Too Little, Too Hard To Find

  • View
    218

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

IAEA Bulletin 53-1-September 2011 How Nuclear techniques can help countries to manage their freshwater supplies and protect the environment

Text of Too Little, Too Hard To Find

  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYIAEA BULLETIN

    Water for Santa Elena Farming When the Rains Fail Protecting Coastal Waters

    too little, too hard to find

    September 2011 | 53-1 | www.iaea.org/bulletin

  • The International Atomic Energy Agency serves

    as the worlds foremost intergovernmental forum

    for scientific and technical cooperation in the

    peaceful use of nuclear technology. Established as

    an autonomous organization under the United

    Nations in 1957, the IAEA carries out programmes

    to maximize the useful contribution of nuclear

    technology to society while verifying its peaceful use.

    The IAEA helps its Member States pursue their

    developmental goals by supporting the responsible

    planning and use of nuclear science and technology.

    The IAEA facilitates the transfer of the knowledge

    and technology needed by developing Member

    States to utilize these technologies peacefully.

    By developing nuclear safety standards, the IAEA

    promotes the achievement and maintenance of high

    levels of safety in nuclear energy applications, as well

    as protecting human health and the environment

    against ionizing radiation.

    The IAEA also verifies through its inspection system

    that Member States comply with their commitments

    under the Non-Proliferation Treaty and other

    non-proliferation agreements to use nuclear

    material and facilities only for peaceful purposes.

    The work is multi-faceted and engages a wide variety

    of partners at the national, regional and international

    levels. IAEA programmes and budgets are set

    through decisions of its policymaking bodies the

    35-member Board of Governors and the General

    Conference of all Member States.

    The IAEA is headquartered at the Vienna

    International Centre. Field and liaison offices are

    located in Geneva, New York, Tokyo and Toronto.

    The IAEA operates scientific laboratories in Monaco,

    Seibersdorf and Vienna. In addition, the IAEA

    supports and provides funding to the Abdus Salam

    International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste.

  • IAEA Bulletin 49-2 | March 2008 | 1

    IAEA BULLETIN

    is produced by the

    Division of Public Information

    International Atomic Energy Agency

    P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria

    Phone: (43-1) 2600-21270

    Fax: (43-1) 2600-29610

    IAEABulletin@iaea.org

    Division of Public Information

    Editor-in-Chief: Peter Kaiser

    Assistant Editor/Design: Ritu Kenn

    IAEA BULLETIN is available online at

    www.iaea.org/bulletin

    Past editions are archived on-line at

    www.iaea.org/bulletinarchive

    Extracts from the IAEA material contained in the

    IAEA Bulletin may be freely used elsewhere provided

    acknowledgement of their source is made. If the

    attribution indicates that the author is not an IAEA

    staff member, permission to republish other than for

    the use of review must be sought from the author or

    originating organization.

    Views expressed in any signed article appearing in

    the IAEA Bulletin do not necessarily represent those

    of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the

    IAEA accepts no responsibility for them.

    Cover Photo: A young boy from Kishoreganj

    District in central Bangladesh carries water through

    his village. Kishoreganj is one of several areas

    in Bangladesh which has been affected by the

    presence of arsenic in its groundwater supply.

    To learn more, turn to page 10.

    (D. Sacchetti/IAEA, August 2011)

    IAEA Bulletin is printed in Vienna, Austria.

    INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYIAEA BULLETIN

    Water for Santa Elena Farming When the Rains Fail Protecting Coastal Waters

    too little, too hard to find

    September 2011 | 53-1 | www.iaea.org/bulletin

    Why Water Matters 2by Yukiya Amano Too Little, Too Hard to Find 3by Sasha HenriquesSidebar: Assessing Water Needs Tackling the Water Crisis 6by Mollie Rock ZuccatoSidebar: Optimal Results

    Complex Science Saving Lives in Bangladesh 10 by Sasha Henriques

    IAEA Helps Parched Santa Elena Find Water 12by Maureen MacNeill

    Treasure Maps 14by Peter Kaiser

    All About Water 17Facts and figures on the water crisis

    Improving Farming with Nuclear Techniques 21by Sasha HenriquesSidebar: Making the Most of it

    Farming When the Rains Fail 23by Louise PottertonSidebar: Seeing Through Soil

    If I Had Water... 26by Louise Potterton

    No Rain, No Food 29by Louise Potterton

    Sustainable Management of Coastal Waters 32by Rodolfo Quevenco

    Detecting a Killer Toxin 38by Rodolfo Quevenco

    Protection From a Toxic Menace 41by Sasha Henriques

    An Ocean of Knowledge 43by Peter KaiserSidebar: Unlocking Rains Secrets

    CONTENTS IAEA Bulletin 53-1 | September 2011

  • 2 | IAEA Bulletin 53-1 | September 2011

    The world faces acute water shortages. The current African drought is just the latest tragic example. One billion people have no access to adequate drinking water. Five million mainly children die each year due to waterborne diseases. Those numbers are expected to rise.

    For over half a century, the IAEA has been doing everything it can to help, deploying its unique expertise in using nuclear techniques to under-stand and manage water. In more than 90 coun-tries, our experts work with national counterparts to find, manage and conserve freshwater sup-plies and protect our oceans.

    In the Santa Elena province in Ecuador, for exam-ple, the IAEA has worked with local partners to

    give over a quarter of a million people continuous access to fresh water for the first time. I saw this successful project myself in July 2011. Together with our partners, we investigate and measure the aquifers so that wells can be drilled in the right places and long-term sustainability of water supply is assured.

    The IAEA is working with partners in Bangladesh to mitigate contamination of groundwater by natural arsenic, the worst such case in the world. The use of nuclear techniques made it possible to locate safe alternative supplies of water quickly and cheaply.

    In Africa, where many farmers are confronted with arid growing conditions, water is becom-ing a rare commodity. The IAEA is working with 19 African countries to teach farmers to use appro-priate, small-scale irrigation technology, sup-ported by nuclear techniques, to make sure that every drop reaches the crops to produce greater yields.

    The IAEAs experts also use nuclear techniques to protect the marine environments. Pollution threatens many of the worlds seas and oceans, on which countless people depend for their liveli-hood. In 12 countries that ring the Caribbean, for example, the IAEA is helping to establish a labora-tory infrastructure to identify sources of pollution and better protect seas and coastlines.

    In order to raise awareness among the worlds decision-makers about water issues, and about the enormous benefits of using low-cost nuclear techniques to address them, I decided that the September 2011 IAEA Scientific Forum should focus on this subject.

    This issue of the IAEA Bulletin highlights the bene-fits of nuclear techniques in tackling global water challenges. It also describes our work with many national and international partners to improve global access to sustainable supplies of clean water and to protect the environment. I hope you will find it interesting and informative.

    Yukiya Amano is Director General of the IAEA.

    Why Water Mattersby Yukiya Amano

    Nuclear techniques can help countries to manage their freshwater supplies and

    protect the environment.

  • IAEA Bulletin 53-1 | September 2011 | 3

    Only 2.5% of the earths water is fresh, not salty. Less than 1% of that tiny fraction is available for us to use. The rest is frozen in ice caps and glaciers, or occurs as soil and atmos-pheric moisture.

    Almost all of that precious resource, the earths accessible fresh water, is located underground water that is hidden in the earths crust and is often hard to access. This vital resource is poorly understood and poorly managed.

    Water Crisis

    This issue of managementunderstanding where water is available, who needs it, how to get it to them, and waters equitable and responsible distributionis the crux of the problem.

    When asked if there is a water crisis, Pradeep Aggarwal, head of the IAEAs Isotope Hydrology Section, said yes and no.

    too little, too hard to findAddressing the Global Water Crisis

    by Sasha Henriques

    (L.Potterton/IAEA)

  • Too Little, Too Hard to Find

    4 | IAEA Bulletin 53-1 | September 2011

    Understanding where water is available, who

    needs it and how to get it to them is the crux of the

    problem.(Photo: N.Ahmed/BAEC)

    In high demand places, like urban areas and the arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa, there often isnt enough water. But many low demand places have quite a lot.

    If we all begin to use water more conservatively however, there will be enough for everyone, he said.

    Cities, Farms and Climate ChangeNearly half of the world is going to be living in urban settlements in the next decade or so. Because a lot of people are living in a relatively small area, we need to provide water, all of which may not be available from nearby rivers or aqui-fers. Therefore, the urban water crisis results from the inability to provide a lot of water in a small area, said Aggarwal.

    Freshwa