ToF-SIMSandAFMCharacterizationofBrownCosmeticContact 2020-01-22¢  ResearchArticle ToF-SIMSandAFMCharacterizationofBrownCosmeticContact

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  • Research Article ToF-SIMS and AFM Characterization of Brown Cosmetic Contact Lenses: From Structural Analysis to the Identification of Pigments

    SeonHeeKim ,1 JihyeLee ,1Yun Jung Jang ,1,2Kang-BongLee ,3 andYeonheeLee 1

    1Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea 3National Agenda Research Division, Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea

    Correspondence should be addressed to Yeonhee Lee; yhlee@kist.re.kr

    Received 29 August 2019; Accepted 24 December 2019; Published 22 January 2020

    Academic Editor: Jose Vicente Ros-Lis

    Copyright © 2020 Seon Hee Kim et al. ,is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    Over the years, soft contact lenses for vision correction and cosmetic and therapeutic purposes have been greatly improved. For cosmetic contact lenses, the pigments need to be nontoxic, and the position of the pigment layer is particularly important because of the risks posed by pigment elution and the roughness of the lens surface. In this paper, we characterized the properties of brown cosmetic contact lenses made by three different manufacturers using surface analytical techniques.,e surface topographies of the noncolored and colored parts were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the position and composition of the pigment layer were determined by analyzing the cross section of the contact lenses using scanning electron microscopy with energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). ,e influence of pigment location on surface roughness was also examined. In addition, to find the method of the evaluation for the risk of surface elution of the pigments in the colored parts, the mass spectra and ion images of the surfaces were obtained by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) with a new sample preparation. From the ToF-SIMS spectra, we observed specific fragment ions of the poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) polymer and found differences in the composition of the pigment layer depending on the manufacturers. ,e cross-sectioned image and 3D chemical characterizations of metallic and specific ions in the brown cosmetic contact lenses clearly indicated the spatial distribution and location of the pigment layer that can be used for the evaluation of pigment elution.

    1. Introduction

    Daily disposable soft contact lenses based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) have become increasingly popular. ,ese lens materials are composed of copolymers of HEMA and other hydrophilic or lipophilic monomers such as N- vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and methacrylates, the diversity of which contributes to the wide range of water contents of both ionic and nonionic lens materials [1, 2]. Among these contact lenses, cosmetic-type soft lenses containing colored patterns are rapidly gaining market share over the con- ventional clear-type soft lenses among young people, es- pecially in Asian markets [3, 4]. Cosmetic contact lenses are used to change or enhance the iris color to give a softer look through complex print patterns or a pigmented ring pattern

    that overlap with the limbal ring of the iris [5]. However, the presence of pigments may alter the surface properties and affect the wearing comfort of these pigmented lenses compared with clear contact lenses. Many manufacturers have showcased their own printing technologies to produce smooth pigmented lenses. ,e pigment layer is located on the front or on the back surface of the lens but can also be contained within the lens matrix depending on the manufacturing method [6–9]. If any pigments are released on the lens surface, they can contact with the cornea or with the ocular surface and could potentially compromise the ocular health. Recent studies demonstrated that lenses with pigments on the surface resulted in greater increase in ocular inflammation [5]. ,us, recent studies have shown that leakage of pigments from the lens can cause eye irritation,

    Hindawi Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry Volume 2020, Article ID 6134627, 11 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6134627

    mailto:yhlee@kist.re.kr https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0046-2673 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6090-4787 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0023-1461 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7614-3628 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3888-9127 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6134627

  • and the surface roughness caused by the pigment layer increases the adhesion rate of bacteria on the contact lens surface, potentially leading to eye infection [10–18].

    ,e advancements in technology have enabled the in- formation concerning the surface properties of contact lenses to be obtained at a more microscopic level. Several techniques have been reported in the literature to charac- terize lens materials and monitor the stability of the pigment layers, such as optical microscopy, optical coherence to- mography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and focused ion beam (FIB), [19–25]. Some researchers showed the surface changes by AFM after daily wear to investigate the wearing effect of the lens [26, 27]. Surface techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were also used to analyze the pigment distribution as well as lens materials [28–35]. Among the surface analytical techniques, AFM is a well- established technique for flatness analysis and imaging of biomaterial surfaces so that it has been often used to analyze the roughness of various soft contact lenses [21–24]. ,e surface roughness of a cosmetic contact lens has the po- tential to impact ocular physiology and product perfor- mance. Lau et al. measured the coefficient of friction (CoF) by using a microtribometer and compared the surface roughness of five cosmetic contact lenses using AFM to investigate the potential impact on comfort since CoF has been associated with end-of-day comfort performance [22].

    Above all, ToF-SIMS has been used to obtain the surface chemical information of contact lenses [30–35]. It has previously been used to investigate soft contact lens mate- rials, providing chemical information on the surface. It is also able to provide ion images of the elemental and mo- lecular composition of contact lens surfaces. However, previous studies have not shown the 3D chemical imaging for pigment distribution of the cosmetic contact lens that will be useful to determine the diffusion of the pigment layer. And there is a limitation to have ion images of the cross- sectioned lens using ToF-SIMS because of its tricky sample preparation method.

    In this study, HEMA-based brown cosmetic contact lenses made by three different manufacturers were analyzed using surface analysis techniques such as AFM, SEM-EDX, and ToF-SIMS. AFM analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the pigment layer on the roughness of the front surface or the back surface. ,e locations of the pigment layer in the cross-sectioned lenses were identified by SEM- EDX and ToF-SIMS with a new sample preparation method. ,e 3D chemical mapping of the cosmetic lenses was newly achieved using ToF-SIMS to determine the position and spatial distribution of the pigment layer in the colored part.

    2. Experimental Section

    2.1. Materials and Sample Preparation. ,ree commercially available brown cosmetic contact lenses made of poly(2- hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), representing the three most popular brands in Korea, were used in this study:

    Acuvue (Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Ireland, Lens CCL-A), Bausch + Lomb (Bescon Co., Ltd., Korea, Lens CCL-B), and Clalen (Interojo, Inc., Korea, Lens CCL-C). To reduce the number of variables, we chose only brown among a wide range of lens colors. ,e properties of each cosmetic contact lens are summarized in Table 1.

    ,e contact lens samples were prepared according to the requirements of each analytical instrument. However, lenses made of soft polymers are rich in moisture, and if dried, the original characteristics of the contact lens, such as thickness and hardness, may change. In particular, when analysis is performed under ultrahigh vacuum equipment, which is vulnerable to moisture, it is necessary to cut the sample into the smallest pieces possible for analysis and then make the measurements rapidly while maintaining the lens shape as much as possible. All of the samples were measured within 2 hours after sample preparation to preserve their original properties.

    To minimize the effect of the preservative solution on the surface analysis, contact lens samples were taken out of the original packages filled with the physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl), rinsed 3 times with deionized (DI) water, and DI water was removed with the filter paper. When preparing the samples, care was taken to prevent the analytical area of the contact lens from touching the filter paper. To measure the roughness and the chemical composition of the surface, each lens was cut into a noncolored part (central clear zone, 1) and two colored parts, all with a size of about 5mm× 5mm. ,e two colored parts were taken from the front surface (2) and the back surface (3), as shown in Figure 1(a).

    Figure 1(b) shows the five-step procedure to prepare the cross-sectioned contact lens samples for analysis using SEM- EDX and ToF-SIMS. Step 1: rinse a new lens in DI water. St