The Medieval Period and Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales English 12 /English 12 Honors Mrs. Barton.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Medieval Period and Chaucers Canterbury Tales English 12 /English 12 Honors Mrs. Barton </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Medieval Period: 1066-1485 The Medieval time period is also referred to as the Dark Ages and/or the Middle Ages. Over the course of this time period in England, the economy, culture, language, religion, and geography dramatically transform as diversity and exploration takes shape. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> THE BEGINNING OF THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD Feudal estates-based on religious hierarchy Rural agricultural life/womens roles are limited Latin- only written language Christian Unity Limited geographical knowledge; limited travel </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> THE BIRTH OF FEUDALISM A caste system, a property system, a military system Based on a religious concept of hierarchy, with God as the supreme overlord. (The King held all the land as a vassal to God) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> CLASS STRUCTURE OF FEUDALISM LORD Knight Squire Yeoman Serfs </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> FEUDALISM The Feudal system developed in two ways: 1. Landowners wanted protection A. Paid a portion of the yield from their lands B. Provided soldiers from their families C. Performed whatever other duties and homage were required </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> FEUDALISM 2. Conquering princes/warlords- would reward valued allies with grants of land. The land still technically belonged to the prince, but they administered it. It became the private domain of the barons and dukes who were the grantees **Serfs were not really slaves but the bottom of the feudal social scale. They were bound to the land on which they worked. They owed service to the master of the land and were passed along from owner to owner. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH Clergy were important and powerful Church owned and controlled an exorbitant amount of land Church had its own legal and tax system Church leaders could speak with the religious leaders of other nations without the permission of the King (no one else could) Church supervised education </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> THE CRUSADES Began in 1096 (30 years after Norman Conquest) Christians fought against Muslims along the Mediterranean Sea and in North Africa The fought over Jerusalem and the Holy Land Europeans benefited from the contact with the higher civilizations of the Middle East. They were exposed to mathematics, astronomy, architecture, and medicine </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> ARCHITECTURE Gothic architecture was popular from1100 through 1500 While some were secular buildings most were produced for the church Prominent Features: stained glass, external archways, rib vaulting and flying buttresses which enabled them to create cathedral ceilings for the first time Famous examples: Notre Dame de Paris (1163 Westminster Abby (1245) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Medieval Musical Chants Originated in the early Christian church and became popular during this period Sung by monks in these great cathedrals and monasteries </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> PILGRIMAGES Pilgrimage- a journey to a holy place or sacred shrine to obtain special blessings from God, or as an act of devotion, penance, or thanksgiving. Places people take pilgrimages to: Holy Land- Jews, Christians, Muslims Varanasi- Hindus Mecca- Muslim Medieval people believed that life in this world was but a pilgrimage to reach heaven. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> MEDIEVAL LANGUAGE Three languages spoken: 1. French by the Norman rulers 2. Latin by the clergy and lawyers 3. Anglo-Saxon (Old English) by the common people Middle English 1. Evolves over a period of 400 years 2. Old English combines with the Norman French 3. Latin terms are added to the language of the common people </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> MEDIEVAL LITERATURE The average person still could not read. Plays were popular and often acted out in town squares. Dramas were often called Mystery Plays and the most common subject was Christianity. Plays would dramatize the lives of saints, bible stories, or serve as moral allegories. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> MEDIEVAL LITERATURE The legend of King Arthur was the a common subject of Medieval literature. Chaucer wrote Canterbury Tales as a frame story (a story or stories within a story). Lyrics and ballads were also very popular. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Geoffrey Chaucer 1343(?)-1400 Known as the Father of English Poetry Member of the middle class, well-educated (father was wine merchant) Served at court Made diplomatic missions to France, Spain, Italy Catholic yet acknowledged and exposed abuses within the Church in his writing </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> History of the Tales Geoffrey Chaucer began writing the tales around 1387AD The uncompleted manuscript was published in 1400AD, the year he died. First work of poetry purposely written in the English language. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Canterbury Tales: a frame story (story or stories within a story) Pilgrims journey from the Tabard Inn in Southwark, England to the shrine of St. Thomas a Beckett in Canterbury, England. Work was not completed at Chaucers death. planned for each of 30 pilgrims to tell 2 tales going to and 2 tales returning from Canterbury (120 stories in original plan) only finished 22 tales Pilgrims tales are written in narrative verse, aiming to entertain and teach a lesson. Chaucer customarily writes a five-stress, ten-syllable line, alternating unstressed and stressed syllables (what would later be called iambic pentameter). </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Map of England </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Pilgrims Route </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Canterbury Tales: What is it about Canterbury? It connected 3 trading ports to London; Julius Caesar invaded it in 43 A.D. The Roman civilization brought it theatres, baths, temples, etc. until invasion of Angles, Saxons, Jutes in 5th/6th century The Anglo Saxons of Canterbury converted to Christianity in 597 by Saint Augustine A monastery [todays cathedral] was founded in 602 by St. Augustine; Canterbury was the mother of British Christianity It was surrendered at Battle of Hastings (1066) to William the Conqueror; the cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1067 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Why pilgrimage to Canterbury? Enter Thomas a Becket. Thomas a Becket, archbishop of England and friend of King Henry II, fought for church independence. Becket and the king had a disagreement. Becket was exiled to France for 6 years because he supported the Pope instead of the King. When he returned, the king was angry. The king said, Not one will deliver me from this low-born priest in frustration. Suspiciously, four knights murdered Becket on December 29, 1170 in the Canterbury Cathedral. Thomas a Becket was made a saint (canonized) just 3 years later. St. Thomas a Beckets shrine was completed in 1220. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Canterbury Cathedral </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> THE END OF THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD More independent businesses Cities, commercial centers, trade routes develop Women are idealized Literature written in many languages- development of Middle English Diversity as the Reformation approaches Discoveries of new worlds as a result of more travel </li> </ul>

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