The Race for Nuclear Superiority The Power Behind the Cold War

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  • The Race for Nuclear Superiority The Power Behind the Cold War
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  • The Manhattan Project: 1941 Enrico Fermi proposes idea of using an atomic bomb as a catalyst for thermonuclear explosion 1943 General Leslie Groves and Robert Oppenheimer begin top secret Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, New Mexico
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  • April 1945 Truman briefed about Project just two days in to his presidency May 1945- Germany surrenders to Allied troops July 1945 Trinity test completed at secret site 210 miles south of Los Alamos, NM
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  • This first bomb equaled 18 tons of TNT
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  • August 6, 1945 Little Boy explodes 1900 feet above Hiroshima. Equals 12,500 tons of TNT. Approximately 100,000 people were immediately killed. By the end of 1945, Japan has 140,000 bomb-related deaths.
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  • Enola Gay B-29 bomber piloted by U.S. Army Air Force Col. Paul W. Tibbets. Tibbets had named the plane Enola Gay after his mother the night before the atomic attack.
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  • August 9, 1945 Fat Man explodes 1650 feet above Nagasaki. Equals 20,000 tons of TNT. Approximately 45,000 people were immediately killed and two square miles of city were destroyed. By the end of 1945, Nagasaki has 70,000 bomb-related deaths.
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  • B-29 #77, Bockscar Major Charles W. Sweeney piloted the B- 29, #77 that dropped Fat Man. After the nuclear mission, #77 was christened Bockscar after its regular Command Pilot, Fred Bock.
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  • October, 1945 Head of the Soviet Secret police, in charge of Nuclear Program is provided top-secret details on U.S. plutonium bomb by a spy working inside Los Alamos November, 1945 USSR concludes secret agreement with Czechoslovakia. USSR gets exclusive mining rights to all uranium mined in Czechoslovakia.
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  • February, 1946 Columbia University Faculty urges Truman to stop production of atomic bombs July, 1946 U.S. conducts atomic test at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific
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  • Bikini Atoll Explosion - Pacific
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  • After the fact at Bikini Atoll One of many U.S. military men afflicted with overexposure to radiation because of the involvement in or around the Bikini Atoll
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  • Soviet scientists achieve nuclear chain reaction, first step in building the bomb Their first bomb, Joe-1, was detonated August 29, 1949. December,1946
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  • 1949 heats up U.S. and Soviet Relations Andrei Sakharov moved to USSR secret weapons lab U.S. General Curtis LeMay introduces war plan for SAC-70 Soviet cities attacked by 133 bombs First Soviet atomic bomb tests explodes in Kazakhstan One month later, U.S. weather plane picks up evidence of radioactivity One month after test, President Truman informs public of Soviet Bomb Test
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  • 1950s Hysteria Mounts British Physicists Klaus Fuchs, from Manhattan Project, confesses to being Soviet Spy Truman announces decision to develop hydrogen bomb despite protests by U.S.s leading physicists Joint Intelligence Committee predicts build up of Soviet atomic arsenal and probable attack against U.S. Joint Chiefs call for all-out effort build H-Bomb NSC warns of Soviet attack once it has sufficient atomic capability North Korea invades South Korea
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  • April 5, 1951Joint Chiefs order atomic retaliation against air bases in case of major attack against UN forces in Korea May 9, 1951USs George test in Pacific triggers first thermonuclear reaction
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  • Victims of the times: Nikita Khrushchev, authorizes arrest and execution of former head of Soviet secret police and Soviet bomb project Lavrentii Beria Robert Oppenheimer, father of the Manhattan Project, is charged with security risk violations and removed from all bomb projects and documents
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  • POWER What do you do when you own the most powerful weapon of mass destruction ever created?
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  • The US tested an underwater device And an above ground device in the Bikini Atoll islands named Castle Bravo. The nuclear test was the largest nuclear detonation carried out by the United States, with a yield of 15 megatons - about a thousand times more powerful than those dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It formed a fireball three miles wide in one second, and the mushroom cloud reached an altitude of sixty miles within ten minutes:
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  • OCTOBER 30, 1961 Tsar is detonated by the USSR
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  • The threat posed such a serious problem, the government produced the duck and cover video which were played frequently in schools.
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  • Blast Zones 20 megaton Airburst 17,500 feet
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  • Points of Reference: Average hurricane winds = 120 mph Katrinas winds reach 140 mph One psi blast wave is equivalent to hitting a 30 x 64 kitchen window with 1,920 pounds of force with all doors and windows closed. The average boxers punch is 84 pounds
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  • The bomb dropped on Hiroshima was 20 kilotons. The one dropped on Nagasaki was less than 10 kilotons.
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  • Zone One - Vaporization 98% fatalities Everything vaporized by blast Wind velocity is 320 mph Psi is 25 Zone one 8.75 miles/20 megatons
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  • Vaporization Point - Nagasaki
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  • Zone Two Total Destruction 90% fatalities All above-ground structures destroyed Wind is 290 mph Psi is 17 Zone Two 14 miles/20 megatons
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  • Zone Two House in Hiroshima
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  • Zone Three Severe Blast Damage 65% fatalities, 30% injured Factories, large scale buildings collapse, severe damage to highway bridges. Some rivers flow countercurrent Wind is 260 mph Psi is 9 Zone Three 27 miles/20 megaton
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  • Zone Three - Nagasaki
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  • Zone Four Heat Damage 50% fatalities, 45% injured Everything flammable burns, deaths due mostly to suffocation from lack of oxygen from mass fires Wind is 140 mph Psi 6 Zone Four 31 miles/20 megatons
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  • Zone 4 - Hiroshima
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  • Zone Five Severe Fire and Wind Damage 15% dead, 50% injured Residency structures severely damaged, people suffer 2 nd and 3 rd degree burns Winds of 98 mph Psi is 3 Zone Five 35 miles/20 megaton
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  • Zone Five - Victims
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  • Last thing to consider: FALLOUT
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  • ASSUMPTIONS: Wind speed (after fact) 15 mph Wind direction due east Time Frame 7 days 1 megaton surface blast
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  • REM: Roentgen equivalent in man Measurement used to quantify amount of radiation that will produce certain biological effects
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  • 3000 REM 30 miles Much more than lethal does of radiation. Death can occur within hours of exposure Takes about 10 years for levels to drop low enough to be considered safe
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  • 900 REM 90 miles Lethal does of radiation Death occurs from two to fourteen days
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  • 300 REM 160 miles Causes extensive internal damage, include harm to nerve cells, cells lining digestive tract resulting in loss of white blood cells and temporary hair loss
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  • 90 rem 250 miles Temporary decrease in white blood cells w/no immediate harmful effects 2-3 years needed to reduce levels to safe levels
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  • Fallout of more than one, above ground nuclear device:
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  • Just for reference, since your country will be in possession of one 20 megaton device, the destruction zones of a 58 megaton device (the TSAR) would be: Zone 1 18.1 mile Zone 2 29 miles Zone 3 59.5 miles Zone 4 67 miles Zone 5 72.5 miles
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  • SAC (Strategic Air Command) Estimates for U.S. Targets by USSR Missiles
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  • Consider what I may have you do with this information. You will need to form groups of four, select a Leader, a Secretary of Defense, a Secretary of the Interior, and an Ambassador. You will be asked to provide this information on the Vocabulary Test tomorrow!!!! Click Me!!!
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  • References: http://www.pbs.org/wgph/amex/bombs http://www.nukefix.org http://home.clara.net/nybbles/oldestuff/vik/nuke
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  • October 30, 1961 The U.S. detonates a 58 megaton nuclear device. The largest nuclear warhead to date is: 61 tons
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  • Blast Zones 58 megaton Airburst 27,000 feet
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  • The bomb dropped on Hiroshima was 20 kilotons. The one dropped on Nagasaki was less than 10 kilotons.
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  • Points of Reference: Average hurricane winds = 120 mph. Katrinas landfall wind speech reach 140 miles per hour. One psi blast wave is equivalent to hitting a 30 x 64 kitchen window with 1,920 pounds or 872 kg. of force with all doors and windows closed. The average force behind a boxers punch is 38 kg.
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