teaching science in primary school

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Rad je objavljen u Zborniku radova 4. nedjunarodnog nau;nog skupa pod nazivom Tehnologija, Infornatika, Obrazovanje - Za drutvo uenja i znanja, odranom 2007. godineRad je objavljen u Zborniku radova 4. Meunarodnog naunog skupa odranog 2007. godine pod nazivom Tehnologija, Informatika, Obrazovanje - Za drutvo uenja i znanja


TEACHING SCIENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL: SERBIAN EXPERIENCE WITH THE PROJECT RUKA U TESTU (HANDS-ON, LA MAIN LA PTE) Stevan Joki Vina Institute of Nuclear Sciences, INTRODUCTION The education system in Serbia needs thorough improvement at all levels due to the extensive advances in didactic methods in the past decade in the world. Successful teaching of natural sciences proved to be the most challenging task. Natural sciences are commonly considered as difficult to understand and boring, which is in evident conflict with the increase of their role in our every-day life. According to the results of active teaching approaches (like in the world-wide spreading program Hands on (in USA), La main a la pate (in France), NTA Sweden, Ruka u testu (in Serbia) the best results are obtained when teaching is accompanied with experimental demonstrations and exercises, and Internet. Implementation of such approach, commonly adopted in developed countries, is at present impossible in Serbia due to the lack of necessary laboratory equipment and good WEB-site pages on Serbian language. For that reason we have developed very intensive collaboration with French Academy of Sciences and French team La main la pte with hope that in the near future we will achieve specific objectives: To raise the quality and effectiveness of the teaching provision and learning process in primary schools in Serbia. To create a solid base for the reform processes in Serbian schools and enable the implementation of the envisioned changes. To enable teachers to apply modern didactic methods. To facilitate acquaintance of pupils with natural sciences and technologies. To get closer to European and world standards. And anticipated impacts: 2. Instant rise of quality of existing teaching practice in primary school. Instant rise of pupils and teachers motivation. Facilitated implementation of modern teaching methods adopted in developed countries. Rise of pupils individual interest, comprehension and skills in science and technology. 1.

WHY TEACHING SCIENCE AND WHY A FOCUS ON PRE- AND PRIMARY SCHOOL? (AGES 3-12) By teaching science we develop a scientific literacy for all citizens, technologically competent workforce, decrease dangers due to ignorance and overcome social barriers. In this manner we help the future of our societies because many issues in the future will need science and mainly Europe needs scientists as a society of knowledge. But, current state of science education is inadequate in most countries of the world! Primary school is an ideal place to implement an in-depth renovation of science education because children ages from 3 to 12 years old: spontaneously question natural phenomena, have a great ability to learn, can learn language and science together, in contact with the real world are less influenced by media Since the 1990, a worldwide effort, led by scientists and Science Academies, in cooperation with education authorities have organized numbers of international conferences and started with active renovation projects in this field. From these activities a common approach is emerging, respecting diversities. All these activities incorporated a general philosophy of Hands-on, La main la pte, Ruka u testu: Science as an investigation, Something pupils do, not something that is done for them, Teacher helps pupils to build their own knowledge, Action, experimentation, interrogation, collective reconstruction, Deeper understanding with an oral or written presentation: science notebook. European innovations in this field [1,2,6] are developing rapidly and becoming a reference for many countries all over the world.

HANDS ON (RUKA U TESTU) IN SERBIA We have started in 2001 by translation and first edition of the book La main la pte [3] and conferences for teachers relating to the 10 La main la pte principles, the teaching process, the partnership In 2003: visits of Mr. Pierre Lena, Mr. Yves Quire to Belgrade and Mr. David Wilgenbus participation to the 5th General Conference of the Balkan Union of Physics-BPU5 in Serbia had great influence on Serbian teachers and scientists in Balkan region. Second edition of La main la pte book [3] with the preface by George Charpak, Pierre Lna and Yves Qur, translation and edition of the book Graines de sciences 1 [4] and participation of Ms Vera Bojovic in the preparation of book Graines de sciences 6 are the mains points of our activity in 2003. During 2004: translation and edition of the books Graines de sciences 2, 3 and Teaching sciences at school [4]; study visit to France of a Serbian delegation of 10 members (educational researchers, College professors and school teachers) with objectives to study the French device and to adapt it to the Serbian context. One class from Belgrades primary school Sveti Sava had successfully participated in the international competition the Egg-naut defined by European Space Agency (ESA). They landed an egg with a very original parachute Fig. 1. and received for it the award for originality. In 2005: translation of books Graines de sciences 4 and 5, LEurope des decouverts [5]. Continuous training organization to answer teachers requests. Development of scientific activities for the classroom with help of the group from the University of Belgrade and Novi Sad


Figure 1. Group of children during the competition defined by ESA in charge of didactic for sciences. They are contributing to the new breath that this didactic initiative brings. At 21 of June one class from Belgrade primary school Uzicka Republika (age 12) will participate in video-conference among Alexandria Assouan Grenobl-Belgrade in the frame of the project Sur les pas dEratosten, Fig. 2. Finally we have organized South-East European Summer School for Hands on Primary Science Education, Zlatibor, Serbia, June 11-16, 2005 [6] and South-East European Workshop for Hands on Primary Science Education, Belgrade, Serbia, November 17-19, 2006. [7] In 2006 we will continue with translation and edition of books Graines de sciences 6, 7 and Dcouvrir le monde l'cole maternelle. We hope to make a semi-mirror of the French website www.inrp.fr/lamap on Serbian language.

MEASURING Longer of the gnomon and the shadow; the angle the distance BelgradeAswan from carts

Figure 2. The group of children from primary school with gnomon FUTURE ACTIVITIES We can say that we have finished the first step of our Ruka u testu action: -Certain numbers of our teachers in all regions in Serbia participate in contemporary movement in new approach in science education in the frame of Hands-on method-Some of our primary schools, with the help of Vinca Institute, have participate in European competitions -12 books about this method have translated. Our teachers and parents can buy now 7 books in almost any bookshops in Serbia, the 5 others should be published in 2006/7. The second important step for project Ruka u testu will be the translation and accommodation of French La main la pte Website (this is the Website of the French Academy of Sciences and the French La main la pte team. In 2001 it was the best website in education field in Europe and to day has about 150 000 connections par week) permitted texts, make it available on the site Ruka u testu, make the network of scientific consultant and teaching specialists, education for teachers which will use this e-resources. With this step we will give to Serbian teachers and teachers in region which speaks Serbian language: very important and more completely resources, for hands-on method, on the Site Ruka u test and CD version of the Site; the possibility of the communication among them via Internet; the possibility of the communication, via two networks, with scientific community and with teaching specialists; also for teachers from Serbia we will organize in e-centre VINA, which has: Computer Room, Library, Experiment Room, seminaries about IT and how to use the resource from the site Ruka u testu for Hands-on method science education in primary school. The contract for translation of La main la pte Website on Serbian language between French Academy of Sciences, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences will be signed in 2007 The third important steps, in 2008, will be supply a specific resources for the classroom, including material kits and guidelines for teachers. We expect to create in 100 Primary schools all over the Serbian territory The Experiment Room which will give to teachers a model of research and inquiry-based process implementation in a convenient place with convenient tools. These kits special constructed for Hands-on method will be buying from the known producer in France. They cover some themes in the science and technology curricula. Each set theme contains the whole equipment for one class, documents for the different teaching sequences. Kits will be also borrow by others schools form the region. In the future we will try to developed collaboration with European producers in this field with the aim that some of these kits would be made in Serbia. The fourth steps, in 2009, creation of the Resources Centers in Vinca Institute which will have The Media Library, The Experiment Room, The Experiment Library and The Computer Room. With this Resources Centers we will try to approach Serbia to 12 Seed Cities for Science A community approach for sustainable growth of science education in Europe (Pollen project in the 4.

frame of FP6). We are sure that this is real idea because Vinca Institute has now the very good Library which would be easily complete with the books for Hands-on method, the Experiment Room with 10 boxes with mentioned kits and the Computer Room. The most important is the human resource that we have in different sciences and technologies. Also, we are sure that this idea will be supported by many companies in Serbia because with this project we will help the renovation of sciences and technologies education in our schools and our children will be better prepared for the knowledge based society. CONCLUSION Serbian experience with Hands-on (Ruka u testu) project shows that the training and class protocols available on French language can be very easily translate. The inexpensive school equipment can be used. A support of prestigious scientists and Academies are very important and possible. The role of Internet and teachers-oriented ICT can be very useful in dispersing the idea of this method for science education in primary schools. If we use a high quality expertise in several EU countries than the Hands-on pilot projects may easily be implemented in South-East Europe. 6. REFERENCES 1. Ellermeijer T, Kemmers P, editors, Science is Primary, Proceedings of the 2004 European Conference on Primary Science and Technology Education, Amstel Institut, 2005. 2. www.inrp.fr/lamap; The best website for education in Europe in 2001. 3. Charpak G, La main la pte, Flammarion, Paris 1996 (two edition on Serbian language Ruka u testu, translated by Stevan Joki, Drutvo fiziara Srbije, Beograd, 2001 i 2003). 4. Catala I, Lna P, Qur Y, editors, Graines de science 1, Le Pommier, 1999 (on Serbian language Zrnca nauka 1, Drutvo fiziara Srbije, Beograd, 2003, translated by Stevan Joki); Catala-Blanc I, Jasmin D, Lna P, editors, Graines de science 2, Le Pommier, 2000 (on Serbian language Zrnca nauka 2, Zavod za udbenike i nastavna sredstva-Drutvo fiziara Srbije, Beograd, 2004, translated by Stevan Joki); Jasmin D, Boucharad J-M, Lna P, editors, Graines de science 3, Le Pommier, 2001 (on Serbian language Zrnca nauka 3, Zavod za udbenike i nastavna sredstva, Beograd, 2004, translated by Stevan Joki); CNDP, Ensegnier les sciences lcole, Paris, 2002 (on Serbian language Predavanje nauka u koli, Zavod za udbenike i nastavna sredstva, Beograd, 2004, translated by Stevan Joki). 5. The books: Graines de science 4-7, LEurope des dcouverts, Dcouvrir le monde l'cole maternelle (are translated on Serbian lenguage and to be published in 2006). 6. http://rukautestu.vin.bg.ac.yu/handson1; Website of this Summer school; Joki S, and Marjanovi M, editors, First South-East European Summer School for Hands on Primary Science Education, Zlatibor, Serbia, June 11-16, 2005, Proceedings, Vina, 2006. 7. http://rukautestu.vin.bg.ac.yu/handson2; Website of this Summer school. 5.