a wealth of Scottish literature which provides information

    about definitions, associated difficulties, underlying causes and

    advice on assessment and intervention. These include

     Dyslexia Review (2008) Literature Review

    http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/Images/lrcapecd

    _tcm4-712884.pdf

     Dyslexia Review (2014) - Education Scotland Review

    Making Sense Dyslexia: Education for Children and

    Young People with Dyslexia in Scotland.

     Education Scotland − Route Map for Dyslexia and

    Inclusive Practice 2015 Literature Review

     Addressing Dyslexia Toolkit (2012): This was

    originally launched as the Assessing Dyslexia Toolkit

    for Teachers in June 2010, and outlines the definition

    of dyslexia that has been developed by the Scottish

    Government, Dyslexia Scotland and the Cross Party

    Group on Dyslexia.

     Supporting Pupils with Dyslexia at Primary School

    (2011):A series of 8 booklets that were provided to

    every primary school in Scotland and contains

    information and advice about dyslexia from the early

    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732 http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/Images/lrcapecd_tcm4-712884.pdf http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/Images/lrcapecd_tcm4-712884.pdf https://education.gov.scot/improvement/inc36routemap https://education.gov.scot/improvement/inc36routemap http://www.addressingdyslexia.org/ http://www.addressingdyslexia.org/

  • Supporting dyslexia and inclusive practice - 3 Enquiry and research

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    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732

    stages to transition to secondary school, and also

    contains information on support for learning

    departments, school management teams, as well as,

    about good practice when working with parents.

    These booklets can be downloaded from the Dyslexia

    Scotland website.

     Supporting Pupils with Dyslexia in the Secondary

    Curriculum (2013):A series of 20 booklets that were

    provided to every secondary school in Scotland and

    aim to provide subject teachers and support staff with

    advice and strategies to support learners with

    dyslexia. The booklets can be downloaded from the

    Dyslexia Scotland website.

     Dyslexia at Transition (2007) – The Dyslexia at

    Transition Project Team consisted of staff from

    Edinburgh, Strathclyde and Aberdeen Universities and

    education authorities. The team worked with school

    staff, parents and pupils to produce a DVD and

    support pack ‘Dyslexia at Transition’. The DVD,

    commissioned by the (then) Scottish Executive. The

    resource was launched in 2007 and provides

    examples of best practice to help schools to support

    the move of pupils with dyslexia from primary to

    secondary school.

    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732 http://www.dyslexiascotland.org.uk/ http://www.dyslexiascotland.org.uk/ http://supportingdyslexicpupils.moonfruit.com/

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    3.1 Dyslexia

    View description - Uncaptioned figure

    Advances in medical science have enabled the identification of

    dyslexia to be understood in greater detail. Neuroscience research

    through brain imaging has identified diversity in the brain for

    adolescents and for those with dyslexia. Due to the body of

    research undertaken over the past few decades by a range of

    academic and medical researchers, there is an acceptance that

    when identified appropriately, dyslexia is a recognised learning

    difference and is the result of a neurological difference and is not a

    reflection of a learner’s level of intelligence or cognitive ability. The

    impact of dyslexia as a barrier to learning varies in degree

    according to the learning and teaching environment.

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    Frith, in Reid and Weamouth (2002) say dyslexia can be defined

    as neuro-developmental in nature, with a biological origin and

    behavioural signs which extend far beyond problems with written

    language.

    In 1999, the American Journal of Neuroradiology, provided

    evidence that dyslexia is neurological in nature. The

    interdisciplinary team of University of Washington researchers also

    showed that dyslexic children use nearly five times the brain area

    as children who are not dyslexic while performing a simple

    language task.

    Figure 17 Brain Scan

    View description - Figure 17 Brain Scan

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    Although the images above were taken in 1999 they highlight very

    clearly the differences between areas of the brain which are

    activated while performing simple language tasks in yellow. Red

    indicates areas activated in two or more children. Pic: Todd

    Richards, University of Washington.

    "The dyslexics were using 4.6 times as much area of the

    brain to do the same language task as the controls," said

    Todd Richards, co-leader of the study. "This means their

    brains were working a lot harder and using more energy

    than the normal children". "People often don't see how

    hard it is for dyslexic children to do a task that others do so

    effortlessly," added Virginia Berninger, a professor of

    educational psychology.

    http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/1999/10

    /05/57074.htm

    Morton & Frith (1993; 1995) developed a neutral framework for the

    causal modelling of developmental disorders and applied this

    modelling to dyslexia. The research highlights that dyslexia can be

    split into 3 main research areas, all of which inter- link and

    influence one another.

    http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/course/view.php?id=2732 http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/1999/10/05/57074.htm http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/1999/10/05/57074.htm

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    Figure 18 Barriers to learning

    View description - Figure 18 Barriers to learning

    Neurological - Brain structure and genetic factors

    Cognitive - How people learn

    Behavioural - How people behave and their reactions to this

    learning difference

    These are influenced by environmental interactions at all levels

    which include home, nursery, schools and activities. This means

    that the behaviour of a child with dyslexia would change with time

    and in different contexts.

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