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many practitioners do not hesitate to diagnose anthrax without making a post-mortem examination, preferring to run the risk of mistake which this course involves, (,ather than to bring about the soil contamination inseparable from an ordinary post-mortem of an anthrax carcase, not to speak of the danger incurred by those who conduct the examination. Those who think this the wisest plan need not depart from it; but by the simple device of examining the ear blood, or cutting off an ear and sending it for examination to a competent bacteriologist, both soil contamination, and the risk of wrongly returning a case as anthrax, may be avoided. On the other hand, if a complete post-mortem examination must be made, and if even after that any doubt remains as to whether the case is one of anthrax or not, it is in every respect better, especially if the carcase is putrid, to send an ear or a foot, rather than the spleen or a part of it, for microscopic examination.
TUBERCULOSIS IN YOUNG CATTLE.
THE article which Professor Penberthy contributes to this number on the subject of Parasitic Diarrhcea in Cattle is interesting in several respects, and not least because it suggests an explanation of the not uncommon belief that tuberculosis is by no means a rare disease among yearling cattle. In our opinion that belief is incorrect. We do not intend to deny that cases of tuberculosis may be met with in cattle at any age from birth upwards, but we do assert that the proportion of the disease among bovine animals between six and eighteen months old is quite insignificant. .
We have on former occasions stated this as an argument in favour of the contention that, except in rare instances, calves are not tuberculous at birth, and that the almost invariable mode of infection is the cohabitation of tuberculous with healthy animals. Both the statement itself and the interpretation placed upon it have been disputed. Men of large experience have declared that in their practice tuberculosis among young cattle is anything but a rare disease, while others have maintained that, even if the reverse were the fact, it would by no means compel one to adopt the view that the disease is rarely congenital, inasmuch as the tubercle bacillus may lie dormant in the system for an indefinite period.
It would be easy to show how untenable is the view that tubercle bacilli may lie dormant in the tissues-that is to say, exist there without provoking any lesion-for an indefinite period. But at the present moment it is the other point that we wish to discuss. We share the opinion expressed by Professor Penberthy that cases of parasitic invasion of the fourth stomach and bowels have been confounded with tuberculosis. The symptoms exhibited in such cases are highly suggestive of tuberculosis of the alimentary tract, viz.,
profuse diarrhcea, an~mia, and wasting in spite of the fact that the animal consumes a fair amount of food. But no one is entitled to say that he has frequently seen tuberculosis among young cattle unless he can support the statement by a large series of post-mortem examinations in which he discovered unmistakable tuberculous lesions. We have no right to say that no one possesses information of this kind, but certainly no one has made it public, and as the matter is obviously one of great interest we invite communications on the subject. But meanwhile we venture to predict that when in any herd of young cattle a number of the animals exhibit the before-mentioned symptoms-diarrhcea, an~mia, and emaciation, the post-mortem examination will show that something other than tuberculosis was the cause.
Annual Statistical and General Report of the Army Veterinary Department, for the year ending 31st March 1894.
THE latest Annual Report by the Director-General of the Army Veterinary Department is always an interesting document, even to Civil veterinary surgeons. The latest report shows that in respect of medical ailments a high standard of health continues to be maintained among army horses.
The amount of inefficiency from both medical and surgical affections during the year 1893-94 was 61 '99 )Jer cent. of the average strength, this being 1"45 per cent. less than in the preceding twelve months. The deaths from all Gauses also show a slight decline, heing 2'09 per cent. as against 2'13 per cent. during the previous year. The mortality was highe~t in the months of September, August, March, and July, and lowest in January, February, and November. The total number of admissions to treatment was 61"99 per cent. of the average strength. The largest number of admissions was, as in former years, in the Army Service Corps, zmd this is explained by the circumstance that the Remount Establishment IS attached to the Army Service Corps, and that young horses pass through the Remount Depots before being posted to their regiments. The admissions to hospital were fewest in January, February, and November, and most numerous in the months of September and August. The higher sick-rate and death-rate at a period of the year not specially unhealthy for horses in general is ascribed to the extra work imposed on the army horses by the summer drills. As usual, the largest number of admissions were on account of surgical diseases and injuries, and under this heading there is an increase of 412 over the preceding year.
There was a large decrease in the number of admiSSIOns for diseases of the chest and air-passages, and there 'were also fewer cases returned under the head of SpeCific Diseases. It may be noted that under the latter head the only diseases reported as having occurred during the year were influenza, epizootic fever, and strangles, the numbers of each being respectively 45, 19, and 276. The first two of these were confined to five stations, viz., Sheffield, thirty-four cases; Hyde Park Barracks, thirteen; Athlone, ten; Windsor, five; and Hounslow, two. The fact is very interesting, but It would be more so if some of the army veterinary ~urgeons who had charge of the regiments in which these diseases occurred would, for the enlightenment of the CiVil members of the profession, explain what is meant· by epizootic fever. It can