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September 2006 NASA/TP-2006-213726 The Apollo Experience Lessons Learned for Constellation Lunar Dust Management Sandra A. Wagner Johnson Space Center

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  • September 2006

    NASA/TP-2006-213726

    The Apollo Experience Lessons Learned for Constellation Lunar Dust Management Sandra A. Wagner Johnson Space Center

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  • Spetember 2006

    NASA/TP-213726

    The Apollo Experience Lessons Learned for Constellation Lunar Dust Management Sandra A. Wagner Johnson Space Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77058-3696

  • Available from:

    NASA Center for AeroSpace Information National Technical Information Service 7121 Standard Drive 5285 Port Royal Road Hanover, MD 21076-1320 Springfield, VA 22161

    This report is also available in electronic form at http://ston.jsc.nasa.gov/collections/TRS

  • CONTENTS PAGE

    Acronym List ............................................................................................................................................ii

    Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................ iii

    Introduction..............................................................................................................................................iv

    Surface Obscuration during Descent.........................................................................................................1

    LM Descent Engine Regolith Transport ...................................................................................................6

    Lunar Module Contamination.................................................................................................................10

    Contamination during Transfer between the LM and CSM....................................................................15

    Command Module Contamination..........................................................................................................21

    Mechanisms for Lunar Module Contamination ......................................................................................25

    External Environment Lunar Dust Effects..............................................................................................34

    Space Suits and Seals..............................................................................................................................48

    Dust Characterization..............................................................................................................................56

    Human Effects. .......................................................................................................................................59

    Hygiene...................................................................................................................................................61

    Conclusions.............................................................................................................................................62

    References...............................................................................................................................................63

  • ACRONYMS

    ALSEP Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package CSM Command Service Package CDR Commander CM Command Module CWG Constant Wear Garment DCON Decontamination ECS Environmental Control System EMU Extravehicular Mobility Unit ETB Equipment Transfer Bag IFR Instrument Flight Rules LCG Liquid Cooling Garment LCRU Lunar Communication Relay Unit LEC Lunar Equipment Conveyor LEVA Lunar Extravehicular Visor Assembly LiOH Lithium Hydroxide LREP Lunar Robotic Exploration Program LM Lunar Module LMP Lunar Module Pilot LRV Lunar Roving Vehicle LTG Lunar Traverse Gravimeter LSAM Lunar Surface Access Module MESA Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly MET Mobile Equipment Transporter OPS Oxygen Purge System PGA Pressure Garment Assembly PLSS Portable Life Support System PSE Passive Active Experiment RCU Remote Control Unit ROD Rate of Descent RTG Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator SEP Surface Electric Properties SRC Sample Return Container SWC Solar Wind Composition

    ii

  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    I think dust is probably one of our greatest inhibitors to a nominal operation on the Moon. I think we can overcome other physiological or physical or mechanical problems except dust.

    Gene Cernan Apollo 17 Technical Debrief

    "A common sense, layered, engineering design defense can solve any apparent problem with dust during long-term human activity and habitation in the lunar environment."

    Jack Schmitt Ames Research Center Lunar Dust Symposium

    February 2, 2004 As NASA embarks on its Exploration Vision, it will encounter many technical challenges. For lunar exploration missions, perhaps its greatest challenge will be to learn to live with lunar dust. NASA will have to be prepared to meet that challenge. Lunar dust can be managed by using good engineering design for reliability and ease of maintenance and by incorporating innovative technologies and operations into Lunar mission design. Problems associated with lunar dust during the Apollo Program were reviewed and are detailed in this report. The Apollo Mission Reports and Technical Debriefs were used to identify problems, solutions, and lessons learned. These documents were chosen because they were prepared immediately after the missions, while crewmembers memories of their lunar experience were still fresh. This report intentionally did not include later documentation and statements by crews, because memories fade and change, this methodology should produce a historically factual report. This report should be considered a starting point. However, recollection at a distance from an event doesnt necessarily degrade the quality of the information, but, tends to cull less memorable events and reinforce the very memorable ones. This can be useful as well. Review and analysis of additional documents should also be performed to supplement the information contained in this report to ensure all available information is considered. Supplementary reports should be published periodically as additional information is evaluated. The report evaluates information presented in the Apollo documents and proposes forward work to manage lunar dust in Constellations lunar missions. Recommendations center on solutions to address root causes and strive to ensure fiscal responsibility.

    iii

  • INTRODUCTION This report is divided into eleven sections.

    1. Surface Obscuration During Descent 2. LM Descent Engine Regolith Transport 3. Lunar Module Contamination 4. Contamination during Transfer between the LM and CSM 5. Command Module Contamination 6. Mechanisms for Lunar Module Contamination

    a. General Effects b. Traction c. Cables and Cords d. Translation Aids e. Lunar Rover Vehicle f. Pockets

    7. External Environmental Lunar D