March 2013 Science Updates Public Health Issues

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March 2013

Science Updates

Public Health Issues


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Muhammad Arsalan Khan

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Eastern Finland

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Title Author Page no

1. Articles

Moringa Olifera- A Gift of Nature Engineering Student Association of Bangladesh Story Behind The Tasty Barbequed Cuisine Preservation of Raw Cow Milk by (H2O2) The Broken Environmentalist Text Message Marketing

Farooq Ahmed ESAB

Kanza Abid Muhammad Usman Akram

Suhail Ahmed Rahujo Yashfeen Zahid Ansari

3 – 5 6 7

8 – 11 12

13 - 14

2. Scientific News

First documented case of child cured from HIV BlackRock has taken 80$ million Twitter stake 3D printing by Nokia Lens-less camera emerges from meta-materials work

Faiza Azeem Usmani

Assistant Editor at eSci Research

15 16 17 18

3. Public Health Issues

Rise in diabetes suffers in Pakistan Vegetarian men at reduced risk for heart disease

Raseen Tariq

Assistant Editor at eSci Research

19 20

4. Upcoming Events

14th International Congress, Romania 5th International Medical Congress in Slovakia Essay Writing Competition 2013

eSci Events

Events and Operations Management Team of eSci


21 22 23

5. International Partners

eSci Research

24 - 25

Table of



Farooq Ahmed

Student of BS (Hons)

Agriculture at University

of Punjab

Moringa olifera is not less than a gift of nature for all creatures on earth.

Its common name in Pakistan is suhanjana or sanjana. Not only humans,

all creatures can get benefit by Moringa plant like plants, livestock and

insects also. Moringa plant is well known in world for its nutritive,

medicinal, antioxidants and phytochemicals. It is also very popular in two

non-government organizations of U.S.A namely Church world service

and Educational concerns for hunger. An organization in Pakistan is also

working on it which is Moringa for Life. Over the past two decades there

are many scientists who are working on it and wrote many papers on this

single plant. However, these papers are not enough because there are

many aspects and properties, which are since hidden in it despite several

researches. This plant has power to remove hunger from our beloved


Moringa olifera, miracle plant species, belongs to Moringaceae family

native to sub tropical belt like India and Pakistan. It is known because of

its frequent phytochemicals and high amount of nutrients. Its tree is used

Moringa Olifera-

A Gift of Nature


to eliminate malnutrition especially among infants and nursing mothers.

There are three non-government organizations internationally which are

working on moringa a) Trees for life b) Church World Servise

Organization and c) Educational Concers for Hunger Organization. The

above all organization declared Moringa as a natural nutritious plant of

the tropics. Moringa leaves have calcium, phosphorous, protein,

potassium, sulfur, iron. Its leaves are also rich in cytokinin zeatin, auxins.

So, due to the mentioned compounds, we use moringa leaf extract as a

natural growth enhancer for plants. MLE is already reported to increase

in yield of sorghum, melon, peanut, corn, wheat and sugarcane.

Treatment of MLE not only increase yield (20-35%) also improve taste

and quality of crop. M. olifera seeds powder are used as water purifying


It can also purify sewage water to some extent and makes it suitable for

crops use. Moringa seed Oil (Ben oil) is most stable oil of nature, can

also be use as biofuel. MLE can also be used as biopesticides a safe

alternative of chemicals. Because of its high quantities of Ca, Mg and

carbohydrates it can also increase milk production in livestock (43-65%)

and we can use it as a fodder. It is also a medicinal plant; its seed oil is

used in medicines. According to fooglie there are following applications

of Moringa parts a) Alley cropping from biomass production b) honey

and sugar cane purifier by powdered seeds c) ornamental uses d)

domestic cleaning agent by crushed leaves e) foliar nutrients from MLE

f) gum from tree trunk g)fencing by living trees h)rope from bark i)green

manure from leaves j)pulp by wood k)fertilizers from seeds cake l) blue

dye from wood m)animal forage from leaves and treated seed cake n)

honey from flower nectar o) biopesticides p)water purification by

powdered seeds q) medicines from all plant r)biogas from leaves. Oil of

Moringa (30-40% by weight) is also known as Benoil. This oil is sweet,

non-drying, non sticking oil that can resist rancidity. This oil can be used

in salads, for fine machines lubricants, in hair care products, to make

many medicines, for cooking purposes and to increase shelf life of

ordinary cooking oils.


Disease Treatment and Prevention

Benefits from moringa plant and products such as extracts, decoctions,

poultices, creams, oils, emollients, salves, powders, porridges are not

quite so popular. Many old people use it as traditional medicines for cure

of many diseases. Moringa preparations have been cited in the scientific

literature as having antibiotic, antitrypanosomal, hypotensive,

antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, and

hypoglycemic activities, as well as having considerable efficacy in water

purification by flocculation, sedimentation and even reduction of


Unfortunately, many of these reports of efficacy in human beings are not

supported by randomized clinical trials. Moringa gum can cure typhoid,

syphilis and toothache leaf and flowers of this can cure

infection,Epilepsy, Hysteria and Headache can also be cured by roots

bark; a flower a root bark oil (from seeds) and leaves roots bark gum

respectively. All parts of this are good anti-inflammatory

All parts of Moringa are very nutritious. Leaves and seeds have a large

quantity of antioxidants. Leaves have carotenoids. It has high amount of

iron and it has quality oil and proteins also.



Engineering Students

Association of


ESAB is going to organize the biggest Robotics Competition in

Bangladesh in association with Techkriti’13, IIT Kanpur.

Techkriti is one of the largest and oldest technical and entrepreneurship

festival of its kind in Asia to be held in 14-17 March, 2013. GRC (Global

Robotics Competition) is a part of this mega event which will be held in

two stages. The regional competition will be held at universities

worldwide. The winners of the regional competition will go to grand

finale to be held in Kanpur, India. For the first time, Bangladesh has

become a part of this prestigious competition. Engineering Students’

Association of Bangladesh (ESAB) will be the official organizer of

Bangladesh event. On this regard, an official letter has been signed

between ESAB and IIT Kanpur very recently.

ESAB is the largest government registered engineering student

organization in Bangladesh comprising units in all major engineering

universities. It is a government registered non-profit voluntary

organization and works for the development concern of engineering

students. Details of the competition will be published soon at


Engineering Student

Association of Bangladesh


Kanza Abid


year Institute of

Environmental Studies,

University of Karachi

We all enjoy beautiful, tender, grilled meat round the year. Don’t we? But

consuming that delicious food can also prove hazardous to us. It is due to

charred meat, which makes barbequed food deadly for us. Now the

question is what is charred meat? And why it is harmful to us? Charred

meat is actually the meat which is changed into charcoal due to

overheating. This overheated meat can produce a carcinogenic compound

called PhIP, which stands for 2 amino-1-methyl -6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]

pyridine. Along with PhIP, some heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are also

produced which contribute to the development of cancer by causing

mutations in genes, causing new cells to grow in an uncontrolled manner

and form a tumor. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also

formed during barbecue. PAHs are formed when meat fat drips onto hot

barbecue coals and creates a smoke that deposits PAHs onto the meat.

But the good news is this that you don’t have to exclude this tempting

cuisine from our diet, however we should take some simple measures to

lower the cancer risks from this source, which includes marinating the

meat, removing the burnt meat while serving , remove grease and caked

oil from griller etc.

Story Behind

The Tasty Barbequed Cuisine


Muhammad Usman


University of Veterinary

and Animal Sciences,

Lahore, Pakistan

Milk contains on average water, fat, protein, lactose and minerals with

87.25, 3.80, 3.50, 4.80, 0.65 % respectively. Milk contains considerable

amount of water soluble vitamins (Vitamin B complex and Vitamins C)

and fat soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E, K). Milk is also good food for

the growth of different micro-organism either desirable or undesirable.

On the other hand, Undesirable micro-organisms may disturb the actual

flavor or texture, also may be pathogenic causing different diseases in

human beings.

Pakistan is on 4th number in the list of milk producing countries with the

production of 47.951 million tons milk annually. Mostly milk is

predominantly produced in small batches in far flung rural areas. Due to

its traditional unhygienic handling and perishable nature, mostly milk

spoiled, most particularly in summer season. At rural level it is not

possible to safe milk by cooling, so chemical preservative is preferably

added. To prevent this spoilage, milk collectors use variety of chemicals

or keep the temperature down by using ice blocks, to prevent the growth

of microbes. One of the important chemical is hydrogen peroxide which

is used to activate the LP-system, for the purpose to kill the spoilage

causing microbes.

Preservation of Raw

Cow Milk by (H2O2)


Lactoperoxidase (LP) system is naturally present in raw milk that

prevents the bacterial multiplication due to its bacteriostatic effect. By

activating the LP-system, shelf life of milk can be increased for 8 to 12

hours. For this purpose, different ingredients like salt of thiocyanate or

hydrogen peroxide or both in small concentrations is used

(Recommended dosage 15-30 ppm for each salt). Lactoperoxidase (LP)

system consists of three components; LP, thiocyanate and hydrogen

peroxide. And it is active only when all of three components are present.

Lactoperoxidasecatalyses the oxidation of thiocyanate by hydrogen

peroxides and generates an intermediate product with antibacterial

properties. These products have a broad range of antimicrobial effects

against bacteria, fungi and viruses.


Raw milk preservation by use of H2O2 is done for many important

purposes like:

1. To enhance the shelf life of milk for consumption without microbial


2. To minimize the processing cost by heating the milk.

Materials and Methods

The experiment will be conducted at Dairy Technology Lab for

undergraduate of Department of Dairy Technology, University of

Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-Pakistan.

Milk Source & Materials

Whole cow milk will be collected from B-block Farms of University of

Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi Campus Pattoki after taking all

hygienic measures.

Experimental Protocol

Samples, after through mixing will be divided into seven equal parts. Out

of the seven parts, one part was kept as untreated milk (fresh) and six

portions were treated with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 % of

H2O2. Plastic containers will be used to preserve milk. The parameters

used to monitor the physical and chemical quality of milk will be

determined initially just before adding hydrogen peroxide and then after


adding the preservatives until the milk samples will spoil.

Preservation Procedure

This study was conducted over a period of three weeks. Each week a five

liter cow milk sample was collected from fresh bulked milk of the dairy

farm. The collected milk samples after thorough mixing were divided into

three equal parts. Of the three parts, one part was kept as untreated milk

(fresh) and two portions were treated with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and

0.06 % of H2O2 respectively. Plastic containers were used in milk

preservation. Each of the three treatments was further divided into two

equal portions. One portion from each treatment was stored at 4 °C and

the other portion at 20 °C. The untreated milk samples (control samples)

were analyzed immediately after delivery to the laboratory and then

after 24 h, as the standard LVS 175:1999 requires raw milk without

preservation can be used for analysis only within 36 h. Analysis of

preservative-treated milk samples was conducted after 24, 48, 72 and 96

h, respectively. All parameters used to monitor the quality of milk were

determined in ten replications in CRD pattern.

Physical Tests

Organoleptic tests will be performed visually to observe the flavor, color

and texture. Specific gravity will be determined by using lactometer.

Chemical Tests

Fat and protein tests were made using infrared spectroscopy on a

MilkoScan Fat and protein tests were made using infrared spectroscopy

on a MilkoScan Fat and protein tests were made using infrared

spectroscopy on a MilkoScan FT6000TM

configured as a CombiFossTM

6000FC together with a FossomaticTM

FC (FOSS Electric A/S,

Denmark) according to ISO 9622:1999(E) and manufacturer’s

recommended procedures. Methylene blue reduction (MBR) test will be

performed. Clot on boiling (COB) test will be performed.

Bacteriological analysis

Total bacterial count (TBC) and Psychrophic count (PC) will be



Statistical Analysis

Milk samples were taken in complete randomization design as to check

the storage activity and treatment conditions after regular intervals of

time with reference to control sample.

Analysis of variance test will be done to find the statistical difference

(Significant or not) between the different treatments and to make a

comparison between different treatment means LSD value was


Storage activity

Fresh cow’s milk was collected and experiments were conducted by for

treatments in order to achieve the optimum condition of storage. The

treatments were with various concentration of H2O2 starting from 0.01,

0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 % respectively. Treated milk with 0.04 %

concentration of H2O2 had storage period of 20 days compared to that of

the control sample (5 days only) in refrigerated temperature (±8°C). On

the other hand hydrogen peroxide treated milk (0.04 %) had a storage

period of 8 hours at room temperature (±28°C).

Treatment conditions

Control and treated milk samples are subjected to different treatment

conditions like change of temperature, pH, acidity etc. for the

determination of potential of milk samples to denature or spoil in a pre

calculated time.


Suhail Ahmed Rahujo

Institute of Environmental

Studies, University of


I am totally broken today!

The Environment where I live is destroyed today.

The water that I drink for survival becomes scarce today!

The soil that feed me different types of fruits and vegetables are shorted


The oxygen is escaped from the atmosphere of my soul and gone to the


My life is just fade up today and surrounded by lot of pollution.

I have set various laws, rules and regulations besides tried to apply many

parameters but all in vain.

The natural beauty of my heart has become the coal of Thar!

My heart beats are buried into various ores of minerals of Balochistan

that have lost their values now!

My friends, some of which had flooded into the super flood of Sindh,

others died due to shortage of water become the fossils are calling me

eagerly. They have kept spoiled food and polluted water plus CO2.

Oh my alive friends!!! My all resources are vanished today!

My soul's environment is blasted today!

I am died today!

……died today!

………... today!

The Broken



Yashfeen Zahid Ansari

University of Karachi

Sounds familiar?? I’m sure at some occasion you must have come across

with text messages like these on your cell phones. Most of us receive text

messages like this nowadays. Text message marketing or SMS marketing

is the latest trend in marketing industry of advertising your product in

huge masses of people. It is the most exciting, easy, simple, convenient

and cost-effective way to reach your customer anywhere at any time. This

is so because of the continuous increase in number of cell phone users in

today’s life. Cell phone users are now greater than the listeners of radio,

viewers of television and readers of different newspapers & magazines.

The success of text message marketing as an important marketing tool

depends upon how people are crazily addicted to cell phones and its use.

Now cellular phones have become an essential component of our

everyday life, so essential that our survival seems difficult without it. It’s

not like that other means of communications are obsolete but it’s just that

text message marketing is more popular among people now especially the

young generation i-e: youth. In Pakistan, 60% of population is youth.

That’s another very important factor in success of SMS marketing

because the so-going texting or messaging craze is more common among

youth of our nation. They are the ones who usually generate or forward

texts like this. In fact, forwarding trend is more common than generating

because not everyone is in marketing business but everyone is surely

Text Message



interested in good & suitable marketing deals. That’s why people used to

forward marketing text messages to their friends, family members or


Through text message marketing one can use short message service

(SMS) as a direct advertising & marketing tool to enhance your business,

the process usually involves the collection of mobile numbers by

customers using a keyword sent to a short code which results in including

that number to the database of that business company. Once data entry is

done, the company can prepare any promotion & advertise it to the

customers in through mobile marketing. Text message marketing is very

useful for restaurants, hotels, cafes, event promoters, concert promoters,

product promoters, newspapers, magazines, FM radio, cable networks,

satellite television, schools, colleges, universities, political parties,

NGO’s, welfare organizations, estate agents, real estate agencies, cell

phone networks, etc.


Faiza Azeem Usmani

Assistant Editor at eSci


First documented case of child cured

from HIV

Dr. Deborah Persaud of Johns Hopkins University disclosed the first

standard case of a child, who was cured from HIV. This milstone was

announced at the 2013 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic

Infections in Atlanta, GA.



Scientific News


BlackRock has taken an 80$ million

Twitter Inc’s stake

BlackRock, world’s largest asset management company, has taken an $80

million stake in Twitter Inc. Twitter will not raise new wealth as part of the

private deal that values the firm at more than 9 billion dollars. BlackRock

will buy shares directly from early Twitter employees seeking to shut

down their stock holdings. Twitter’s new valuation represents a slight rise

from late 2011, when the company facilitated a similar tender offer with

Prince Alwaleed bin Talal of Saudi Arabia that valued the company at a

reported $8.4 billion. Twitter sought investors for another tender offer last

summer in the wake of Facebook Inc’s botched initial public offering in

May, but did not complete the deal until recently, according to people with






3D printing by Nokia

Nokia is launching design files that will let owners use 3D printers to make

their own cases for its Lumia phones. Files having mechanical drawings,

case measurements and recommended materials have already been

released by the phone maker. Those using the files will be able to create a

custom-designed case for the flagship Lumia 820 handsets.

The project makes Nokia one of the first big electronics firms to seriously

back 3D printing. John Kneeland, one of Nokia’s community managers

says in his blogpost that Finnish phone maker’s decision to release the 3D

drawings. Printing in 3D includes sending a design file to a printer that

then forms a solid version of that object by slowly building it up in layers

of plastic. Early 3D printers could only work in one color but the latest

versions can produce intricate, multicoloured.




Lens-less camera emerges from meta-

materials work

Cheap sensors that help cars avoid collisions could emerge from research

into a lens-less imaging system. US scientists have used meta-materials to

build the imaging system, which samples infra-red and microwave

light. Meta-materials are materials that have properties purposefully

designed rather than determined by their chemistry. The sensor also

compresses the images it captures in contrast to current compression

systems, which only squash images after they are taken.




Raseen Tariq

Assistant Editor at eSci


Rise in diabetes suffers in Pakistan

cause for concern


Diabetes is increasing very rapidly and the pace of the increase is likely

to jump given the present environmental conditions. However, it is also

assuming the shape of an epidemic the world over. This was disclosed by

Dr Samad A Shera, secretary-general of the Diabetes Association of

Pakistan, at a panel discussion on the ailment at the Head Office of the

association on Saturday morning. The discussion was held under the

aegis of the Mir Khalil-ur-Rahman Memorial Society. In Pakistan, Dr

Shera said, 10-11 percent of the adult population (around nine to 10

million) were smitten by the disease while almost as many, 9-10 percent,

were borderline cases. He said that 75 percent of the sufferers happened

to be in developing countries. Terming the factors for the spread of the

disease in Pakistan weapons of mass destruction, he said these were

unhygienic junk foods being vended profusely all over towns and

thoroughfares, and the unbalanced and overly rich diet. He also blamed

lack of exercise and outdoor activity for the spread of disease.

Comments and Suggestions

The number of diabetic patients in Pakistan is increasing each year in a

very aggressive manner. Proper orientation should be given to public in

order to protect the people. The quality of food must be improved. People

should be encouraged to do exercise and more outdoor activities. In short,

we can say that a proper anti-diabetic campaign should be initiated in

order to prevent this mass destructive disease.

Public Health



Vegetarian men at reduced risk for

heart disease

Vegetarian men weigh less and have less cardiovascular disease risk,

compared with non-vegetarians, according to a new study in Nutrition

and Metabolism. Researchers in China compared 171 vegetarians to 129

age-matched non-vegetarians and found that the vegetarian men's weight,

blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels were lower,

compared with the meat-eaters. The vegetarians' arterial walls were

healthier as well.

Researchers have known for years that Westerners adopting a vegetarian

or vegan diet are healthier than meat-eaters. This new study shows that,

even within a country where rice and other plant foods are staples, those

who avoid meat completely are better off than those who include even

modest amounts of meat.

Comments and Suggestions

This news clearly shows the benefits of vegetables for good health.

People should be given proper awareness regarding the fact that

increased consumption of vegetables along with decreased use of

meat can surely serve as a protective factor against heart.


Breaking medical news


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