Education and Training
Teachers and School HeadsSalaries and Allowances
Eurydice Facts and Figures
Teachers' and School Heads'
Salaries and Allowances
Eurydice Facts and Figures
Education and Training
This document is published by the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA, Education and Youth Policy Analysis).
Please cite this publication as:
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2016. Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe 2015/16. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
ISBN 978-92-9492-349-3 ISSN 2443-5376 doi:10.2797/10844 EC-AM-16-001-EN-N
Text completed in October 2016.
Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, 2016.
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency Education and Youth Policy Analysis Avenue du Bourget 1 (J70 Unit A7) BE-1049 Brussels Tel. +32 2 299 50 58 Fax +32 2 292 19 71 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://ec.europa.eu/eurydice
Table of Figures 3
Main findings 5
Part I: Comparative Analysis 7
Part II: National Data Sheets 31
Part III: Definitions 115
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Changes between 2014/15 and 2015/16 in teachers' statutory salaries in public schools (ISCED 0, 1, 2 and 3) 9
Figure 2: Changes between 2009/10 and 2015/16 in teachers' minimum statutory salaries in PPS constant prices in public primary and secondary schools 11
Figure 3: Minimum and maximum annual basic gross statutory salaries for full-time teachers in public schools compared to per capita GDP at current prices (ISCED 1, 2 and 3), in EUR, 2015/16 14
Figure 4: Minimum and maximum annual basic gross statutory salaries for school heads in public schools compared to per capita GDP at current prices, in EUR, 2015/16 18
Figure 5a: Minimum and maximum statutory salaries and actual salaries of teachers (in PPS) of teachers in primary and secondary schools, 2015/16 22
Figure 5b: Percentage change between minimum and maximum statutory salaries (in PPS) in 2015/16 (ISCED 2) and the required years' service necessary to reach the maximum 24
Figure 6: Types of allowances most commonly granted to teachers in public schools (ISCED 0, 1, 2 and 3), 2015/16 27
Figure 7: Decision-making levels responsible for setting teachers' salaries, allowances and complementary payments in public schools (ISCED 0, 1, 2 and 3), 2015/16 29
EU European Union NL The Netherlands
BE Belgium AT Austria
BE fr Belgium French Community PL Poland
BE de Belgium German-speaking Community PT Portugal
BE nl Belgium Flemish Community RO Romania
BG Bulgaria SI Slovenia
CZ Czech Republic SK Slovakia
DK Denmark FI Finland
DE Germany SE Sweden
EE Estonia UK United Kingdom
IE Ireland UK-ENG England
EL Greece UK-WLS Wales
ES Spain UK-NIR Northern Ireland
FR France UK-SCT Scotland
HR Croatia BA Bosnia and Herzegovina
IT Italy IS Iceland
CY Cyprus LI Liechtenstein
LV Latvia ME Montenegro
LT Lithuania MK* Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
LU Luxembourg NO Norway
HU Hungary RS Serbia
MT Malta TR Turkey
* ISO code 3166. Provisional code which does not prejudge in any way the definitive nomenclature for this country to be agreed following the conclusion of negotiations currently taking place on this subject at the United Nations (http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes/iso_3166_code_lists.htm [accessed 25.9.2014]).
Statistical codes : Data not available () Not applicable
In 2015/16, there was an increase in teachers' salaries in 24 countries/regions, often as the result of a general salary adjustment for all public employees. In 16 countries/regions, however, statutory salaries remained at the same level as the year before.
Over the last seven years, in real terms, minimum statutory salaries have increased or remained at about the same level in most European countries. The increase was higher than 15 % in the German-speaking Community of Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, Hungary (secondary education), Slovakia and Sweden (upper secondary education). However, they are below 2009 levels in Malta, Slovenia, Finland, the United Kingdom and Iceland (except upper secondary education), and significantly lower in Ireland and Greece.
In three quarters of the education systems, the minimum annual statutory gross salary for a beginning teacher at all education levels is lower than the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita.
In contrast, the maximum gross statutory salary which teachers may earn after a number of years in the profession or at retirement is higher than the GDP per capita in nearly all countries. The exceptions are the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia at all levels of education, and Poland, Sweden and Iceland at some levels only.
The minimum annual basic statutory salary for school heads in primary and lower secondary education is higher than the per capita GDP in three quarters of the countries examined. The same is true for upper secondary education, where school heads are better remunerated than those at lower education levels, although a few countries register a minimum salary lower than the per capita GDP. Only the Czech Republic and Poland show a maximum statutory salary for school heads lower than the per capita GDP (at pre-primary, primary and lower secondary levels).
The level of the potential maximum salary and the number of years in service necessary to achieve it are essential elements in recruitment and retention policies. While in some countries maximum statutory salaries are more than double the minimum, in others the difference between them is much less significant. In some cases, teachers need many years in service to get relatively low pay increases.
For the countries for which data are available, actual salaries for teachers, which include allowances and other financial benefits, tend to be closer to maximum statutory salaries than to the minimum.
Almost all European countries offer salary allowances and complementary payments to teachers. The most common allowances are for 'additional responsibilities' and 'overtime', while 'further CPD qualifications' and 'positive performance appraisal or good student results' are less widespread.
In almost all countries, the top level (central/regional) authority responsible for education sets the levels of teachers' basic statutory salaries in public schools, while in some countries local authorities and schools have autonomy to decide on certain allowances.
Salaries in private government-dependent schools generally follow the rules applied in the public sector. Private independent schools often set their own salaries in accordance with the national labour legislation/codes of practice.
PART I: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Changing expectations with respect to the quality of teaching require teachers and school heads to develop a broader range of competences and carry out a wider range of tasks than before (1). They are expected to use ICT, work in teams, teach children from various socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, facilitate the integration of children with special education needs (SEN) and contribute to school leadership and management. Teaching is no longer perceived only as the transmission of knowledge: increasing emphasis is placed on the facilitation of learning, the development of key competences and the co-creation of knowledge with learners. School heads are also called to lead teams, support the development of staff, improve school performance, liaise with local stakeholders and manage financial resources. The complexity and variety of competences required poses a challenge for all national education systems: how to attract the most talented people into the teaching profession and retain them. This is particularly difficult at a time when the education sector is increasingly in competition with the business world to attract the best qualified young graduates and when pressure to hold back public expenditure is high.
Remuneration is a key element in making teaching an attractive profession. Along with other factors such as working conditions, career prospects, professional development opportunities and recognition, it plays an important role in drawing people into the profession as well as ensuring that serving teachers are satisfied and sufficiently motivated to continue to provide high quality teaching. Policies that affect the earnings and career prospects of those employed in the education sector should therefore be an integral part of comprehensive strategies to improve the attractiveness of the teaching profession, both for serving teachers and potential candidates.
This report analyses statutory salaries and allowances for teachers and school heads in pre-primary, primary and secondary public schools in 40 European countries/regions.
Section 1 explains the changes in statutory salaries over the last year.
Section 2 examines the changes in teachers' purchasing power from 2009 to 2016 by looking into the variations in PPS (purchasing power standard) of minimum statutory salaries at constant prices during this period.
Sections 3 and 4 describe, for teachers and school heads res