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Texty pro studenty předmětu H6SA1 Ústav cizích jazyků VFU BRNO

Texty pro studenty u µ H6SA1 - vfu.cz texty... · UNIVERSITY OF VETERINARY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES BRNO THEN AND NOW Historical overview The University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical

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  • Texty pro studenty

    předmětu H6SA1

    Ústav cizích jazyků VFU BRNO


    Historical overview The University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno (UVPS Brno) was founded on 12 December 1918. It was the very first university formed upon the establishment of the Republic of Czechoslovakia after the Great War (WWI). It is for this reason that the then premises were formed mainly by cavalry barracks. In the oldest building of today’s campus, building no. 32, there used to be a provincial boys’ reform school, while today’s Pavilion of prof. Betschka (building no. 31) were teaching facilities for the inmates. The university’s founder and first rector was prof. Eduard Babak who linked

    the concept of the school to that of the Vienna veterinary university. Because most campus facilities were taken up by the army, some university institutes had to be temporally placed in facilities at the Faculty of Medicine at Masaryk University and professors of this faculty became the first teachers at the newly established College of Veterinary Surgeons. Classes began on 17 November 1919. From its start, the university developed as a single faculty university of 18 departments and clinics aimed at veterinary sciences. In 1924, the university was visited by President T. G. Masaryk who was in fact the only president of our country ever to pay a visit to the school. The Second World War brought teaching and education in general to an end and both teachers and students were persecuted. As far as the newly renamed University of Veterinary Medicine was concerned, some of its clinics provided service as veterinary hospitals and research facilities. It was in this period that the Department of Foodstuff Examination and Materials of Animal Origin was founded. On 1 September 1952 the university was affiliated to the University of Agriculture in Brno as its Veterinary Faculty. In 1968 the University of Veterinary Medicine in Brno regained its independence once and for all. Seven years later, two branches were established: College of General Veterinary Medicine, and College of Veterinary Medicine – Food Hygiene. In 1990, the two branches formed individual faculties - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology. In 1991, a third faculty, Faculty of Pharmacy, was established, aimed at human and veterinary pharmaceutical sciences. Since 1994, the new official name of the university has been University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno. University Today Undergraduate university applicants must submit their applications by the end of February and their entrance examination scheduled for the month of June consist of tests from biology, chemistry, and in case of pharmacy applicants, physics is also included. Education is carried out on the principle of ECTS – the European Credit Transfer System in the form of lectures, practical seminars, school laboratory, clinic or pharmacy training, or in meat, fish or dairy workstations. For FVHE students, campus abattoir is available where inspection of slaughter animals can be learned. Students can gain practical experience on the university agricultural farm and national and foreign internship programs. Studies at the UVPS Brno are crowned with a graduation ceremony when graduates take a ceremonial oath and obtain graduation diplomas complemented by an English diploma supplement. Studies at UVPS Brno are supported by a scholarship program (merit scholarship, accommodation and social scholarship, that for excellent scientific and research results or for sports representation of the school). Research activities results are published in papers by composite authors listed in an annual List of Publications of UVPS Brno overview. The university’s own Impact factor journal aimed at veterinary medicine is the Acta Veterinaria Brno, its tradition dating back to 1922. Students can become members of the IVSA – International Veterinary Student Association or the USF – Union of Pharmacy Students which operate at the university.

  • Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology History of FVHE The history of the Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology dates back to the Department of Foodstuff Examination and Materials of Animal Origin which provided tertiary veterinary education throughout the 19th century. The establishment of the Czechoslovak veterinary university in 1918 created proper conditions for development of veterinary hygiene in the

    country. A standalone Department of meat, milk and food hygiene was founded in 1920 at our university, its head being prof. Jan Lenfeld. The institute specialized in inspection of slaughter animals, carcasses and meat as well as in the methods of safeguarding hygienic level of food. Food technology as the basic principle of maintaining hygienic processing procedures and protection of consumer health were included in the newly developed field. Prof. Lenfeld formed the concept of veterinary hygiene in our country, which was cultivated and elaborated by his successors. With regard to the increasing significance of food safety and the necessity of highly qualified experts, an independent study field of veterinary hygiene was established at the FVHE UVPS Brno in 1990. Lenfeld’s student and successor, associate professor Jan Hoekl, followed his teacher’s footsteps and improved technological processes of meat preservation, introducing breakthrough ideas of meat packing. Hoekl’s student, prof. Zdenek Matyas, a veterinarian, WHO expert and researcher in the field of food hygiene and technology, founded a new discipline of General food hygiene dealing with issues of alimentary diseases and food safety. Prof. Matyas published a methodological manual for practical application of the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) systematic preventive approach to food safety. Structure of FVHE today Section of Basic Disciplines

    Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Biophysics

    Section of Animal and Plant Production Department of Nutrition, Livestock Breeding and Animal Hygiene Department of Vegetable Foodstuff and Plant Production

    Section of food Hygiene and Technology Department of Milk Hygiene and Technology Department of Meat Hygiene and Technology

    Section of Veterinary Protection of Public Health Department of Veterinary Ecology and Environment Protection Department of Veterinary Public Health and Toxicology

    Livestock Abattoir prof. Jan Lenfeld


    doc. Jan Hoekl (1907-1951)

    prof. Zdenek Matyas (1923-19XX)

  • Study at the Faculty FVHE offers its undergraduate students a Bachelor’s and a continuing Master’s study program, their majors being Food Safety and Quality and the length of study three and two years. After completing the studies, graduates are bestowed the Bachelor (abbreaviated to Bc.) or Master academic degree (abbreviated to Mgr.). There is also regular undergraduate Master’s study which takes six years and is realized in the field of Veterinary Hygiene and Technology. Its graduates earn the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine academic degree (abbreaviated to MVDr.). FVHE offers doctoral studies as well, both in the Czech and English language. The standard length of this major in the field of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology is three years and the graduates are bestowed the Doctor academic degree (abbreaviated to Ph.D. stated behind one’s name.). Food Safety The field of veterinary hygiene is relatively new. It developed from applying pathological anatomy during inspection of meat in slaughterhouses in the 19th century and its main aim was protection of human health. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, microbiology has been used as an objective auxiliary method of slaughter animal inspection. Later on, microbiological methods were utilized to assess food safety quality and the safety of food production and processing. At the same time, methods of chemical, and physiochemical assessment of safety of food, its production and processing were put to practice. The newly introduced biochemical methods should help to clarify both positive and negative impact of chemicals used in agricultural output, such as that of antibiotics, hormones, growth stimulants, as well as radioactive and other substances on biological value and safety of food. The development of veterinary hygiene as a discipline complies with all other biological disciplines, including veterinary medicine which focuses on the issue of livestock health prevention and sustainment. Veterinary hygiene practice is no longer the matter of recognizing a bad quality and harmful food product. Today’s professionals are able to capture harmful raw material before or during its processing and to exclude it from further technology. Food hygiene deals with distinguishing positive or negative properties and it also strives to explain the causes of deviations. Veterinarians must thus intervene with meat industry much more effectively. They ought to influence the process of breeding and feeding of livestock as well as other factors of food production so that the acquired food possessed high biological values but were also safe for consumption. In the field of veterinary hygiene the veterinarian is the erudite professional who gains essential theoretical and practical knowledge through university education so that they could globally inspect, assess and decide in case of foodstuff and raw materials of animal origin. (MATYÁŠ a kol., 1965)

    The availability of safe food improves the health of people and is a basic human right. Safe food contributes to health and productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. People are becoming increasingly concerned about the health risks posed by microbial pathogens and potentially hazardous chemicals in food. Up to one-third of the populations of developed countries are affected by foodborne illness each year, and the problem is likely to be even more widespread in developing countries. The poor are the most susceptible to ill-health. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases, for example, are leading causes of illness and death in less developed countries, killing an estimated 2.2 million people annually, most of whom are children. Diarrhoea is the most common symptom of foodborne illness, but other serious consequences include kidney and liver failure, brain and neural disorders, and death. The debilitating long-term complications of foodborne disease include reactive arthritis and paralysis. (WHO GLOBAL STRATEGY FOR FOOD SAFETY: SAFER FOOD FOR BETTER HEALTH, 2002).

  • ACTIVITIES 1. Reading comprehension – UVPS Brno today Decide whether the following information is true or false. 1. UVPS Brno was established in 1819. 2. Conceptually the school was linked to the Vienna veterinary university. 3. The classes commenced two years upon the school’s foundation. 4. Several presidents have visited the university throughout the past nine decades. 5. The school has never lost its independence. 6. Since its beginning, the school has been developing as a single-faculty university. 7. Today’s official name of the school has been used since 1994. 2. Lexis Translate the following Czech expressions into English. The first letters of the English words have been given. 1. slavnostní slib c__________ o__________ 2. prospěchové stipendium m__________ s__________ 3. uchazeč o studium na VŠ u__________ u__________ a__________ 4. roční přehled a__________ o__________ 5. prohlídka jatečných zvířat s__________ a__________ i__________ 6. promoce g__________ c__________ 7. ochrana zdraví spotřebitele p__________ of c__________ h__________ 8. univerzitní veterinární vzdělání t__________ v__________ e__________ 9. žák a následovník s__________ and s__________ 10. nezávadnost potravin f__________ s__________ 3. Pronunciation Which words from the texts above have been transcribed below? Write the words in English and translate them into Czech.

    1. /ˈemfəsɪs/ _______________________ _______________________

    2. /ˈemfəsaɪz/ _______________________ _______________________

    3. /ˈɡrædʒueɪt/ _______________________ _______________________

    4. /ˈɡrædʒuət/ _______________________ _______________________

    5. /ˈmeɪdʒə(r)/ _______________________ _______________________

    6. /prɪˈsiːd/ _______________________ _______________________

    7. /səˈseptəb(ə)l/ _______________________ _______________________

    8. /ˈjuːtɪlaɪz/ _______________________ _______________________

    9. /ˈæbəˌtwɑː(r)/ _______________________ _______________________

    10. /ˈkɑː(r)kəs/ _______________________ _______________________


    abattoir /ˈæbəˌtwɑː(r)/ jatka

    abbreviated /əˈbriːviˌeɪtid/ zkrácený

    academic degree /ˌækəˈdemɪk/ /dɪˈɡriː/ akademický titul

    accommodation scholarship /əˌkɒməˈdeɪʃ(ə)n/ /ˈskɒlə(r)ʃɪp/ ubytovací stipendium

    acquired /əˈkwaɪə(r)/ získaný

    active voice /ˈæktɪv/ /vɔɪs/ činný rod

    advisable /ədˈvaɪzəb(ə)l/ vhodný, žádoucí

    affiliate (v) /əˈfɪlieɪt/ připojit

    agricultural output /ˌæɡrɪˈkʌltʃ(ə)rəl/ /ˈaʊtˌpʊt/ zemědělský výroba

    aim at (v) /eɪm/ zaměřit na

    alimentary disease /ælɪˌment(ə)ri/ /dɪˈziːz/ alimentární onemocnní

    animal origin /ˈænɪm(ə)l//ˈɒrɪdʒɪn/ živočišný původ

    annual overview /ˈænjuəl/ /ˈəʊvə(r)ˌvjuː/ roční přehled

    antibiotic (n) /ˌæntibaɪˈɒtɪk/ antibiotikum

    applicant /ˈæplɪkənt/ žadatel

    assess /əˈses/ vyhodnotit, zhodnotit

    assessment /əˈsesmənt/ vyhodnocení, ohodnocení

    associate professor /əˈsəʊsiət/ /prəˈfesə(r)/ docent

    auxiliary method /ɔːɡˈzɪliəri/ /ˈmeθəd/ pomocná metoda

    auxiliary verb /ɔːɡˈzɪliəri/ /vɜː(r)b/ pomocné sloveso

    availability /əˌveɪləˈbɪləti/ dostupnost

    axis /ˈæksɪs/ osa

    Bachelor's study program /ˈbætʃələ(r)sˈstʌdiˈprəʊɡræm/ bakalářský studijní program

    basic human right /ˈbeɪsɪk/ /ˈhjuːmən/ /raɪt/ základní lidské právo

    bestow an academic degree /bɪˈstəʊ/ obdržet akademický titul

    biochemical /ˌbaɪəʊˈkemɪk(ə)l/ biochemický

    biological value /ˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l/ /ˈvæljuː/ biologická hodnota

    branch (n) /brɑːntʃ/ odvětví, obor

    breakthrough idea /ˈbreɪkθruː/ /aɪˈdɪə/ objevná myšlenka

    bullet point /ˈbʊlɪt/ /pɔɪnt/ odrážka

    carcass /ˈkɑː(r)kəs/ poražené zvíře

    carry out education /ˈkæri//aʊt/ uskutečňovat vzdělávání

    cause of deviations /kɔːz əvˌdiːviˈeɪʃ(ə)nz/ příčina deviace

    cavalry baracks /ˈkævəlri/ /ˈbærəks/ kasárna kavalerie

    cell /sel/ buňka

    ceremonial oath /ˌserəˈməʊniəl/ /əʊθ/ slavnostní slib, přísaha

    clarify (v) /ˈklærəfaɪ/ objasnit

    column /ˈkɒləm/ sloupec

    common symptom /ˈkɒmən//ˈsɪmptəm/ běžný symptom

    communicate information /kəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt//ˌɪnfə(r)ˈmeɪʃ(ə)n/ sdělovat informace

    complement (v) /ˈkɒmplɪment/ doplnit

    composite authors /ˈkɒmpəzɪt/ /ˈɔːθə(r)s/ kolektiv autorů

    consist of /kənˈsɪst/ skládat se z, obsahovat

    consumer health /kənˈsjuːmə(r)//helθ/ zdraví spotřebitelů

    consumption /kənˈsʌmpʃ(ə)n/ konzumace

    contribute /kənˈtrɪbjuːt/ přispět

    cultivate /ˈkʌltɪveɪt/ rozvíjet

    deal with /diːl//wɪθ/ zabývat se čím

  • death /deθ/ smrt

    decimal point /ˈdesɪm(ə)l/ /pɔɪnt/ desetinná čárka

    demanding /dɪˈmɑːndɪŋ/ náročný

    diarrhoea /ˌdaɪəˈriːə/ průjem

    diarrhoeal disease /ˌdaɪəˈriːəl//dɪˈziːz/ průjmové onemocnění

    discipline (n) /ˈdɪsəplɪn/ disciplína, předmět

    distinguish /dɪˈstɪŋɡwɪʃ/ rozlišit

    earn a degree /ɜː(r)n/ získat titul

    elaborate (v) /ɪˈlæbəreɪt/ propracovat

    emhasis /ˈemfəsɪs/ důraz

    emhasize /ˈemfəsaɪz/ zdůraznit

    entrance examination /ˈentrəns//ɪɡˌzæmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ přijímací zkouška

    environment /ɪnˈvaɪrənmənt/ prostředí

    erudite professional /ˈerʊdaɪt//prəˈfeʃ(ə)nəl/ erudovaný profesionál

    essential knowledge /ɪˈsenʃ(ə)l/ /ˈnɒlɪdʒ/ základní vědomosti

    establish a school /ɪˈstæblɪʃ/ založit školu

    estimate (v) /ˈestɪmeɪt/ odhadnout

    exclude /ɪkˈskluːd/ vyloučit

    foodborne illness /fuːdbɔː(r)n/ /ˈɪlnəs/ nemoc přenášená jídlem

    foodstuff examination /ˈfuːdˌstʌf//ɪɡˌzæmɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ posouzení potravin

    forbidden /fə(r)ˈbɪd(ə)n/ zakázaný

    foreign internship /ˈfɒrɪn//ˈɪntɜː(r)nˌʃɪp/ zahraniční stáž

    found a department /faʊnd ə dɪˈpɑː(r)tmənt/ založit oddělení

    fulfil criteria /fʊlˈfɪl/ /kraɪˈtɪəriə/ splnit kritéria

    gain (v) /ɡeɪn/ získat

    graduate (n) /ˈɡrædʒuət/ absolvent

    graduate (v) /ˈɡrædʒueɪt/ absolvovat

    graduation ceremony /ˌɡrædʒuˈeɪʃ(ə)n//ˈserəməni/ promoční akt

    graph /ɡrɑːf/ graf

    growth stimulant /ɡrəʊθ/ /ˈstɪmjʊlənt/ stimulátor růstu

    harmful food product /ˈhɑː(r)mf(ə)l//fuːd//ˈprɒdʌkt/ zdraví škodlivá potravina

    hazard (n) /ˈhæzə(r)d/ hazard

    hazardous chemicals /ˈhæzə(r)dəs/ /ˈkemɪk(ə)lz/ nebezpečné chemikálie

    head of an institute /ˈɪnstɪˌtjuːt/ vedoucí ústavu

    heading /ˈhedɪŋ/ nadpis

    health risk /helθ//rɪsk/ zdravotní riziko

    hormone /ˈhɔː(r)məʊn/ hormon

    hygiene /ˈhaɪdʒiːn/ hygiena

    chart (n) /tʃɑː(r)t/ graf, tabulka

    in case of /keɪs/ v případě

    increasing significance /ɪnˈkriːsɪŋ//sɪɡˈnɪfɪkəns/ narůstající význam

    inevitable /ɪnˈevɪtəb(ə)l/ nevyhnutelný, nutný

    inmate /ˈɪnˌmeɪt/ chovanec, spolubydlící

    intervene /ˌɪntə(r)ˈviːn/ zasahovat

    issue (n) /ˈɪsjuː/ problematika

    keynote /ˈkiːˌnəʊt/ hlavní myšlenka

    kidney failure /ˈkɪdni/ /ˈfeɪljə(r)/ selhání ledvin

    language skill /ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ//skɪl/ jazyková dovednost

    lecture (n) /ˈlektʃə(r)/ přednáška

    length of study /leŋθ/ délka studia

  • lexis /ˈleksɪs/ lexikum

    list (n) /lɪst/ seznam

    liver failure /ˈlɪvə(r)//ˈfeɪljə(r)/ selhání jater

    livestock breeding /ˈlaɪvˌstɒk//ˈbriːdɪŋ/ chov skotu

    long-term complications /ˌkɒmplɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)nz/ dlouhodobé komplikace

    lose listeners' attention /luːz/ /əˈtenʃ(ə)n/ ztratit pozornost posluchačů

    maintain a hygienic level /meɪnˈteɪn/ udržet hygienickou úroveň

    major (n, adj) /ˈmeɪdʒə(r)/ hlavní obor, hlavní

    Master's study program /ˈmɑːstə(r)z/ magisterský studijní program

    means of /miːnz/ prostředek něčeho

    meat industry /miːt//ˈɪndəstri/ masný průmysl

    meat preservation /miːt//ˌprezə(r)ˈveɪʃ(ə)n/ konzervování, uchovávání masa

    merit scholarship /ˈmerɪt//ˈskɒlə(r)ʃɪp/ prospěchové stipendium

    microbiological /ˌmaɪkrəʊˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒɪk(ə)l/ mikrobiologický

    monetary value /ˈmʌnɪt(ə)ri//ˈvæljuː/ peněžní hodnota

    national currency /ˈnæʃ(ə)nəl//ˈkʌrənsi/ národní měna

    neural disorder /ˈnjʊərəl//dɪsˈɔː(r)də(r)/ nervové onemocnění

    observe rules /əbˈzɜː(r)v//ruːlz/ dodržovat pravidla

    obtain knowledge /əbˈteɪn//ˈnɒlɪdʒ/ získat znalosti

    offensive (adj) /əˈfensɪv/ urážející

    once and for all /wʌns/ jednou pro vždy

    paralysis /pəˈræləsɪs/ paralýza, obrna, ochrnutí

    passive voice /ˈpæsɪv//vɔɪs/ trpný rod

    persecute /ˈpɜː(r)sɪˌkjuːt/ pronásledovat

    platform /ˈplætˌfɔː(r)m/ základna

    posed by microbial pathogens /pəʊzd baɪ maɪˈkrəʊbiəlˈpæθədʒəns/ způsobený mikrobiálními patogeny

    positive and negative impact /ˈpɒzətɪv//ˈneɡətɪv//ˈɪmpækt/ kladný a záporný vliv

    possess /pəˈzes/ obsahovat

    poverty alleviation /ˈpɒvə(r)ti//əˌliːviˈeɪʃ(ə)n/ pokles chudoby

    practical experience /ˈpræktɪk(ə)l//ɪkˈspɪəriəns/ praktická zkušenost

    precede /prɪˈsiːd/ předcházet

    preventive approach /prɪˈventɪv//əˈprəʊtʃ/ preventivní přístup

    processing procedure /ˈprəʊsesɪŋ//prəˈsiːdʒə(r)/ výrobní proces

    pronunciation /prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃ(ə)n/ výslovnost

    proper conditions /ˈprɒpə(r)//kənˈdɪʃ(ə)nz/ vhodné podmínky

    property /ˈprɒpə(r)ti/ vlastnost

    provide services /prəˈvaɪd//ˈsɜː(r)vɪsɪz/ poskytovat služby

    provincial reform school /prəˈvɪnʃ(ə)l//rɪˈfɔː(r)m//skuːl/ zemská polepšovna

    qualified expert /ˈkwɒlɪfaɪd//ˈekspɜː(r)t/ kvalifikovaný expert

    radioactive substance /ˌreɪdiəʊˈæktɪv//ˈsʌbstəns/ radioaktivní látka

    raw material /rɔː//məˈtɪəriəl/ surový materiál

    reactive arthritis /riˈæktɪv//ɑː(r)ˈθraɪtɪs/ recommended /ˌrekəˈmendɪd/ doporučený

    regain independence /rɪˈɡeɪn//ˌɪndɪˈpendəns/ znovunabýt nezávislost

    relationship between variables /rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nʃɪp bɪˈtwiːn ˈveəriəb(ə)lz/ vztah mezi proměnnými

    research facility /rɪˈsɜː(r)tʃ//fəˈsɪləti/ výzkumné pracoviště

    rhythm /ˈrɪðəm/ rytmus

    row /rəʊ/ řada

    safeguard (v) /ˈseɪfˌɡɑː(r)d/ zabezpečit

    science /ˈsaɪəns/ věda

  • serious consequences /ˈsɪəriəs//ˈkɒnsɪkwənsɪz/ výžné dopady

    schedule (v) /ˈʃedjuːl/ naplánovat

    slaughter animal /ˈslɔːtə(r)//ˈænɪm(ə)l/ jateční zvíře

    slide layout /slaɪd//ˈleɪaʊt/ rozvržení snímku

    standalone /stændəˈləʊn// samostatný

    strive /straɪv/ snažit se, pokoušet se

    subheading /ˈsʌbˌhedɪŋ/ podtitul

    submit an application /səbˈmɪt//ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/ odevzdat přihlášku

    successor /səkˈsesə(r)/ nástupce

    supportive materials /səˈpɔː(r)tɪv/ podpůrné materiály

    susceptible to ill-health /səˈseptəb(ə)l/ náchylný k nemocem

    syllable /ˈsɪləb(ə)l/ slabika

    table /ˈteɪb(ə)l/ tabulka

    take up /teɪk//ʌp/ zabrat

    teaching facility /ˈtiːtʃɪŋ//fəˈsɪləti/ výukové prostory

    temporally /ˈtemp(ə)rəlɪ/ dočasně

    tertiary education /ˈtɜː(r)ʃəri//ˌedjʊˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/ vysokoškolské vzdělání

    the poor /pʊə(r)/ chudí

    the then premises /ˈpremɪsɪz/ tehdejší prostory

    then and now /ðen//ənd//naʊ/ dříve a nyní

    training /ˈtreɪnɪŋ/ školení

    undergraduate students /ˌʌndə(r)ˈɡrædʒʊət/ pre-graduální studenti

    utilize /ˈjuːtɪlaɪz/ využít

    veterinary surgeon /ˈvet(ə)rənəri//ˈsɜː(r)dʒ(ə)n/ veterinář

    waterborne disease /ˈwɔːtə(r)bɔː(r)n//dɪˈziːz/ nemoc přenášená vodou

    widespread illness /ˈwaɪdˌspred/ rozšířené onemocnění

    word stress /wɜː(r)d/ /stres/ slovní přízvuk

    workstation /ˈwɜː(r)kˌsteɪʃ(ə)n/ pracoviště

    Source: BUCHALOVÁ, K., SCHÜLLEROVÁ, S.: Angličtina pro posluchače bakalářského studijního programu FVHE VFU Brno. Brno 2010, p. 7-20.

  • FORMAL LETTER WRITING – CURRICULUM VITAE AND COVER LETTER Curriculum Vitae Curriculum vitae provides key information about a person’s life, skills, experience, education and qualifications. The term curriculum vitae, abbreviated to CV, is of Latin origin and can be loosely translated as “a course of life”. Thus, shortened form vita is sometimes used. The main purpose of a CV is to provide future employer with data about us necessary for gaining some position. Curriculum vitae is commonly used in Europe, the Middle East, Africa or Asia when seeking a job, whereas in the United States and Canada CV is primarily used when applying for academic, education, scientific or research positions. CV in the “European” sense is in these countries called résumé. Generally, a CV tends to be longer and more detailed mainly on education, usually including an extensive list of professional history, previous employment, work experience, publications, etc. Sometimes, the information included in a CV or résumé has to be adapted to different types of positions. Similarly as a résumé, curriculum vitae should include personal information as the full name, contact address, phone number, email address or fax of the applicant. Certain attempts to create a model of a standardized CV were made in the European Union. This universal CV was included among other documents - Language Passport, Europass Mobility, Certificate supplement and Diploma supplement - uniformly called Europass, which should help clearly understand person's skills and qualifications throughout Europe. How to write a good CV Structure your CV in a logic and well-arranged way. At the top you should type in bold your personal and contact information (name, address, phone number or possibly e-mail). Further academic background information on postgraduate, graduate or undergraduate work, degrees or honours follow. Other information could deal with work or other related experience, professional development (conferences or workshops attended), research activities (journal articles, authorship, conference proceedings, etc.). If it is connected to the position you apply for, you can also mention affiliations or memberships in concrete societies, volunteer work or consulting. Usually some foreign language abilities or skills are necessary to mention. If possible it is useful to give information on references. Ideally give the details of two referees: one academic and one employer. Imply their names, position, address, phone numbers and email addresses. They should be always asked for their permission and possibly informed of your career aspirations and achievements to date. Information such as your date of birth, age, gender, religion or marital status, whether you have a driving license or your photograph are in accordance with anti-discrimination laws in most cases considered optional data. What to avoid When writing the CV, you should avoid certain issues which would negatively influence your chances of getting the job. Do not use any subjective (mainly pejorative) evaluation of your previous colleagues, bosses or teachers. Never lie: implying skills or knowledge you do not posses will be revealed if not during the interview then definitely after you have been recruited. Be careful about possible grammatical mistakes in your CV - it would throw bad light upon you. Also being too wordy in order to impress the potential employer will discourage them from even reading it. The CV should be written concisely and to the point as the others will not spend a long time extracting and seeking for the relevant information. The language of a CV The language of a CV and in fact of all similar documents has its own specifications which combine characteristics of formal and written language. One of the main rules is to avoid abbreviations and contracted forms of words. Mixing of tenses is also one of the common mistakes people make as they describe previous and current work experience. It does not matter if you use the past or the


  • present tense but choose one and stick to it! You should avoid writing in the first person as much as you can – using action verbs to start with sentences is a good way to overcome this. It immediately emphasizes the skill used and focuses the reader's attention. If you combine this style with using bullet points, it will make your CV scannable so that the main information can be identified quickly. CV layout The visual aspect of your CV plays an important role, too. Use only good quality, white A4 paper with black print, remember to use spacing, highlight different sections as it helps better orientation, and consider the font use. Arial, Times New Roman or Calibri seem to be much more acceptable than e.g. Courier or Comic Sans. The style and format of your CV should remain uniform throughout. Cover letter Another document very often attached to curriculum vitae is the cover letter. Cover letter, or covering letter, also referred to as motivational letter or letter of motivation, is a letter sent to a future employer when applying for a job. It is a way of introduction of the applicant and explaining suitability for the desired post. Basically, cover letters are one page at most in length, divided into a header, introduction, body, and closing. The employer’s address is listed below your contact information. Header Header embodies the sender’s contact information (name, address, phone number, cell phone number, email address) and the recipient’s contact information. Do not forget the date sent after either the sender's or the recipient's address. The final part of the header is a salutation followed by a comma, a space, and then follows the first paragraph of the letter (introduction). If you address the concrete person, you use salutation as e.g. Dear Mr. Smith or Dear Dr. White. In case you do not know the name of the contact person, you should use general salutations as Dear Hiring Manager, Dear Sir or Madam or To whom it may concern. Introduction The next part of the letter is introduction in which the candidate briefly states the specific position desired. Although this section should be very short (approx. 1-2 sentences), it is very essential as it should catch the employer's immediate interest. Body The body emphasizes the material in the CV and explains why the job seeker is interested in the job and would be of value to the potential employer. Typical matters considered typically include the applicant’s skills, qualifications, and past experience. Other special things to note such as availability date can be included as well. Closing The closing summarizes the letter, and implies how the applicant will follow up. It may indicate that the applicant intends to contact the employer; however, many prefer the more indirect approach of simply saying that the applicant will look forward to hearing from or speaking with the employer. After the closing there comes a valediction, and then a signature line. Examples of some suitable valedictions are following: Sincerely, Sincerely Yours, Regards, Best Regards, Kind regards, Yours Truly, Respectfully or Thank you for your consideration. These phrases are, similarly as the salutation, followed by a comma and space. After it comes a signature. Optionally, the abbreviation ENCL may be used to indicate that there are enclosures as a CV or copies of other official documents.


  • ACTIVITIES 1. Questioning an applicant Write questions you would ask an applicant to find out the following information first name __________________________________________________________ _____ surname __________________________________________________________ _____ date of birth __________________________________________________________ _____ place of birth __________________________________________________________ _____ country of origin __________________________________________________________ _____ present address __________________________________________________________ _____ permanent address __________________________________________________________ _____ marital status __________________________________________________________ _____ skills __________________________________________________________ _____ driving license __________________________________________________________ _____ interests __________________________________________________________ _____ health status __________________________________________________________ _____ accreditation __________________________________________________________ _____ education __________________________________________________________ _____ work experience __________________________________________________________ _____ 2. Reading comprehension Scan through the texts again. Answer these questions. What is the difference between a CV and a résumé? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Why do you usually need a CV? __________________________________________________________________________________ What are any common mistakes made in writing a CV? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What is the language of official documents in general? __________________________________________________________________________________ What does the term Europass stand for? __________________________________________________________________________________ What is the main function of a cover letter? __________________________________________________________________________________ What are the main parts of a cover letter? __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Lexis Match the particular expressions to the parts of CV in the table below (sometimes there may be more possibilities) Address, Administrator of the course, Artistic pursuits, Boss’s Name, Details of final project, Driving

    Licence, Email, Employer’s name, Grants, Hobbies, IT Skills, Job title, Language knowledge,

    Applicant’s Name, Title of doctoral thesis, Candidate’s Phone number, Postgraduate work,

    Professional exam (grade), Referee’s Name, Work Responsibilities, Skills gained at work, Sports,

    Supervisor’s name, Training course, Tutor’s name, University name, Work address

  • Personal


    Education &




    Skills Professional


    Interests &



    5. Gap fill Read the cover letter (enclosed to an internship application) and fill in the gaps with appropriate expressions or phrases Application Form, a definite asset, a great deal of, a match for, conducted a study, consideration, contact, Dear, experience with, applying for, In addition, look forward to, performed experiments, provide me with, reliable, to schedule an interview, willing to Martin Uhlíř Havlenova 4 639 00 Brno Czech Republic [email protected] Dr. John Sheep The College of Veterinary Medicine Royal College Avenue AL9 47T London United Kingdom February 13, 2010 _______________ Dr. Sheep, I am _______________ the scientific research 1-term internship that was listed through The University of Veterinary Studies Career Services Office. I have had _______________ laboratory experience in biochemistry, and microbiology, both indoors and in the field. I have _______________ testing new drugs for cattle. In field studies, I have _______________ on quality of milk from cows using these drugs. _______________ to my lab work, I have _______________ recording, calculating, analyzing data, as well as preparing reports. I have no problems to work as a team member, I am very _______________ and organized, and _______________ learn. I hope I would be _______________ your team. This internship would _______________ the ideal opportunity to further expand my skills and knowledge in the research.

  • I will _______________ you the next week to see if you consider my qualifications _______________ for the position. If so, I hope _______________ at a mutually convenient time. I_______________ meeting you. Thank you for your _______________, Sincerely Yours, Martin Uhlíř Enclosure: Curriculum Vitae _______________ Letters of Reference


    affiliation (n) /əˌfɪliˈeɪʃ(ə)n/ členství

    achievement (n) /əˈtʃiːvmənt/ úspěch, výkon

    apply for (v) /əˈplaɪ fə/ žádat o, ucházet se o

    artistic pursuit /ɑːˈtɪstɪk pəˈsjuːt/ umělecká práce, činnost

    aspiration (n) /ˌæspɪˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ cíl, snaha, úsilí

    attend (v) /əˈtend/ navštěvovat, účastnit se

    authorship (n) /ˈɔːθə(r)ʃɪp/ autorství

    briefly (adv) /ˈbriːfli/ krátce, stručně

    bullet point (n) /ˈbʊlɪt pɔɪnt/ odrážka

    cell phone (n) /sel fəʊn/ mobilní telefon

    complimantary close (n) /ˌkɒmplɪˈment(ə)ri ˈkləʊz/ zdvořilostní zakončení dopisu

    concisely (adv) /kənˈsaɪsli/ výstižně, stručně

    consulting (n) /kənˈsʌltɪŋ/ poradenství

    contracted form /kənˈtræktid fɔːm/ stažený tvar

    convenient time /kənˈviːniənt taɪm/ vhodný, příhodný čas

    country of origin /ˈkʌntri əv ˈɒrɪdʒɪn/ země původu

    course (n) /kɔːs/ průběh, chod

    cover letter (n) /ˈkʌvə ˈletə/ krycí dopis

    cunduct a study /kənˈdʌkt ə ˈstʌdi/ provádět studii

    deal of /diːl əv/ část

    definite asset /ˈdef(ə)nət ˈæset/ určitá, jistá výhoda

    degree (n) /dɪˈɡriː/ akademický titul

    driving licence (n) /ˈdraɪvɪŋ ˈlaɪs(ə)ns/ řidičský průkaz

    embody (v) /ɪmˈbɒdi/ zahrnovat, obsahovat

    enclosure (n) /ɪnˈkləʊʒə/ příloha dopisu

    experience (n) /ɪkˈspɪəriəns/ zkušenost

    extensive list /ɪkˈstensɪv lɪst/ rozsáhlý seznam

    follow up (v) /ˈfɒləʊ ʌp/ pokračovat

    header (n) /ˈhedə/ záhlaví

    headline (n) /ˈhedˌlaɪn/ nadpis, titulek

    honour (n) /ˈɒnə/ hodnost, vyznamenání

    in accordance with (phr) /ɪn əˈkɔː(r)d(ə)ns wɪð/ v souladu s, ve shodě s

    in bold (phr) /ɪn bəʊld/ tučným písmem

    intend (v) /ɪnˈtend/ zamýšlet, mínit

    key information /ˈkiː ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃ(ə)n/ klíčové informace

    loosely (adv) /ˈluːsli/ volně

    mutually (adv) /ˈmjuːtʃuəli/ vzájemně, navzájem

    obtain (v) /əbˈteɪn/ získat, dostat; dosáhnout něčeho

    organized (adj) /ˈɔːɡənaɪzd/ pečlivý, důkladný, svědomitý

    overcome (v) /ˌəʊvəˈkʌm/ překonat, přemoci

  • pejorative (adj) /pɪˈdʒɒrətɪv/ hanlivý

    position (n) /pəˈzɪʃ(ə)n/ místo (zaměstnání)

    professional assets /prəˈfeʃ(ə)nəl ˈæsets/ profesionální aktivity

    professional training /prəˈfeʃ(ə)nəl ˈtreɪnɪŋ/ profesionální školení, kurz

    provide with (v) /prəˈvaɪd wɪð/ opatřit (čím)

    recruit (v) /rɪˈkruːt/ hledat nové zaměstnance

    reliable (adj) /rɪˈlaɪəb(ə)l/ spolehlivý, bezpečný

    résumé (n) /ˈrezjuːmeɪ/ životopis; shrnutí

    salutation (n) /ˌsæljʊˈteɪʃ(ə)n/ oslovení; pozdrav

    seek (v) /siːk/ hledat

    schedule an interview /ˈʃedjuːl ən ˈɪntəˌvjuː/ naplánovat pohovor

    skill (n) /skɪl/ dovednost

    stick to st. (v) /stɪk tə/ držet se něčeho

    suitability (v) /ˌsuːtəˈbɪləti/ přiměřenost, vhodnost

    supervision (n) /ˌsuːpə(r)ˈvɪʒ(ə)n/ dozor, dohled; řízení; inspekce

    supplement (n) /ˈsʌplɪmənt/ příloha

    term of employement /tɜːm əv ɪmˈplɔɪmənt/ doba zaměstnání, délka zaměstnání

    throughout Europe /θruːˈaʊt ˈjʊərəp/ v celé Evropě

    to the point /tə ðə ˈpɔɪnt/ k věci, věcně

    touch-typing /tʌtʃ ˈtaɪpɪŋ/ psaní na stroji

    valediction (n) /ˌvælɪˈdɪkʃ(ə)n/ slovo na rozloučenou

    volunteer work /ˌvɒlənˈtɪə wɜːk/ práce dobrovolníka

    well-arrange (v) /wel əˈreɪndʒ/ přehledně uspořádat

    willing to (adj) /ˈwɪlɪŋ tə/ ochotný

    wordy (adj) /ˈwɜːdi/ rozvláčný, mnohomluvný

    Source: BUCHALOVÁ, K., SCHÜLLEROVÁ, S.: Angličtina pro posluchače bakalářského studijního programu FVHE VFU Brno. Brno 2010.


    Animals are a major group of mostly multicellular,

    eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia.

    Animals have bodies differentiated into separate

    tissues. These include muscles which are able to

    contract and control locomotion and nerve tissue

    which sends and processes signals. All animals are

    heterotrophs, meaning that they feed directly or

    indirectly on other living things. They are often

    subdivided into groups such as carnivores,

    herbivores, omnivores and parasites.

    INVERTEBRATES – animals without a backbone

    There are several groups of invertebrates: protozoa are simple, single-celled organisms. Most

    protozoa are microscopic in size and they play an essential role in the food chain. Protozoa take in

    oxygen and give off carbon dioxide through their cell membrane. Echinoderms are marine animals

    (e.g. sea star, sea urchin). Most of them have arms or spines that radiate from the center of their

    body. Annelids have existed on Earth for over 120 million years. Their bodies are divided into

    segments. Commonly known annelids include earthworms, roundworms and flatworms. Mollusks

    have a soft, skin-like organ covered with a hard outside shell. They live both on land (the snail and

    slug) and in water (the oyster, mussel and octopus). Land living mollusks move slowly on a flat sole;

    ocean living mollusks swim by ejecting water from their body. Arthropods make up over 75% of the

    world´s animal species and include animals such as insects (fly, beetle, butterfly, bee, wasp) or

    arachnids (spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks) and crustaceans. Arthropods have limbs with joints that

    allow them to move. Some have antennae as part of their sensory system.

    VERTEBRATES – animals with a backbone

    Almost ¾ of the world´s surface is covered in water which is home to over 20,000 different

    species of fish. Most fish breathe through gills which perform the gas exchange between the water

    and the fish´s blood and allow the fish to breathe oxygen in the water. Fishes are vertebrates with a

    skeleton made of bone or cartilage. Bony fishes have a swim bladder, a gas-filled sac, that they can

    inflate or deflate which allows them to float in the water. Most fish swim using a tail fin; other fins

    help the fish change direction and stop. Amphibians lay their eggs in water and their young resemble

    small fish. Most amphibians can both walk and swim in water, their body temperature changes with

    its environment. In cold climates, amphibians hibernate during the winter. Reptiles are air-breathing

    animals living not only on land but in water. Their most noticeable feature are the scales that cover

    their body. Reptiles are often called cold-blooded because their body temperature depends on the

    external temperature. Crocodiles and alligators are large reptiles that feed on large animals they

    catch on land or in water using their powerful jaws and teeth. Lizards and snakes form the largest

    group of reptiles. Lizards often shed their tail to escape from predators and they can grow a new tail.

    Some snakes are poisonous, or venomous, such as the rattle snake or cobra. They have fangs which

    bite into their prey and inject poison into the victim. There are over 8,000 species of birds. Birds have

  • three major differentiating characteristics: wings for flight, feathers and a beak. Their bones and skull

    are very thin, making their bodies extremely light. They also have claws and muscles on their feet

    designed to hold onto a perch even while the bird is sleeping.

    Mammals have several unique characteristics that differentiate them from other animals.

    Most mammals have hair, or fur, covering their body. They are capable of regulating their body

    temperature. Their metabolism controls heat production, and the sweat glands help cool the body.

    These allow the mammal to maintain a constant body temperature. One other difference is that

    mammals give birth to fully formed babies and the female mammals produce milk to feed their

    young. Most mammals walk on four legs, with the exception of humans. Common mammals include:

    primates, carnivores, marsupials, rodents, ungulates, whales, dolphins and seals.

    � Marsupial Mammals are best known for the Australian members of the family, the kangaroo and the koala. Marsupials are different from other mammals because they have an abdominal pouch

    to carry their young. Here the baby marsupial matures for weeks or even months.

    � Carnivores are meat-eaters. They have sharp claws and teeth with which to kill their prey. This group includes cats both domestic and big cats, dogs, wolves, hyenas, bears, foxes, etc.

    Cetaceans are also carnivores but they have their own category.

    � Rodents are the largest family of mammals. The name of the species means “gnawing animal”, because of their large incisor teeth and the way they eat. There are 3 major types of rodents:

    squirrel-like (squirrel, gopher) with large eyes and bushy long tails; mouse-like rodents (mouse,

    rat, hamster) and porcupines with their long, sharp quills for protection.

    � Ungulates are animals that have hooves. Ungulates can be further split into - odd-toed ungulates - have an odd number of toes and are also grazing animals - horse, donkey, zebra; even-toed

    ungulates - have an even number of toes - pig, giraffe, deer, antelope, goat, cow, sheep, llama,

    camel and elephants.

    � Cetaceans live in water, but they must come to the surface to breathe air. Whales and dolphins can dive deep in the water on a single breath. They also have a highly developed brain and are

    considered to be very intelligent. Dolphins, as well as some whales, can use echolocation to find

    food and identify objects around them.

    � Seals, Seal Lions and Walrus are marine mammals. Seals are well designed to swim in water. Their bodies are very streamlined and their flippers propel them quickly through the water.

    Walruses differ from seals in that they have large tusks.

    � Primates have several distinctive features that separate them from other mammals: well developed hands and feet with fingers and toes, and opposable thumbs enabling them to grab

    things. Primate eyes are forward in the head giving them stereoscopic vision and allowing them

    to judge distance. They also have large, highly developed brains. Parents care for and educate

    their young much longer than other animals.

    Adapted from: http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/notes/INTRO.html,

    http://www.kidport.com/RefLIB/Science/Animals/Animals.htm, www.wikipedia.org;


  • 1. Reading comprehension Answer the questions

    1) What is the main feature of invertebrates and which family is the largest one? 2) Explain the mechanism of fish breathing 3) Name some distinctive characteristics of birds 4) What is unique about mammals? 5) What is the function of thumb and eyes in primates?

    2. Lexis: Label the pictures of invertebrates with correct name of their phylum:

    a) …………………. d) ………………….

    b) …………………. e) ………………….

    c) …………………..

    3. Translation Translate the following expressions into English. The first letters have been given.

    a. jednobuněčný organismus s_______ - c_________ o_______________

    b. řídit pohyb c___________ l_______________________

    c. tvrdá vnější ulita h__________ o_____________ s________

    d. plavat vypuzováním vody s________ by e______________ w________

    e. klást vajíčka ve vodě l__________ e________ in w_____________

    f. živit se velkými zvířaty f_________ o___ l_________ a__________

    g. křídla, peří, zobák w___________, f___________, b________

    h. stálá tělesná teplota c____________ b________ t____________

    i. velké kly l______________ t_________________

    j. ostré ostny na ochranu s__________ q________ for p___________

  • 4. Gap fill: Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words from the box

    feed fur controls birth from capable

    temperature glands constant differentiate

    Mammals have several unique characteristics that…………………… them ………….. other animals. Most

    mammals have hair, or …………, covering their body. They are………………….. of regulating their body

    ………………………….. Their metabolism…………………………. heat production, and the sweat……………….

    help cool the body. These allow the mammal to maintain a……………………… body temperature. One

    other difference is that mammals give……………… to fully formed babies and the female mammals

    produce milk to…………………. their young.

    5. Complete the table by writing distinctive features or name of the phylum. An example has been done for you.


    body divided into segments annelids

    hard outside shell

    inflate/deflate swim bladder


    scales covering body; cold-blooded



    meat-eating mammals; sharp teeth to kill prey


    dive deep on a single breath


    hoofed mammals

    6. Identify proper phylum/subphylum for each of the animals below and give their Czech

    equivalent: Phylum Czech

    1) wasp _____________________ ____________________

    2) horse _____________________ ____________________

    3) koala _____________________ ____________________

    4) lizard _____________________ ____________________

    5) fox _____________________ ____________________

    6) sheep _____________________ ____________________

    7) squirrel _____________________ ____________________

    8) rattle snake _____________________ ____________________

    9) alligator _____________________ ____________________

    10) porcupine _____________________ ____________________


    amphibian /æmˈfɪbiən/ obojživelník

    annelida /əˈnelɪda/ kroužkovci

    antenna /ænˈtenə/ tykadlo

    arachnid /əˈræknɪd/ pavoukovec

    arthropod /ˈɑː(r)θrəpɒd/ členovec

    backbone /ˈbækˌbəʊn/ páteř

    beak /biːk/ zobák

    bee /biː/ včela

    beetle /ˈbiːt(ə)l/ brouk

    butterfly /ˈbʌtə(r)ˌflaɪ/ motýl

    carbon dioxide /ˌkɑː(r)bən daɪˈɒksaɪd/ oxid uhličitý

    carnivore /ˈkɑː(r)nɪvɔː(r)/ masožravec

    cartilage /ˈkɑː(r)təlɪdʒ/ chrupavka

    cetacean /sɪˈteɪʃən/ kytovec

    claw /klɔː/ drápek, pařát

    crustacean /krʌˈsteɪʃ(ə)n/ korýš

    differentiate /ˌdɪfəˈrenʃieɪt/ rozlišovat, odlišit

    earthworm /ˈɜːθˌwɜː(r)m/ žížala

    echinoderms /ɪˈkaɪnəˌdɜːrmz/ ostnokožci

    essential /ɪˈsenʃ(ə)l/ nezbytný, nutný

    fang /fæŋ/ jedovatý zub hada, tesák

    feather /ˈfeðə(r)/ pero, pírko

    feed /fiːd/ krmit

    flipper /ˈflɪpə(r)/ ploutev

    fly /flaɪ/ moucha, muška

    fur /fɜː(r)/ srst, kožich

    gills /ɡɪlz/ žábry

    give off /ɡɪv ɒf/ vylučovat, vyzařovat

    gnaw /nɔː/ hryzat, hlodat

    gopher /ˈɡəʊfə(r)/ sysel

    herbivore /ˈhɜː(r)bɪˌvɔː(r)/ býložravec

    heterotroph /ˈhetərəˌtrof/ konzument, heterotrof

    hibernate /ˈhaɪbə(r)neɪt/ přezimovat, hibernovat

  • hoof (pl. hooves) /huːf/ kopyto

    incisor /ɪnˈsaɪzə(r)/ řezák

    insect /ˈɪnsekt/ hmyz

    invertebrate /ɪnˈvɜː(r)tɪbrət/ bezobratlý

    jaw /dʒɔː/ čelist

    joint /dʒɔɪnt/ kloub

    limb /lɪm/ končetina

    lizard /ˈlɪzə(r)d/ Ještěr (ka)

    mammal /ˈmæm(ə)l/ savec

    marine /məˈriːn/ mořský

    marsupial /mɑː(r)ˈsuːpiəl/ vačnatec

    mature /məˈtʃʊə(r)/ dospět, dozrát

    mite /maɪt/ roztoč

    mollusk /ˈmɒləsk/ měkkýš

    multicellular /ˌmʌltɪˈseljʊlə(r)/ mnohobuněčný

    muscle /ˈmʌs(ə)l/ sval

    noticeable /ˈnəʊtɪsəb(ə)l/ patrný, zjevný

    omnivore /ˈɒmnɪˌvɔː(r)/ všežravec

    oyster /ˈɔɪstə(r)/ ústřice

    parasite /ˈpærəsaɪt/ parazit

    perch /pɜː(r)tʃ/ bidýlko, hřad

    poisonous /ˈpɔɪz(ə)nəs/ jedovatý

    porcupine /ˈpɔː(r)kjʊpaɪn/ dikobraz

    pouch /paʊtʃ/ vak

    prey /preɪ/ kořist

    primate /ˈpraɪmeɪt/ primát

    protozoan /ˌprəʊtəˈzəʊən/ prvok

    quill /kwɪl/ bodlina, osten

    rattlesnake /ˈræt(ə)lˌsneɪk/ chřestýš

    reptile /ˈreptaɪl/ plaz

    rodent /ˈrəʊd(ə)nt/ hlodavec

    roundworm /ˈraʊndˌwɜː(r)m/ škrkavka

    scale /skeɪl/ šupina

    scorpion /ˈskɔː(r)piən/ štír, škorpión

  • seal /siːl/ tuleň, lachtan

    shed /ʃed/ svléknout, shodit

    shell /ʃel/ skořápka, ulita, mušle

    skull /skʌl/ lebka

    slug /slʌɡ/ slimák

    snail /sneɪl/ hlemýžď, plž

    sole /səʊl/ noha, chodidlo

    species /ˈspiːʃiːz/ druh (živočišný)

    spine /spaɪn/ osten, bodlina, trn

    surface /ˈsɜː(r)fɪs/ povrch, povrchový

    sweat gland /swet ɡlænd/ potní žláza

    swim bladder /swɪm ˈblædə(r)/ plynový měchýř

    tail fin /teɪl fɪn/ ocasní ploutev

    tick /tɪk/ klíště

    tissue /ˈtɪʃuː/ tkáň

    ungulate /ˈʌŋgjʊleɪt/ kopytník

    vertebrate /ˈvɜː(r)tɪbrət/ obratlovec

    walrus /ˈwɔːlrəs/ mrož

    wasp /wɒsp/ vosa

  • 4. EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF ANIMALS (mammals; species specific body features)

    Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine which studies the structure of living organisms. Human anatomy studies the structure of humans, zootomy deals with animal body structures, and phytotomy studies the structure of plants. There are many branches to anatomy, such as comparative anatomy, developmental anatomy or pathological anatomy, etc. The basic unit of life is a cell. Groups of cells with similar functions form tissue. There are four basic types of animal tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nervous. An organ is formed by a collection of tissues; while an organ system comprises two or more organs which cooperate with one another in order to perform a certain task. The body is a unique collection of interdependent organ systems. As far as the outer animal body structure is concerned, there are several basic parts common to cattle and swine, as illustrated in the diagrams below. Sorted roughly from cranial to caudal direction the main parts of large animals are the head, throat (neck), forelimbs, trunk including chest (thorax) and abdomen (stomach), tail and the hind limbs. On the head we find forehead, eyes, muzzle in a cow and snout in a pig, mouth with lips, ears, and horns in a cow. Underneath the snout in pigs there is a jowl, sometimes referred to as pig’s chin. The neck is located behind the ears and in front of the shoulder. The belly and ribs are found just behind the shoulders and elbow pocket.

    Picture 1 - Outer body structure of cattle

  • Picture 2 – Outer body structure of swine Skeletal System The skeletal system is a structural framework that provides support and protection to the animal body. The skeletal system is also necessary for motion of animals as muscles are attached to the skeleton and joints are movable. The basic components of this system are bones, cartilages and ligaments. The main factors that influence bone development are stress of animals, level of hormones in the organism and also nutrition of animals represented by well-balanced diet and a certain amount of vitamin D in the foodstuff. Muscular System The main functions of muscular system are movement as well as producing heat. The system comprises smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles. Smooth muscles are directed by autonomic nervous system. They are part of blood vessels, digestive and reproductive system. Cardiac muscle forming the heart is also regulated by autonomic nervous system and cause involuntary movements (e.g. heartbeat). The last type of muscles is represented by skeletal muscles responsible for all voluntary movement as well as for particular involuntary movements as standing or breathing. Some species have specific body parts and features. These include: 1) BODY COVERAGE Fur is extensive body coverage typical of mammals. It is made of short, very fine and soft hair. The principal function of fur is thermoregulation. Bristles are thick, strong animal fibres collected at commercial abattoirs for use in brushes. Fish and snakes are covered with scales which protect the body and help in locomotion. Snakes periodically moult their scaly skins and acquire new ones. Specific types of body coverage include wool hair (textile fibre obtained from sheep and other animals e.g. goats, camel, rabbits etc.), mane - the hair that grows from the top of the neck of a horse or other equine and lions. All birds are covered with feathers. The externally visible feathers which determine a bird’s silhouette and the contour of wings, tail and body are called contour feathers. Body covering of amphibians, skin, often has protective colouring and is able to absorb water and oxygen from the

  • environments. Exoskeletons are hard external frameworks which support and protect the soft tissues of lower animals (e.g. shell of a crab or a crawfish). Some animal species are protected by spines (quills) which are modified hairs coated with thick plates of keratin (e.g. hedgehog). 2) BODY APPENDAGES

    • ANTENNAE (sg. antenna) - paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods (e.g. paired, mobile, and segmented, located between the eyes on the forehead in insects)

    • TENTACLES are usually two or more elongated flexible organs present in animals, especially invertebrates which are used for feeding, feeling and grasping (e.g. in a jellyfish) whereas there are ARMS in octopuses

    • WINGS – appendages used for flight. Insects are the only invertebrates known to have evolved flight; they have two pairs of wings - forewings and hindwings. Wings in bats developed on finger bones and are much thinner than in birds; the result is quicker and more accurate flight. The tissue is able to regrow. For birds, flight is the main locomotion, their wings developed on forelimbs and appear in various shapes and sizes - enabling various speed and manoeuvring.

    • GILLS are respiratory organs found in many aquatic organisms; they extract dissolved oxygen from water, and excrete carbon dioxide. Majority of bony fish species have five pairs of gills.

    • LIMBS - most animals use limbs for locomotion /walking, running, climbing/, some animals can use their front limbs to carry and manipulate objects, some animals also use hind limbs for manipulation; fore limbs – anterior appendages /foreleg, wing, flipper/, hind limbs – posterior appendages /hind leg/

    • FINS - most distinctive features of fish, composed of bony spines protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together; located in different places /dorsal fin, caudal fin, anal fin etc./ on the fish serve different purposes /moving forward, turning, and keeping an upright position/

    • TAILS - the section at the rear end of an animal's body

    • HOOF/HOOVES - the tip of a toe of ungulate mammals, covered with a thick keratin shell, grow continuously. Most even-toed ungulates /sheep, goats, deer, cattle, bison, pigs/ have two main hooves on each foot, together called a cloven hoof. Most also have two smaller hoofs called dew-claws. Some odd-toed ungulates have one hoof on each foot; others /rhinoceroses, tapirs/ have three hoofed or heavily nailed toes, or one hoof and two dew-claws

    • HORN/S - a pointed projection of the skin on the head consisting of a keratin covering. One pair of horns is usual, two pairs occur in a few wild species and domesticated breeds of sheep. Horns are usually curved or spiral and occur mainly in males. They grow soon after birth and continue to grow throughout the life.

    • ANTLERS - usually large, branching bony appendages on the heads of most deer species. Antlers are found mostly on males, only caribou and reindeer have antlers on the females and grow faster than any other mammal bones. Antler growth and shedding is seasonal, and controlled by the length of daylight.

    • CLAW/S are found at the end of a toe or finger in most mammals, birds, and some reptiles. They are made of keratin and used to catch and hold prey in carnivorous mammals /e.g. cats and dogs/, for digging, climbing trees etc. Many predatory mammals have protractile claws /can partially hide inside the animal's paw/, especially the Felidae.

  • • BEAK – (also bill or rostrum) is an external anatomical structure of birds used for eating, killing prey, manipulating objects, probing for food, feeding young, etc. Beaks vary significantly in size and shape from species to species. Two holes called nares (nostrils) connect to the hollow inner beak and the respiratory system.

    • PAWS - soft foot of a mammal, generally a quadruped (dog, fox, cat, tiger, bear, rodent, etc.) that has claws or nails. A hard foot is called a hoof. Paws are used to pad feet for walking.

    • WHISKERS – specialized hairs for tactile sensation that grow around the nostrils, above the lips, and on other parts of the face of most mammals, as well as on the forelegs and feet of some animals. A large part of the brain of many mammals is devoted to processing the nerve impulses from whiskers, because it is important for survival

    • SNOUT/MUZZLE - protruding portion of an animal's face, consisting of its nose, mouth, and jaw

    • TRUNK - a fusion of the nose and upper lip, elongated and specialized, elephant's most important and versatile “tool”


    BUCHALOVÁ, K., BRAUNER, P.: Texty a cvičení z anglického jazyka pro posluchače bakalářského studijního programu FVHE VFU Brno (kombinovaná forma). Brno 2011. BUCHALOVÁ, K., SCHÜLLEROVÁ, S.: Angličtina pro posluchače bakalářského studijního programu FVHE VFU Brno. Texty a cvičení. Brno 2010. PODVESKÁ, K.: Species Specific Body Features (internal VFU materials)

    1. Reading comprehension

    Answer the questions

    a. Explain the difference between zootomy and phytotomy.

    b. What is a tissue in anatomy?

    c. Name two basic functions of skeletal system.

    d. What is the difference between smooth and skeletal muscles?

    e. Name and describe at least three body parts specific for cattle

    2. Lexis

    Read the definition and state appropriate body parts.

    Definition Body part

    1. extensive body coverage of soft and short hair in mammals

    2. protruding portion of animal´s face with nose, mouth, jaw

    3. respiratory organs in many aquatic organisms

    4. the tip of a toe of ungulate mammals, with keratin shell

    5. a pointed projection of the skin on the head, usually one pair

    6. appendages used for flight

    7. hair on the top of the neck of a horse, lions

  • 8. large, bony appendages on the heads of most deer species

    9. protective hairs coated with keratin (e.g. in hedgehog)

    10. external anatomical structure in birds used for eating

    3. Translation Translate the following expressions into English. The first letters have been given.

    a) podpora a ochrana s___________ and p____________________

    b) vyvážená strava w_______-b_________________ d________

    c) přední a zadní končetiny f_________________ and h_______ l__________

    d) kosterní soustava s___________________ s___________________

    e) ovlivnit vývoj kostí i________________ b_________ d____________

    f) působit mimovolné pohyby c_________ i______________ m_____________

    g) svlékat šupinatou kůži m____________ s___________ s_____________

    h) ochranné zbarvení p___________________ c___________________

    i) vstřebávat vodu a kyslík a____________ w__________ and o___________

    j) řízený nervovou soustavou r______________ by n____________ s_________

    4. Gap fill: Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words from the box

    of form tissues basic by

    more to are a which

    The……………………. unit of life is a cell. Groups of cells with similar functions …………………….. tissue.

    There………………….four basic types of animal ………………….. : connective, epithelial, muscle, and

    nervous. An organ is formed……………………. a collection of tissues; while an organ system comprises

    two or …………………… organs ……………………….. cooperate with one another in order …………… perform

    a certain task. The body is ……………… unique collection ………………… interdependent organ systems.

    5. Lexis Write the proper word form and translate the new word into Czech

    Noun Verb Czech








  • VOCABULARY abbatoir /ɑæbəɕtwɑə(r)/ jatky

    abdomen /ɑæbdəmən/ břicho, dutina břišní

    acquire /əɑkwaǺə(r)/ získat, nabýt, osvojit si

    anatomy /əɑnætəmi/ anatomie

    antler /ɑæntlə(r)/ paroh

    appendage /əɑpendǺdȢ/ přívěsek, doplněk

    bison /ɑbaǺs(ə)n/ bizon

    branch /brɑəntʃ/ větev, odvětví

    breed /briəd/ pěstovat, chovat, plemeno

    bristle /ɑbrǺs(ə)l/ štětina, chlup

    cardiac /ɑkɑə(r)diæk/ srdeční

    cartilage /ɑkɑə(r)təlǺdȢ/ chrupavka

    cattle /ɑkæt(ə)l/ skot, dobytek

    caudal /ɑkǤədəl/ kaudální, ocasní

    certain /ɑsǬə(r)t(ə)n/ jistý, určitý

    chest /tʃest/ hruď, hrudník

    claw /klǤə/ dráp, pařát

    cloven hoof /ɑkləʊv(ə)n huəf/ pazneht

    comprise /kəmɑpraǺz/ sestávat, skládat se z

    connective /kəɑnektǺv/ pojivový

    cranial /ɑkreǺniəl/ lebeční, kraniální

    crawfish /ɑkrǤəɕfǺʃ/ rak

    deal with (sth) /diəl wǺθ/ zabývat se (čím)

    deer /dǺə(r)/ vysoká zvěř, jelenovití

    digestive /daǺɑdȢestǺv/ trávicí, zažívací

    elbow /ɑelbəʊ/ loket

    epithelial /ɑepǺθi:lǺəl/ epitelový

    equine /ɑekwaǺn/ koňský

    fibre /ɑfaǺbə(r)/ vlákno, vláknina

    fin /fǺn/ ploutev

    flipper /ɑflǺpə(r)/ ploutev (velrybí, tulení)

    forehead /ɑfǢrǺd/ or /ɑfǤə(r)ɕhed/ čelo

    forelimb /fǤə(r)lǺm/ přední končetina

    framework /ɑfreǺmwǬə(r)k/ soustava, kostra

    gills /DZǺlz/ žábry

    head /hed/ hlava

    hedgehog /ɑhedȢɕhǢDZ/ ježek

    hindlimb /haǺndlǺm/ zadní končetina

    horn /hǤə(r)n/ roh, parůžek

    involuntary /ǺnɑvǢləntəri/ bezděčný, mimovolný

    jowl /dȢaʊl/ spodní čelist, sanice

    ligament /ɑlǺDZəmənt/ vaz

    mane /meǺn/ hříva

  • moult /məʊlt/ svlékat, pelichat

    muscular /ɑmȜskjʊlə(r)/ svalový

    muzzle /ɑmȜz(ə)l/ čenich, čumák

    nutrition /njuəɑtrǺʃ(ə)n/ výživa

    organ /ɑǤə(r)DZən/ orgán

    outer /ɑaʊtə(r)/ zevní, vnější

    perform /pə(r)ɑfǤə(r)m/ vykonat, provést

    predatory /ɑpredət(ə)ri/ dravý

    rhinoceros /raǺɑnǢs(ə)rəs/ nosorožec

    rib /rǺb/ žebro

    skeletal system /ɑskelǺt(ə)l ɑsǺstəm/ kosterní soustava

    smooth /smuəð/ hladký

    snout /snaʊt/ čumák, rypák

    spiral /ɑspaǺrəl/ točitý, šroubovitý

    swine /swaǺn/ prase, vepř

    tapir /ɑteǺpə(r)/ tapír

    tentacle /ɑtentək(ə)l/ chapadlo

    thermoregulation /ˈθɜːməɑreDZjʊɑleǺʃ(ə)n/ termoregulace

    thorax /ɑθǤəræks/ hruď, hrudník

    throat /θrəʊt/ hrdlo, krk

    trunk /trȜŋk/ trup

    vessel /ɑves(ə)l/ céva

    whiskers /ɑwǺskə(r)z/ vousy, fousky (kočičí)

    zootomy /zəʊˈɒtəmɪ/ zootomie, anatomie živočichů


    Man's first efforts to keep wild animals in captivity date back to prehistoric times, and for many

    reasons humans are attracted to non-human animals. The distinction between wild animals and

    domesticated animals can be fuzzy. Domesticated animals are those that have been bred in captivity

    for a number of generations, but the precise number of generations in captivity to qualify as

    domesticated is not easy to define. All domesticated animals were once wild.

    The earliest known evidence of a domesticated dog is a jawbone found in a cave in Iraq and dated to

    about 12,000 years ago. The first animals to be domesticated as a source of food are sheep in the

    Middle East around 9000 BC. Goats followed soon after, and these two became the standard animals

    of the nomadic tribes. Cattle and pigs, common in settlements, are domesticated slightly later - after

    7000 BC. Apart from dogs, cats are the only domesticated animals to dwell indoors

    with humans. In the temples of Egypt cats are sacred animals, and millions of them

    are mummified. In folk stories of all nations a cat is the natural companion for

    people who possess supernatural powers such as witches. Humans acquire their

    most important ally from the animal kingdom when they domesticate the horse, in

    about 3000 BC. The original purpose, as with cattle, is to acquire a reliable source

    of meat and milk. But then people discovered that horse is a valuable means of

    transport. Camels occupy an important place alongside horses and donkeys – they carried and

    transported heavy goods. Jungle fowl – ancestors of today's poultry - are captured and kept for their

    eggs and their flesh by about 2000 BC in Asia. Later on pigeons in Egypt, elephants in India were

    tamed and bees were forced to live in beehives constructed by men. The turkey is indigenous to

    central and north America. It was kept as a domestic fowl by the Aztecs in Mexico from the 14th

    century and brought to Europe in the 16th

    century. In addition to the standard domesticated animals,

    many others have been kept or are now kept by humans for a wide range of purposes (e.g. ostriches

    for feathers, hamsters as pet animals for children).

    However, many animals are not kept for meat, milk, eggs or as pets. People also keep animals for

    entertainment, often in zoos, marine parks, aquariums or circuses. In the past, some institutions paid

    little attention to the welfare of the animals. Luckily, they are undergoing a revolution to provide

    better physical and social environment for animals. It is not possible to give an animal an exact

    replica of its natural environment but animals have the ability to adapt to a wide range of conditions.

    The goal of a zookeeper is to provide an animal with an environment similar to its natural

    environment in which it can survive and reproduce. It is important to study the animal´s behavior in

    its natural habitat – e.g. the normal sleeping place (some animals sleep in protected places, others

    sleep in the open), the place of refuge from danger is also important (some animals flee in danger,

    others become immobile, some run up a tree, others run underground). The concept of habitat or

    territory has important consequences for the correct handling and design of environment for animals

    in captivity.

    The animal must have an adequate diet to maintain a healthy condition. Food should be presented in

    such a way that the animal spends as much time eating as it would in the wild. Carnivores normally

    hunt and kill their prey which cannot happen in captivity. However, the carnivores, after eating,

    spend most of their time sleeping, so they do not have a problem of filling in time. On the other

  • hand, plant-eaters present more of a problem as they normally spend much of their day feeding

    (cows spend about eight hours per day grazing, sheep about 10 hours/day).

    The most important ethical issue about keeping wild animals is the welfare of the animal itself. In

    captivity, can we provide a wild animal with the proper diet, exercise, and socialization that it would

    get in the wild? The animal may be exposed to high stress levels during the capture and transport,

    improper care, in confined spaces, and the inability to exhibit natural behavior. This may lead to

    changes in behavior – from stereotypical activities (e.g. pacing in cages due to lack of physical

    activity) to increased aggression and susceptibility to illness. These are all important factors when

    considering the welfare of captive animals.

    Adapted from: http://animalbehaviour.net (by Judith K Blackshaw), http://exoticpets.about.com (by Lianne

    McLeod, DVM), http://www.historyworld.net (by Bamber Gascoigne)

    1. Reading comprehension Answer the questions

    1) What does the term “domesticated” mean? 2) What were the first animal species to be domesticated in nomadic tribes? 3) Explain the main reasons for domestication of horses and camels. 4) What is the goal of a zookeeper in providing care for animals? 5) Explain the role of natural habitat in handling animals in captivity.

    2. Lexis Label the animals according to their place of captivity. Sometimes more than one answer is correct.

    Write F for farm, Z for zoo, A for aquarium. One example has been done for you.

    pig F snake ostrich elephant

    turtle seal bull tortoise

    elk duck seahorse sea lion

    rooster lamb owl fowl

    parrot kangaroo lion whale

    orca monkey octopus bee

    ox dolphin calf tiger

    bear giraffe cow shark

    3. Lexis Write the proper word form and translate the new word into Czech

    Noun Verb Czech








  • Verb Noun Czech








    4. Translation Translate the following expressions into English. The first letters have been given.

    a. zvíře v zajetí a____________ i__ c__________________

    b. zdroj potravy s____________ o__ f__________________

    c. přebývat uvnitř d____________ i__________________

    d. posvátné zvíře s____________ a__________________

    e. nejdůležitější spojenec the m________ i_________________ a_______

    f. dopravní prostředek m___________ o__ t___________________

    g. běžná domácí zvířata s____________ d_____________ a________

    h. přesná kopie e___________ _ r___________________

    i. schopnost přizpůsobit se the a____________ t__ a_______________

    j. přiměřená strava a_______________ d_________________

    5. Gap fill Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words from the box

    define efforts distinction bred be times precise

    Man's first _________to keep wild animals in captivity date back to prehistoric ________, and for

    many reasons humans are attracted to non-human animals. The ____________ between wild

    animals and domesticated animals can______ fuzzy. Domesticated animals are those that have been

    ________in captivity for a number of generations, but the __________ number of generations in

    captivity to qualify as domesticated is not easy to ____________.


    ability /əɑbǺləti/ schopnost, dovednost

    ally /ɑælaǺ/ spojenec

    aquarium /əɑkweəriəm/ akvárium

    attention /əɑtenʃ(ə)n/ pozornost, péče

    beehive /ɑbiəɕhaǺv/ úl, včelín

    behavior /bǺɑheǺvjə(r)/ chování, reakce

    breed (bred, bred) /briəd/ chovat, pěstovat

    captivity /kæpɑtǺvəti/ zajetí

    circus /ɑsǬə(r)kəs/ cirkus

    companion /kəmɑpænjən/ společník, druh

    confined /kənɑfaǺnd/ stísněný, omezený

    consequence /ɑkǢnsǺkwəns/ následek, důsledek

    distinction /dǺɑstǺŋkʃ(ə)n/ rozdíl, odlišnost

    domesticated /dəɑmestǺɕkeǺtǺd/ ochočený

    donkey /ɑdǢŋki/ osel

    dwell /dwel/ přebývat, zdržovat se

    entertainment /ɕentə(r)ɑteǺnmənt/ zábava

    evidence /ɑevǺd(ə)ns/ důkaz, známka

    exhibit /ǺDZɑzǺbǺt/ projevit, dát najevo

    exposed /Ǻkɑspəʊzd/ vystavený, odkrytý

    flee /fliə/ utéci, prchat

    fowl /faʊl/ kur, divoké ptactvo

    fuzzy /ɑfȜzi/ neostrý, rozmazaný

    goat /DZəʊt/ koza

    goods /DZʊdz/ zboží, věci

    graze /DZreǺz/ pást, spásat

    habitat /ɑhæbǺtæt/ habitat, místo výskytu

    hamster /ɑhæmstə(r)/ křeček

    handling /ɑhændlǺŋ/ manipulace, zvládání

    immobile /ǺɑməʊbaǺl/ nehybný, nepohyblivý

    improper /ǺmɑprǢpə(r)/ nesprávný, nevhodný

    indigenous /ǺnɑdǺdȢənəs/ původní, domorodý

    maintain /meǺnɑteǺn/ udržovat, zachovat

    means /miənz/ prostředek, prostředky

    mummify /ɑmȜmǺfaǺ/ mumifikovat

    nomadic /nəʊɑmædǺk/ kočovný, kočující

    occupy /ɑǢkjʊpaǺ/

    zaujímat, obývat

    ostrich /ɑǢstrǺtʃ/ pštros

    pace /peǺs/ přecházet, popocházet

    pigeon /ɑpǺdȢ(ə)n/ holub

    possess /pəɑzes/ vlastnit, ovládat

    poultry /ɑpəʊltri/ drůbež

    precise /prǺɑsaǺs/ přesný

  • purpose /ɑpǬə(r)pəs/ účel, smysl

    refuge /ɑrefjuədȢ/ útočiště, úkryt

    reliable /rǺɑlaǺəb(ə)l/ spolehlivý

    sacred /ɑseǺkrǺd/ posvátný

    settlement /ɑset(ə)lmənt/ osada, sídliště

    sheep /ʃiəp/ ovce

    susceptibility /səɕseptəɑbǺləti/ náchylnost, sklon

    tame /teǺm/ ochočit, krotit

    tribe /traǺb/ kmen

    turkey /ɑtǬə(r)ki/ krůta, krocan

    valuable /ɑvæljʊb(ə)l/ cenný, hodnotný

    welfare /ɑwelfeə(r)/ prospěch, dobro

    zoo /zuə/ ZOO


    Animal feed plays an important part in the food chain and has implications for the composition and

    quality of the livestock products (milk, meat and eggs) that people consume. Legislation on animal

    feed is harmonised at European Union (EU) level. It applies especially to feed for farmed livestock,

    but also covers feed for horses, pets, farmed fish, zoo and circus animals, and creatures living freely

    in the wild.

    The animal feedstuffs market is divided into concentrates and non-concentrates, with concentrates

    accounting for the overwhelming majority of sales. The move to larger farms has encouraged farmers

    to consider more customised feedstuff plans and dietary plans for their animals. Increased legislation

    and the banning of certain ingredients in feedstuffs, notably animal bone meal and some antibiotics,

    has led to important changes in the industry. Alternative products, such as soya bean meal

    (substitution for animal bone) and natural products (substitution for antibiotics) are used more and

    more in the industry.

    Main types of animal feedstuffs include:


    Forage (mainly plant leaves and stems) is an integral component in all aspects of ruminant nutrition.

    Pressures on the dairy sector to improve milk yields and higher prices of animal feedstuff have made

    it important for farmers to have accurate information about the nutritional values of their forages.

    Forage quality changes through age and storage, its nutritional value has to be tested regularly.

    Forages include: fresh grass & maize, grass & maize silage, hay & legumes. Sometimes we distinguish

    between forage – food that the animals get themselves by grazing and fodder - food given to the

    animals (straw, compressed or mixed food).

    Equine Feeds

    Experts say that a balanced diet for horses should include forage, bran, barley, oats, maize, fruit and

    root vegetables. To ensure maximum digestibility, barley may be partly cooked.

    Pet Feeds

    An increasing level of attention is now focused on the quality of pet feeds, in particular for dogs and

    cats. Pet owners realise the health benefits of feeding their animals to the highest standards.

    In cat food, wet food continues to dominate the market. The opposite is true in the dog food sector,

    where it is dry dog food that is dominating.


    Premixes are mixtures of vitamins and feed additives manufactured for inclusion in animal diets. For

    many years premixes have been used as feed supplements for cattle, swine, poultry and fish.

    Source: http://www.sciantec.uk.com/animal_feedstuffs.asp


    1. Reading comprehension

    a. Name some banned ingredients in animal feedstuff and their alternative substitutions.

    b. Name an important component of ruminant nutrition and explain its meaning.

    c. What is a premix?

  • 2. Translation Translate the following expressions into English. The first letters have been given.

    a) potravní řetězec f____________ ch____________________________

    b) naprostá většina o_________________ m_______________________

    c) stravovací plán d_________________ p________________________

    d) zákaz některých surovin b______________ of c___________ i_____________

    e) důležité změny i_____________ ch___________________________

    f) výživa přežvýkavců r_______________ n_________________________

    g) zlepšit výnosy mléka i_______________ m______________ y_________

    h) mít přesné informace h______________ a_____________ i____________

    i) získat potravu spásáním g_____ f______________ by g__________________

    j) maximální stravitelnost m_________________ d_______________________

    3. Gap fill: Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words from the box

    is, level, where, and, focused, continues, benefits

    An increasing …………………………. of attention is now………………………. on the quality of pet feeds, in

    particular for dogs ……………. cats. Pet owners realise the health ………………….. of feeding their animals

    to the highest standards. In cat food, wet food ………………………… to dominate the market. The

    opposite is true in the dog food sector, …………………….. it is dry dog food that ………………….


    4. Lexis Write the proper word form and translate the new word into Czech

    Noun Verb Verb: Czech









    account for /əɑkaʊnt fə(r)/ tvořit, podílet se

    accurate /ɑækjʊrət/ přesný, správný

    additive /ɑædətǺv/ přísada, aditivum

    alternative /ǤəlɑtǬə(r)nətǺv/ alternativa, alternativní

    antibiotics /ɕæntibaǺɑǢtǺks/ antibiotika

    attention /əɑtenʃ(ə)n/ pozornost, péče

    barley /ɑbɑə(r)li/ ječmen

    bone meal /ɑbəʊnɕmiəl/ kostní moučka

    bran /bræn/ otruby

    cattle /ɑkæt(ə)l/ dobytek, skot

    component /kəmɑpəʊnənt/ součást, složka

    composition /ɕkǢmpəɑzǺʃ(ə)n/ skladba, složení

    concentrate /ɑkǢns(ə)nɕtreǺt/ koncentrát, soustředit se

    consider /kənɑsǺdə(r)/ uvážit, zvážit

    creature /ɑkriətʃə(r)/ tvor, stvoření

    customize /ɑkȜstəmaǺz/ upravit dle potřeb uživatele

    digestibility /daǺɑdȢestǺbǺləti/ stravitelnost

    encourage /ǺnɑkȜrǺdȢ/ povzbudit, pobídnout

    equine /ɑekwaǺn/ koňský

    feedstuff /ɑfiədɕstȜf/ krmivo

    focus on /ɑfəʊkəs/ zaměřit se na

    fodder /ɑfǢdə(r)/ píce, krmivo (hl. seno, sláma)

    forage /ɑfǢrǺdȢ/ píce, krmivo

    graze /DZreǺz/ pást se, spásat

    hay /heǺ/ seno

    implication /ɕǺmplǺɑkeǺʃ(ə)n/ důsledek, dopad

    legislation /ɕledȢǺɑsleǺʃ(ə)n/ zákonodárství, zákony

    legume /ɑleDZjuəm/ luštěnina

    livestock /ɑlaǺvɕstǢk/ hospodářská zvířata

    maize /meǺz/ kukuřice

    majority /məɑdȢǢrəti/ většina

    nutrition /njuəɑtrǺʃ(ə)n/ výživa

    oats /əʊts/ oves

    overwhelming /ɕəʊvə(r)ɑwelmǺŋ/ převážný, naprostý, ohromný

    silage /ɑsaǺlǺdȢ/ silážové krmivo, siláž

    stem /stem/ stonek, kmen

    storage /ɑstǤərǺdȢ/ uskladnění, sklad

    straw /strǤə/ sláma, slaměný

    supplement /ɑsȜplǺment/ doplněk

    vitamin /ɑvǺtəmǺn/ vitamín

    yield /jiəld/ výnos, tržba


    Legislation & Organizations

    “Animals, like humans, are living beings and are capable of experiencing various degrees of pain

    and suffering, and hence they deserve attention, care and protection by man”.

    These are the first words of the Act No 246/1992 Coll., on the protection of animals against cruelty,

    the basic law on animal protection in the Czech Republic, which regulates activities of state

    authorities such as the Ministry of Agriculture, including the Central Commission for Animal Welfare,

    and the veterinary administration authorities.

    The Act prohibits the cruelty to animals. The purpose of this Act is to protect animals, which are living

    beings capable of experiencing pain and suffering, against cruelty, damage to their heal