TRITERPENOID DAN STEROID BIOSINTESIS, ISOLASI, DAN ... CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 OH CH3 CH3 ambrein ambergis

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KIMIA BAHAN ALAM(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCT)

ByMASRURI, PhD

Laboratorium Kimia Organik

website: masrurichemistry.lecture.ub.ac.id

TRITERPENOID DAN STEROIDBIOSINTESIS, ISOLASI, DAN KARAKTERISASI

Kontrak KuliahDosen: Masruri, S.Si., M.Si., PhDPenilaian: UTS (40%), Tugas-1 (20%), Tugas-2 (20%), Tugas-3 (20%)Quesioner mahasiswa: Diberikan saat UTS

Materi: (sesui dengan Buku Pedoman Pendidikan)Pendahuluan ---sesi 1Triterpenoid (biosintesis, isolasi dan karakterisasi) -- sesi 2-3Poliketida (biosintesis, isolasi dan karakterisasi) sesi 4-5Alkaloid (biosintesis, isolasi dan karakterisasi) sesi 6-7UTS

TerpenoidFenolikFlavonoidFenil propanoidUAS

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Examples of Natural Products as Leads & Drugs

Cardiac glycosides, morphine, quinine, salicylic acid, taxol, camptothecin, penicillin, cyclosporin A, warfarin, artemisine.

O

HO

RO

N

R = H: MorphineR = Me: Codeine

(pain killer)

HOH H

OH

H

HOH H

OH

HH

17-ethynylestradiol norethindrone

(the "Pill"; contraceptive)

Clarithromycin(antibacterial)

O

O

O

OHOMeHO

OO

O

OMe

OH

OHO N

HOO N

S

O

NH2

CO2H

HH

Ampicillin(antibiotic)

N

O

O

OH

CO2H

Clavulanic acid(-lactamase inhibitor)

Augmentin(antibiotic)

NN

O

O

O

NHN

NNH

HN

N

O

O

O

OO

O

NO

OH

N

ONH

Cyclosporine A

1 2

3

4

567

89

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Triterpenoids as multifunctional agents for the prevention and treatment of cancer

Karen T. Liby, Mark M. Yore & Michael B. Sporn, Nature Reviews Cancer, 2007, 7, 357-369.

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Triterpenoids as multifunctional agents for the prevention and treatment of cancer

Karen T. Liby, Mark M. Yore & Michael B. Sporn, Nature Reviews Cancer, 2007, 7, 357-369.

Simple building blocks serve as the basis for each major pathway of secondary metabolism:

(1) Shikimate Aromatics (ring - C3 chain)

(2) Amino acids Alkaloids, Penicillins(N-containing)

(3) Mevalonate Terpenes, Steroids

(4) Acetate Polyketides(aromatics, macrocycles)

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PolysaccharidesGlycosidesNucleic Acids

Shikimate pathwayAromatic CompoundsLignans

aromatic amino acidsaliphatic amino acids

CH3COSCoA

CH3COSCoA

(photosynthesis)

phosphoenolpyruvate

pyruvate

acetylCoA CH3COSCoA

-O2CCH2COSCoA

CH3COSCoA

Polyketides, Fatty Acids Prostaglandins, Macrocyclic Antibiotics

Shikimate

CH3COCH2COSCoA

mevalonate

Isoprenoids (terpenes, steroids, carotenoids)

AlkaloidsPeptidesPenicillinsCyclic Peptides

CITRICACIDCYCLE

(1)

(2)

(3) (4)

CLASSIFICATION OF TERPENESCLASSIFICATION OF TERPENES

TYPE OF NUMBER OF ISOPRENETERPENE CARBON ATOMS UNITS

hemiterpene

monoterpene

sesquiterpene

diterpene

triterpene

tetraterpene

C5C10C15C20

C30

C40

one

two

three

four

six

eight

hemi = half di = twosesqui = one and a half tri = three

tetra = four

NOTE:

sesterterpene C25 five

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TRITERPENOID

Termasuk dalam metabolit sekunder terpenoid.

Tersusun atas 6 unit isoprenoid (C5), atau mengandung30 karbon, (C30).

Biosintesis triterpenoid tidak melalui penggabungan satuper satu unit isoprena (IPP). Tetapi penggabunganantara dua unit C15. Yaitu melalui farnesilpiroposfat(FPP)

CH2H

CH2

CH3

OPP

CH3H

CH2

CH3

OPP

IPP DMAPP

CH3

CH2

H

OPPCH2OPP

CH2 OPP

H

OPP

C5 C10

CH2 OPP

CH2 OPP

C15C20

C5isopentenyl-PP3,3-dimethylallyl-PP

C10geranyl-PP

C15farnesyl-PP

C20geranyl-geranyl-PP

How How terpenoidterpenoid is formedis formed

:B

again

TAIL

HEAD

EACH NEW UNIT IS JOINED HEAD-TO-TAIL

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BIOSINTESIS

Dewick, P. M., Medicinal Natural Products: A biosintetic approach, 2nd edition, 2002, John Wiley & Sons, England

Dewick, P. M., Medicinal Natural Products: A biosinteticapproach, 2nd edition, 2002, John Wiley & Sons, England

BIOSINTESIS SQUALENA

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CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

OHCH3

CH3CH3

ambreinambergis

TRITERPENES

TAIL-TO-TAIL

Siklisasi squalena

Dewick, 2002

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Stereochemistry control biosynthesis products

Dewick, 2002

Stereochemistry control biosynthesis products

Dewick, 2002

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Stereochemistry control biosynthesis products

Dewick, 2002

Eupholfrom Euphorbia species (Euphorbiaceae)

Dewick, 2002

Dammarenediols,was found in Dammar resin from Balanocarpus heimii(Dipterocarpaceae) and ginseng (Panax ginseng; Araliaceae)

Lupeol, found in lupin(Lupinus luteus; Leguminosae/Fabaceae).

Taraxasterol found in dandelion (Taraxacumofficinale;Compositae/Asteraceae).

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Triterpenoid saponin

The pentacyclictriterpenoid skeletons such as lupeol, -amyrin, and -amyrin are triterpenoid saponinstructures. Saponins are glycosides which, even at low concentrations,produce a frothing in aqueous solution. They have surfactant and soaplike properties. Latin sapo, soap, and plant materials containing saponins

Dewick, 2002

Modified triterpeneoid

Dewick, 2002

The triterpenoid skeletons may be subjected toa variety of structural modifications. They loss of several skeletal carbon atoms.

Limonoids was found in families Rutaceae, Meliaceae, and Simaroubaceae.Azadirachtin, from Neem tree (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) for use as an agricultural pesticide to prevent insect damage to crops.

Quassinoids are producedIn Simaroubaceae, Quassia. Quassin from Q. amara(quassia wood). They have cytotoxic, antimalarial, and amoebicidal properties.

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CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3

CH3 CH3HO

rearrangementsin this area

STEROIDS ARE TRITERPENES (C30)

All steroids are triterpenes but their skeletons have been rearranged so that they can not be analyzed into isoprene units.

Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annonareticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

Tran Dinh Thang, Ping-Chung Kuo, Guan-Jhong Huang, Nguyen Huy Hung, Bow-Shin Huang, Mei-Lin Yang, Ngo Xuan Luongand Tian-Shung Wu, Molecules , 2013, 18, 4477-4486; doi:10.3390/molecules18044477

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Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annonareticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

Tran Dinh Thang, Ping-Chung Kuo, Guan-Jhong Huang, Nguyen Huy Hung, Bow-Shin Huang, Mei-Lin Yang, Ngo Xuan Luongand Tian-Shung Wu, Molecules , 2013, 18, 4477-4486; doi:10.3390/molecules18044477

Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annonareticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

Tran Dinh Thang, Ping-Chung Kuo, Guan-Jhong Huang, Nguyen Huy Hung, Bow-Shin Huang, Mei-Lin Yang, Ngo Xuan Luongand Tian-Shung Wu, Molecules , 2013, 18, 4477-4486; doi:10.3390/molecules18044477

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Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annonareticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

Tran Dinh Thang, Ping-Chung Kuo, Guan-Jhong Huang, Nguyen Huy Hung, Bow-Shin Huang, Mei-Lin Yang, Ngo Xuan Luongand Tian-Shung Wu, Molecules , 2013, 18, 4477-4486; doi:10.3390/molecules18044477

Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annonareticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

Tran Dinh Thang, Ping-Chung Kuo, Guan-Jhong Huang, Nguyen Huy Hung, Bow-Shin Huang, Mei-Lin Yang, Ngo Xuan Luongand Tian-Shung Wu, Molecules , 2013, 18, 4477-4486; doi:10.3390/molecules18044477

1H-NMR (CDCl3), chemical shift (ppm):0.40 (1H, d, J = 4.5 Hz, H-20), 0.62 (1H, d, J = 4.5 Hz, H-20),0.78 (1H, m, H-6),0.80 (3H, d, J = 9.5 Hz, CH3-32),0.82 (3H, s, CH3-18),0.91 (3H, s, CH3-21),0.93 (3H, d, J = 6.0 Hz, CH3-33),0.97 (3H, s, CH3-22),0.98 (3H, s, CH3-19),1.04 (1H, m, H-7),1.101.20 (3H, m, H-1, -25, -16),

1.311.43 (7H, m, H-1, -12, -26, -5, -17, -25),1.521.69 (9H, m, H-31, -11, -8, -15, -27, -6, -30, -16),1.60 (3H, s, CH3-30),1.862.05 (3H, m, H-23, -26, -7),3.01 (1H, d, J = 9.5 Hz, H-3), 3.40 (1H, br s, OH),3.54 (1H, dd, J = 11.0, 6.0 Hz, H-24),3.64 (1H, br dd, J = 16.0, 9.0 Hz, H-2), 3.70 (1H, br d, J = 11.0 Hz, H-24),4.64 (1H, br s, H-29),4.77 (1H, br s, H-29)

Analisis Struktur

13C-NMR (CDCl3), chemical shift (ppm):15.1 (C-18), 18.1 (C-19), 19.0 (C-30), 19.2 (C-10), 19.3 (C-21), 20.7 (C-33), 20.9 (C-6), 21.3 (C-32), 25.1 (C-9), 25.7 (C-22), 25.7 (C-1), 26.5 (C-7), 26.8 (C-16), 27.3 (C-26), 27.7 (C-25), 29.7 (C-20), 30.2 (C-31), 31.8 (C-15), 35.3 (C-12), 39.7 (C-11), 40.3 (C-4), 43.1 (C-17), 45.0 (C-13), 46.2 (C-23), 47.1 (C-5), 47.7 (C-8), 48.7 (C-14), 55.4 (C-27), 62.8 (C-24), 71.0 (C-2), 83.2 (C-3), 111.9 (C-29), 147.4 (C-28)

ESI-MS m/z (rel. int.) 523 ([M+Na]+, 100); HR-ESI-MS m/z 523.4122 [M+Na]+; (calcd for C33H56O3Na, 523.4127).

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Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Annonareticulata and Their Inhibitory Effects on NO Production

Tran Dinh Thang, Ping-Chung Kuo, Guan-Jhong Huang, Nguyen Huy Hung, Bow