The Society of Mindby Marvin Minsky
MotivationWhat is human mind and how does it work?How do we recognize objects and scenes?How do we use words and languages.How do we achieve goals?How do we learn ?How does common sense work?
An individual ant is not very bright, but ants in a colony, operating as a collective, do remarkable things. Motivation(contd.)"A single neuron in the human brain can respond only to what the neurons connected to it are doing, but all of them together can be Albert Einstein." By Deborah M. Gordon (Stanford University)
Some social systems in Nature can present an intelligent collective behavior although they are composed by simple individuals. The intelligent solutions to problems naturally emerge from the self-organization and communication of these individuals. Analogy : Ants' society
Individual ants are simple insects with limited memory and capable of performing simple actions. However, an ant colony expresses a complex collective behavior providing intelligent solutions to problems such as: carrying large itemsforming bridgesfinding the shortest routes from the nest to a food source, prioritizing food sources based on their distance and ease of access.Analogy :Ants society(cont.)
Analogy :Ants society(cont.)
K-lines, Nomes, Nemes
K-lines example, Large Agencies, Problem Solving
Communication and Growth of Mental Societies
Recent developments and conclusionContent
AgentsAny part or process of Brain that by itself is simple enough to understandAgents constitute the building blocks of the mindIn society of mind, mental activity reduces to turning individual agents on and offUnintelligent
AgencySociety of simple agents Can perform functions more complex than any single agent couldComplicated behavior is the result of the interaction between groups of agents
K-linesTurns on a particular set of agentsActivating a K-line can cause a cacade of effects in the mindReactivates the previous mental state based on the similarities between current situation and the situation previously encounteredCauses to enter particular remembered configuration of agents
Classes of K-linesNemes are concerned with the representing aspects of the worldNomes are concerned with controlling how the representations are manipulated.
Nemesproduced by learning from experiencePolynemes invoke partial states within multiple agenciespolynemes supports that meaning can be better expressed across multiple representations
MicronemesRefers aspects of a situation that are difficult to attach to any particular thingFeelings, emotions etc
NomesControls how representations are manipulatedIsonomes signal to different agencies to perform the same uniform type of coginitive operationPronomes control the use of short-time memoryPronomes are often associated with a specific role in a large situation or event
ParanomesSet of pronomes linked to each other Changes made by one pronome produce corresponding changes by other pronomes to related representations
Example of K-lineK-line attached to many agents.
Example of K-line formation
K-line formed due to the event
How to combine agents to form larger agencies?FramesFrames are a form of knowledge representationConcerned with representing a thing and all the other things or properties that relate to it in certain particular ways.Has slots.Built from pronomes which control use of slots.Frame-arraysCollection of frames which share slots.
How to combine agents to form larger agencies? Each frame describes the thing from some particular perspective or point of view.TransframesRepresent events and all of the entities that were involved with or related to the event.Picture-frames that represent the spatial layout of objects within scenes.
How can agents solve problems?Difference EnginesSimple Machine.Operate on difference between the current state and goal state.invoke suitable k-lines which reduce the difference.Censors and SuppressorsAdditional Knowledge about common pit falls and bugs in the methods.Supress the actions which lead to bugs.
How can agents solve problems? (contd...)A-Brain and B-BrainSome type of pitfalls not particular to any methodloopingB-Brain think about the A-Brain.
How do agents communicate with each other?K-Linesinvoke other agents in the mind.Connection-linesagents connected to each other through bus.Internal languageSimilar to how people communicate with each other in their natural language.ParanomesCommon Method
Growth of Mental SocietiesProtospecialistsHighly evolved agencies that produce behaviors provide initial solutions to problems such as locomotion, obtaining food.Predestined Learning Abilities which are shared among all the people.eg.walking
Growth of Mental SocietiesTypes of LearningAccumulatingRemember each example or experience as separate case.UniframingFinding general discription which subsumes multiple examples. TransframingAnology or some other form of bridge between two represenatations.ReformulationNew ways to describe the existing knowledge.
Growth of Mental SocietiesLearning from attachment figuresHow to learn goals in the first place.Interaction with attachment figures.Learning from Mental Managersmental growth are based not simply on acquiring new skillsacquiring new administrative ways to use what one already knowsDevelopment StagesMultiple Stages.Train each other.
Recent DevelopmentsCase-based reasoningThis field studies implementation details of K-lines. The methods that have been developed by this community are the most similar in spirit to Minsky's ideas about K-lines
Multiagent systemsThis Field tries to answer the kinds of questions about how one might build a Society of Mind. Researchers have proposed many ideas about how agents should communicate, how they might coordinate their different goals, how they might work together to plan solutions to problems, and so forth. There are now a wide variety of architectural ideas about how to build multiagent systems
Consequences of the theoryGodel's Incompleteness Theorem.Technological Singularity.Artificial Creativity.
Are People Machines?Human activities can be broken down into small, simple actions.It may be that humans are only highly complicated machines with billions of parts.
References Push Singh: Examining the Society of Mind. Computers and Artificial Intelligence 22(6): (2003) Marvin Minskey: Society of Mind. Book Julie Minskey: Society of Mind. Article. www.oss.net/dynamaster/file_archive/040324/e4bbee1dc1385f85730df870d1608682/WER-INFO-64.pdf Artificial Consciousness. Article. www.alextreme.org/docs/faai/Artificial_Consciousness-24042004.html