Unifying Human Centered Design and SE for Human System Integration

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  • 8/12/2019 Unifying Human Centered Design and SE for Human System Integration

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    Unifying Human Centered Design

    and Systems Engineering

    for Human Systems Integration

    Guy Boy1,2& Jennifer Nakevicius3

    1 Human-Centered Design Institute, Florida Institute of Technology2 NASA Kennedy Space Center

    3 Jenius LLC

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    Systems Engineering

    an interdisciplinary approach and means to

    enable the realization of successful systems

    INCOSE

    life cycle of a product:

    design, manufacturing, operations, training and

    support, disposal and costs (Haskins, 2011)

    Holistic approach to peoples needs?

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    Why SE fails?

    Inadequate requirements

    Technology focused

    Poorly specified

    Unmeasurable

    Unachievable

    Lack of flexibility

    Technology-centered engineeringrigid processes

    Uncertainty and rapid changes in our world

    Solution: Human-Centered Design (HCD)

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    Human-Centered Design

    Various disciplines

    Human-computer interaction & Artificial intelligence

    Modeling and Simulation

    Human-machine systems

    Social and cognitive sciences

    Same objective as SE (i.e., holistic)

    Technology

    People

    Organizations

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    The 21stcentury shift

    From mechanical engineering

    to electrical engineering

    to software engineering!

    From integration of local reductionist systems

    to holistic coordination of autonomous agents

    Highly interconnected interactive world

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    Systems vs. Agents

    System

    integrated set of

    elements that accomplish

    a defined objective

    (Haskins, 2011)

    Systems of systems

    Structures and functions

    Agent

    entity able to act,

    produce something and

    be representative of an

    agency (Minsky, 1985)

    Society of agents

    Cognitive functions

    Human-Systems Integration (HSI)

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    From Army to Orchestra

    Soldiers

    executants, rigid

    automated

    Linear chain of command Generals, officers

    hierarchy

    Musicians

    creative, flexible, experts

    autonomous

    Complex coordination composers, scores

    conductors

    Prescriptive and effective coordination

    Task-level

    Activity-level

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    VFR

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    Cognitive function

    Role

    ContextResources

    Task Activity

    Systemcognitivefunction

    Human cognitive function

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    Machine cognitivefunction

    Human cognitive function

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    Modeling and Simulation

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    Technology-Centered

    Engineering

    Human-Centered

    Design

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    from Technology-Centered Engineering

    to Human-Centered Design

    positivism

    objectivity

    linear systems

    context-freecontrol

    phenomenology

    subjectivity

    non-linear systems

    context-dependentmanagement

    reductionism complexity science

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    Human-Centered

    Design

    Technology-Centered

    Engineering

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    Human-Centered

    Design

    Technology-Centered

    Engineering

    Human-Systems Integration

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    Automation vs. Autonomy

    Procedures Automation

    Automation

    of

    People

    Automation

    of

    Machines

    Automation

    of

    Human

    Functions

    Automation

    of

    Systems

    Functions

    Problem-Solving

    Autonomy

    of Agents

    (mostly people)

    Coordination

    of Autonomous

    Agents

    Functions

    Allocation

    of Human & Systems

    Functions

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    Planning vs. Flexibility

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    Complexity and Emergence

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    Standardization vs. Creativity

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    1596 1650

    XXthCentury XXIstCentury

    Ren Descartes by Franz Hals

    1452 1519

    Mona Lisa and Leonardo da Vinci Autoportrait

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