The changing face of motherhood in Western Europe: changing face of motherhood in Western Europe — Spain ... 1.2.7 Labour saving devices and impact ... The changing face of motherhood in Western ...

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  • ThechangingfaceofmotherhoodinWesternEurope:Spain

    TheSocialIssuesResearchCentre2012Commissionedby

    TheSocialIssuesResearchCentre28StClementsStreetOxfordOX41ABUK+44(0)1865262255group@sirc.org

  • ThechangingfaceofmotherhoodinWesternEuropeSpain

    Contents1.1Spain..................................................................................................................................................................4

    1.1.1Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1.2Historicalperspectives ......................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1.3Demographicsofmotherhood ............................................................................................................................. 5 1.1.4Definingmotherhood(lamaternidad)intheSpanishcontext .......................................................................... 5 1.1.5MotherhoodandEmployment............................................................................................................................. 6 1.1.6Childcare............................................................................................................................................................... 8 1.1.7Childrenathomeforlonger ................................................................................................................................. 8 1.1.8Valuesandpopularrepresentations .................................................................................................................... 8 1.1.9Motherhoodandsports ....................................................................................................................................... 9

    1.2Spanishnationalsurvey......................................................................................................................................9 1.2.1Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.2.2Currentfreetimeandmetime .......................................................................................................................... 9 1.2.3Generationalcomparisons ................................................................................................................................. 10 1.2.4Perceptionsofchange........................................................................................................................................ 11 1.2.5Impactofeconomicdownturn........................................................................................................................... 12 1.2.6Idealdecades...................................................................................................................................................... 13 1.2.7Laboursavingdevicesandimpactontimeuse ................................................................................................. 13 1.2.8Timewithchildren.............................................................................................................................................. 14 1.2.9Helpinthehome................................................................................................................................................ 15

    1.2.9.1Childcare .................................................................................................................................................... 15 1.2.9.2Domesticwork........................................................................................................................................... 15

    1.2.10Roleofthefather ............................................................................................................................................. 16 1.2.11MaternalGuilt .................................................................................................................................................. 16 1.2.12Maternalisolation ............................................................................................................................................ 17 1.2.13Supportandadvice........................................................................................................................................... 18

    1.2.13.1Improvingthequalityoflife .................................................................................................................... 19 1.2.14Sport................................................................................................................................................................. 19

    TableoffiguresFigure1.Freetime,hoursperweek.................................................................................................................................10 Figure2.Freetime,averagehoursperweekbyage........................................................................................................10 Figure3.Freetime,averagehoursperweekbynumberofchildren...............................................................................10 Figure4.Freetime,averagehoursperweekbyemploymentstatus ..............................................................................10 Figure5.Freetime,generationalcomparison..................................................................................................................11 Figure6.Freetime,generationalcomparisonbyage ......................................................................................................11 Figure7.mothersperceptionofchange..........................................................................................................................11 Figure8.Mothersperceptionofchange,byage.............................................................................................................12 Figure9.Impactofthecurrenteconomicclimateonbeingagoodmother..................................................................12 Figure10.Impactofthecurrenteconomicclimateonbeingagoodmother,bynumberofchildren ..........................12 Figure11.Impactofthecurrenteconomicclimateonbeingagoodmother,byage ...................................................12 Figure12.Impactofthecurrenteconomicclimateonbeingagoodmother,byemploymentstatus ..........................13 Figure13.Thegoldenageofmotherhood .......................................................................................................................13 Figure14.Thegoldenageofmotherhood,byage...........................................................................................................13 Figure15.Impactoflaboursavingdevices/productsonmothers ...................................................................................13 Figure16.Impactoflaboursavingdevices/productsonmothers,byage.......................................................................14 Figure17.Useoftimesavedbylaboursavingdevices/products ....................................................................................14 Figure18.Useoftimesavedbylaboursavingdevices/products,byage ........................................................................14 Figure19.Activetimewithchildren .................................................................................................................................14

    SocialIssuesResearchCentre,2012 2

  • ThechangingfaceofmotherhoodinWesternEuropeSpain

    Figure20Activetimewithchildrenbyageofyoungestchild. .........................................................................................15 Figure21.Personwhohelpsthemostwithchildcare/domestictasks.............................................................................15 Figure22.Personwhohelpsthemostwithchildcare/domestictasksbyageofyoungestchild.....................................15 Figure23.Timespentbyhusband/partneronchildminding/domesticchores ...............................................................16 Figure24.Perceptionsofthechangingroleofthefatherinthefamily...........................................................................16 Figure25.Perceptionsofthechangingroleofthefatherinthefamilybyage ...............................................................16 Figure26.Levelsofguilt ...................................................................................................................................................17 Figure27.Levelsofmaternalguiltaboutworklifebalancebyemploymentstatus........................................................17 Figure28.Maternalisolation............................................................................................................................................17 Figure29.maternalisolationbyage.................................................................................................................................17 Figure30.Maternalisolationbynumberofchildren .......................................................................................................18 Figure31.Maternalisolationbyemploymentstatus.......................................................................................................18 Figure32.Sourcesofadviceonmotherhood...................................................................................................................18 Figure33.Communicatingwithnetworks........................................................................................................................18 Figure34.Factorsmostlikelytoimprovequalityoflife...................................................................................................19 Figure35.Factorsmostlikelytoimprovequalityoflifebyemploymentstatus..............................................................19 Figure36.Encouragingchildrensparticipationinsport/physicalactivity .......................................................................19 Figure37.Timeconstraintsonencouragingsportsparticipation ....................................................................................20 Figure38.Timeconstraintsonencouragingsportsparticipationbyemploymentstatus ...............................................20 Figure39.Reasonsfornotsupportingsportsparticipation .............................................................................................20

    SocialIssuesResearchCentre,2012 3

  • ThechangingfaceofmotherhoodinWesternEuropeSpain

    1.1 Spain1.1.1 IntroductionSpainpresentsaparticularvisionofcontemporarymotherhoodthatissharedwithotherSouthernEuropeancountriessuchasItalyandGreece.MotherhoodinSpainischaracterisedbywomenhavingchildrenlaterinlife;marryinglaterinlife;leavingtheparentalhomelaterinlife;andlowerlevelsofwomeninemploymentcomparedwithotherdevelopedcountries.Inshort,formostSpanishwomenmotherhoodtakesplacewhentheyareintheirthirties,andisoftenseenasanalternativeratherthanacomplimentarylifestylechoicetopursuingacareer.

    Indeed,forwomenthinkingaboutbecomingmothers,themainfearisthatSpainsrelativelyinflexibleworkinghoursandtraditionalapproachtogenderrolesinthefamilywillmeanthattheywillnolongerbeabletopursueacareeriftheydohavechildren.Thesefearsarecompoundedbyunstableeconomicconditions,highlevelsofunemploymentforwomenandyoungpeople,alackofparttimeworkandevidenceofanemploymentpenalty(ordownwardoccupationalmobility)forwomenwhodoreturntoworkafterchildbirth.Forthoseattemptingtoestablishaworklifebalance,personaltime,workcommitmentsandsocialisingareoftensacrificedinfavourofmoretimewiththefamily.Familycomesatthecostofacompetitiveedgeinthelabourmarket.Infact,forSpanishmothersnotspendingtimewithonesfamilyisperceivedasamarkofdisadvantage,aboveandbeyondthepotentialeconomicdisadvantagesofnotworking.1

    Policyrelatedtochildcarehassignificantlyimprovedprovisioninrecentyears,butmostfamiliesstillrelyheavilyonextendedfamilynetworks,especiallyintheearlyyears.Withinthefamily,thereisevidencethatrolesarestillfirmlydividedalonggenderedlines,withwomentakingresponsibilityfordomestictasksandchildcare,andmenspendingmoretimeatworkandincontroloftheeconomicsphereoffamilylife.Spainisranked12thintheworldontheSavetheChildren2011StateoftheWorldsMothersindex.2

    1.1.2 HistoricalperspectivesAswithmanyotherWesternEuropeancountries,contemporarynotionsofmotherhoodinSpainareinpartderivedfromideasemerginginthe1700s.318thCentury

    1UNICEF(2011)ChildrensWellbeinginUK,SwedenandSpain:TheRoleofInequalityandMaterialism2SavetheChildren(2011)StateoftheWorldsMothers.London:SavetheChildren.3Abad,A.M.,MorenoSeco,M.(2004)MaternidadyevolucindelaidentidadafemeninaenlaEspaadelsigloXX,inM.SantoTomsPrez

    notionsofmotherhoodwerebasedontheideaofmotherhoodasanaturalstateandofwomenbeingclosertonaturebyvirtueoftheirroleinthereproductiveprocess.Theseideascontinuedintothe19thcentury,whenprocessesofindustrialisationacrossEuropemovedeconomicproductionoutofthedomesticsphereandintofactoriesandurbancentres.Whilewomenwerecertainlyinvolvedineconomicproductionoutsideofthehome(inSpain,aselsewhere,particularlyinthetextileindustry),thenotionofmotherhoodasanatural,innatestateforwomenmeantthatwomenweremorefrequentlyconfinedtotheprivatesphereofthefamilyhome,wheretheywereexpectedtotakeresponsibilityfordomestictasksand,aboveall,forchildcare.

    Inkeepingwiththisviewofthenaturalconnectionbetweenwomenandmotherhood,historicallymotherhoodhasbeentheprimarysocialroleforwomeninSpain.ThishasbeencompoundedbytheprofoundsignificanceoftheCatholicChurchinSpain(whichgenerallysupportsaconservativeandtraditionalviewofwomensroleinsociety),andbythelegacyofthestaunchlyconservativeFrancoregimeof19391975(whichplacedmotherhoodatthecentreoftheirprojectofnationbuilding).DirectlypriortothecoupdeetatinitiatedbyFrancoin1936,Spainwasintheprocessofenactinglegislationaimedatcreatingagreaterdegreeofequalitybetweenmenandwomen.WomengainedthepowertovoteinSpainin1931,anddivorcereformswerebroughtintolawin1932.DuringthistimeSpainwasalsothefirstWesternEuropeancountrytohaveafemalePrimeMinister.WiththestartoftheFrancoregime,however,thisprogresstowardsgenderequalitywasquicklyreversed.From1960to1975,Spainwascharacterisedbyastrictdivisionoflabouraccordingtogender,withcatholicvirtue,conservativepoliticsand,aboveall,motherhood,atthecoreoffemaleidentity.MotherhoodinturnbecameasymbolforFrancosnationbuildingenterprise:allthatwasgoodaboutmodernSpainwasepitomisedintheimageofthevirtuous,obedient,selfsacrificingmother.Men,fortheirpart,wereexpectedtoconformtoaconservativeviewofmasculinitythatplacedthemattheheadofthehouseholdandincompletecontrolofpublicandeconomicspheres.TheFrancoregimewasalsostronglypronatal,encouragingwomentohavebigfamiliesanddistributingprizes(oftenhandedoutbyFrancohimself)forthosemotherswhoraisedlargenumbersofchildren.4

    AfterFrancosdeathin1975,changesbegantotakeplacethatwouldalterthepositionofwomeninSpanishsociety.Adulteryandcontraceptionweredecriminalisedin1978,andanewandmoreprogressivedivorcelawcameintoplac...

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