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Rizki E. 1,2 , Evita Emaniatin P. R. 1 , Zarrah Duniani 1 & R. Sutontro 1 1 PT Pertamina (Persero), Research & Development - Refining Directorate Jl. Raya Bekasi KM20, Pulogadung, East Jakarta 13920 - Indonesia 2 [email protected] Introduction The use of alternative, sustainable resources of energy for the transportation sector has been increasing as a consequence of the concern over limited fossil fuel resources and global warming from CO 2 emissions. Nowadays the main biodiesel fuel product are FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) derived from palm oil. This type of fuel have some disadvantages which limit its use in an unmodified diesel engine. Indonesia is one of the biggest palm oil producer and exporter. Realizing this fact, Pertamina has started to develop a process to convert vegetable oil into biodiesel. The process function is to remove oxygen to transform renewable organic material into pure hydrocarbon (n-parafin), which is basically the same component as those present in fossil derived diesel fuel, eliminating all limitation related to FAME. Isomerization step is required to further enhance the cold properties of the fuel produced, which is critical in an engine cold start up in cold climate countries, by transforming some of the n-parafin into iso-parafin. This process has a promising future to be easily integrated into an existing refinery infrastructure. Methods Using two hydroprocessing pilot plant which incorporate hydroteating and hydroisomerization catalyst, we were able to produce biodiesel from crude palm oil. Liquid product are checked with capilary column gas chromatography with FID detector and confirmed that it consist of parafin molecules. Gas product are checked with packed column GC Refinery Gas Analyzer. Hydrotreating catalyst are Ni-Mo based with gamma alumina support which composition are checked using X-Ray Fluorescence. Surface area tested to be 207 m 2 /g, pore volume 0.38 cc/g, and Average pore diameter 73 Å. All testing are done according to ASTM D3663, D4222 and D4641 respectively. Hydroisomerization catalyst are Pt based catalyst. Hydrotreating is run at 330ºC, 30 Kg/cm 2 pressure, and LHSV of 1 H -1 and H 2 /HC 1000 nm 3 /m 3 , while hydroisomerization is run at 360ºC, 5 Kg/cm 2 , LHSV 2.6 H -1 , and H 2 /HC 11.54 nm 3 /m 3 . GREEN INNOVATIONS Biodiesel Production by Hydrotreating & Hydroisomerization RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT GREEN INNOVATIONS Product & Fe eed Characteriza ation Crude Palm Oil Hydrotreating Product Isomerization Product Fossil Diesel Specification Lauric acid %wt 0.247 Miristic acid %wt 1.316 Palmitic acid %wt 23.115 Stearic acid %wt 1.56 Oleic acid %wt 65.335 Linoleic acid %wt 4.117 Sulfur content %wt 0.05 (max) Distillation T90 ºC 301.27* 297.67* 340 (max) Distillation T95 ºC 299.64* 295.74* 360 (max) Final Boiling Point ºC 324.68* 323.1* 370 (max) Pour Point ºC 18 -9 18 (max) Density kg/m 3 904 778 758 820-860 *calculated from simdis D2887 H 2 triglyceride hydrogenated triglyceride diglyceride monoa cylglycerol fa3y acid light alkane nparaffin isoparaffin isomeriza8on H 2 hydrogena8on dehydra8on H 2 O C 3 H 8 H 2 decarboxyla8on decarbonyla8on H 2 CO 2 CO polymeriza8on Wax cracking Chiller Chiller HPS HPS Flow control Flow control N 2 N 2 H 2 H 2 Booster Gas Chromatography WTM WTM Feed CPO HBD End Product Vent Vent Comp. Sulfiding line Sulfiding line Reactor 1 Reactor 2 Scrubber Scrubber Dryer Dryer LPS LPS Ope erating Condition Hydrotreating Hydroisomerization Temperature ºC 330 360 Pressure kg/cm 2 30 5 LHSV H -1 1 2.6 H 2 /HC nm 3 /m 3 1000 11.54 Loading Density g/L 750 680 Hydroprocessing Pilot Plant Reactions C Catalyst C Characterization n Catalyst Support Hydrotreating Catalyst Surface Area mm 2 /g 260.2 207 Pore Volume cc/g 0.56 0.38 Avg. Pore Diameter Å 85.68 73 Crushing Strength Kg Conf. Diameter mm 2.03 - 2.07 2.03 - 2.07 Attrition Loss %wt 0.0408 - 0.0422 Ni content %wt Conf. Mo content %wt Conf. Si content %wt Conf. P content %wt Conf. Yield Hydrotreating Isomerization Liquid product Hydrocarbon %wt 75.26 85.34 Water %wt 9.47 Gas C6+ %wt 0.08 Methane %wt 0.03 Ethane %wt 0.14 0.07 Propane %wt 2.52 7.73 n-Butane %wt 4.05 n-Pentane %wt 1.15 CO 2 %wt 2.27

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Poster explaining hydrotreated biodiesel process.

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Rizki E.1,2, Evita Emaniatin P. R.1, Zarrah Duniani1 & R. Sutontro1

1PT Pertamina (Persero), Research & Development - Refining DirectorateJl. Raya Bekasi KM20, Pulogadung, East Jakarta13920 - [email protected]

IntroductionThe use of alternative, sustainable resources of energy for the transportation sector has been increasing as a consequence of the concern over limited fossil fuel resources and global warming from CO2 emissions. Nowadays the main biodiesel fuel product are FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) derived from palm oil. This type of fuel have some disadvantages which limit its use in an unmodified diesel engine. Indonesia is one of the biggest palm oil producer and exporter. Realizing this fact, Pertamina has started to develop a process to convert vegetable oil into biodiesel. The process function is to remove oxygen to transform renewable organic material into pure hydrocarbon (n-parafin), which is basically the same component as those present in fossil derived diesel fuel, eliminating all limitation related to FAME. Isomerization step is required to further enhance the cold properties of the fuel produced, which is critical in an engine cold start up in cold climate countries, by transforming some of the n-parafin into iso-parafin. This process has a promising future to be easily integrated into an existing refinery infrastructure.

MethodsUsing two hydroprocessing pilot plant which incorporate hydroteating and hydroisomerization catalyst, we were able to produce biodiesel from crude palm oil. Liquid product are checked with capilary column gas chromatography with FID detector and confirmed that it consist of parafin molecules. Gas product are checked with packed column GC Refinery Gas Analyzer.

Hydrotreating catalyst are Ni-Mo based with gamma alumina support which composition are checked using X-Ray Fluorescence. Surface area tested to be 207 m2/g, pore volume 0.38 cc/g, and Average pore diameter 73 Å. All testing are done according to ASTM D3663, D4222 and D4641 respectively. Hydroisomerization catalyst are Pt based catalyst. Hydrotreating is run at 330ºC, 30 Kg/cm2 pressure, and LHSV of 1 H-1 and H2/HC 1000 nm3/m3, while hydroisomerization is run at 360ºC, 5 Kg/cm2, LHSV 2.6 H-1, and H2/HC 11.54 nm3/m3.

GREEN INNOVATIONS

Biodiesel Production by Hydrotreating & Hydroisomerization

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

GREENINNOVATIONS

Product & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed CharacterizationProduct & Feed Characterization

Crude Palm Oil

Hydrotreating Product

Isomerization Product

Fossil Diesel Specification

Lauric acid %wt 0.247

Miristic acid %wt 1.316

Palmitic acid %wt 23.115

Stearic acid %wt 1.56

Oleic acid %wt 65.335

Linoleic acid %wt 4.117

Sulfur content %wt 0.05 (max)

Distillation T90 ºC 301.27* 297.67* 340 (max)

Distillation T95 ºC 299.64* 295.74* 360 (max)

Final Boiling Point ºC 324.68* 323.1* 370 (max)

Pour Point ºC 18 -9 18 (max)

Density kg/m3 904 778 758 820-860

*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887*calculated from simdis D2887

H2

triglyceride hydrogenated  triglyceride

diglyceridemonoa-­‐

cylglycerolfa3y  acid

light  alkane

n-­‐paraffin iso-­‐paraffin

isomeriza8on

H2

hydrogena8ondehydra8on

H2OC3H8H2

decarboxyla8ondecarbonyla8on

H2

CO2CO

polymeriza8on

Wax

cracking

ChillerChiller

HPSHPS

Flow control

Flow control N2

N2

H2 H2

Booster

Gas Chromatography

WTM

WTM

Feed CPO

HBD

End Product

Vent

Vent

Comp.

Sulfiding line

Sulfiding line

Rea

ctor

1

Rea

ctor

2

Scru

bber

Scru

bber

Dry

er

Dry

er

LPS

LPS

Operating ConditionOperating ConditionOperating ConditionOperating Condition

Hydrotreating Hydroisomerization

Temperature ºC 330 360

Pressure kg/cm2 30 5

LHSV H-1 1 2.6

H2/HC nm3/m3 1000 11.54

Loading Density g/L 750 680

Hydroprocessing Pilot Plant

Reactions

Catalyst CharacterizationCatalyst CharacterizationCatalyst CharacterizationCatalyst Characterization

Catalyst Support

Hydrotreating Catalyst

Surface Area mm2/g 260.2 207

Pore Volume cc/g 0.56 0.38

Avg. Pore Diameter Å 85.68 73

Crushing Strength Kg Conf.

Diameter mm 2.03 - 2.07 2.03 - 2.07

Attrition Loss %wt 0.0408 - 0.0422

Ni content %wt Conf.

Mo content %wt Conf.

Si content %wt Conf.

P content %wt Conf.

YieldYieldYieldYield

Hydrotreating Isomerization

Liquid product

Hydrocarbon %wt 75.26 85.34

Water %wt 9.47

Gas

C6+ %wt 0.08

Methane %wt 0.03

Ethane %wt 0.14 0.07

Propane %wt 2.52 7.73

n-Butane %wt 4.05

n-Pentane %wt 1.15

CO2 %wt 2.27