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Practical Applications of NX Student Guide January 2006 MT10050 — NX 4 Publication Number mt10050_g NX 4

Unigraphics Nx4 Manual

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Page 1: Unigraphics Nx4 Manual

Practical Applications of NX

Student GuideJanuary 2006

MT10050 — NX 4

Publication Numbermt10050_g NX 4

Page 2: Unigraphics Nx4 Manual

Manual History

ManualRevision

UnigraphicsVersion

PublicationDate

Version 15.0 February 1999Version 16.0 January 2000Version 17.0 December 2000Version 18.0 September 2001Unigraphics NX September 2002

A Unigraphics NX 2 September 2003A NX 3 November 2004A NX 4 January 2006

This edition obsoletes all previous editions.

Proprietary & Restricted Rights Notice

This software and related documentation are proprietary to UGS Corp.

© 2006 UGS Corp. All Rights Reserved.

All trademarks belong to their respective holders.

©2006 UGS CorporationAll Rights Reserved.Produced in the United States of America.

2 Practical Applications of NX mt10050_g NX 4

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Contents

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Course Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11How to Use This Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Class Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Part File Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Seed Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Definitions of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Starting NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2Gateway Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3Cue/Status Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4Windows File Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

Activity — Creating a New Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7Opening Multiple Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9

Activity — Opening an Existing Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10Activity — Save Part As (Copying a Part) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12Activity — Closing Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14Exiting NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17

The NX User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2Customizing Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6Activity — Working with Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7Activity — Working with Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11

Mouse Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14Mouse Pop-up Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15Graphics Window View Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17Selecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19Preview Selection and QuickPick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21Activity — Manipulating Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25

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Contents

Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

Overview of Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2Manipulating the WCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4Move WCS (Dynamics) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5

Origin Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6Axis Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8Rotation Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9Activity — Manipulating the WCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18

Introduction to Solid Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

Activity — Creating a Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7

Defining Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8Activity — Creating a Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

Positional Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

Creating Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5Boss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7Positioning Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8Positioning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9Activity — Positioning Holes and Bosses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24Additional Positioning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25Parameter Entry Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28Activity — Creating Pockets and Slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29Groove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-34Activity — Positioning a Groove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-35

Editing the Size and Location of Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37Edit Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-38Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-41Editing Features with the Part Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-42Activity — Editing Positional Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-43

Additional Positioning Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-48Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-50

Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2Creating and Editing Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

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Activity — Getting Familiar with Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12

Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

Shell Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2Creating a Shell Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

Activity — Creating a Shell Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5Activity — Creating a Shell and Removing Multiple Faces . . . . . . 7-8Activity — Creating a Shell with an Alternate Thickness . . . . . . 7-10

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12

Edge Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2Edge Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3

Activity — Creating Edge Blends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6Chamfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10

Activity — Creating Chamfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16

Model Construction Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1

Visually Inspect the Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3

Layer Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6Moving Objects Between Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7

Part Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11Mass Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12Activity — Model Construction Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24

Introduction to Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

Definitions and Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2Introduction to Load Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4

Load Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5Load States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6Load Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7Activity — Setting Load Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8

The Assembly Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10Node Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11Activity — Working with the Assembly Navigator . . . . . . . . . . 10-13Selecting Components in the Assembly Navigator . . . . . . . . . . 10-15Selecting Components in the Graphics Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16Designing in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17Assembly Navigator Pop-Up Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21

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Activity — Working with the Assembly Navigator (continued) . . 10-23Saving the Work Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27

Adding Components & Mating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

General Assembly Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2Assemblies Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4

Assemblies Pull-down Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5Assemblies Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6Adding Components to an Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7Activity — Creating an Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10

Mating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12Mate Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13Align Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14Angle Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15Parallel Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16Perpendicular Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17Center Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18Distance Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20Tangent Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21The Mating Conditions Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22Tree Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27

Repositioning Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-30Activity — Mating the Nut Cracker Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-34Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-47

Datum Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1

Datum Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3

Creating Relative Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4Common Datum Plane Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6Activity — Creating Relative Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16Selecting and Using Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-21Activity — Cylindrical Faces and Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-23Activity — Creating a Feature on a Relative Datum Plane . . . . 12-28Activity — Creating a Hole Corner to Corner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-33

Datum Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37Datum Axis Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38Editing Datum Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-43Activity — Constraining Locations using Datums . . . . . . . . . . 12-44

Datum CSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-51Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-52

Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1

Sketching Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2

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Sketches and the Part Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6Sketch Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7

Creating a New Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8The Active Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12Sketch Creation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13Activity — Sketch Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14

Sketch Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21Activity — Using the Sketch Profile Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-28Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33Trimming and Extending Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-34Activity — Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-37Activity — Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42

Sketch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-46Dimensional Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48

Activity — Adding Dimensional Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-54Editing Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57Activity — Editing Sketch Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-59

Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-63Show/Remove Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-66Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-69Activity — Adding Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-71Activity — Constraining a Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76Activity — Sketching and Constraining a Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . 13-85Convert To/From Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-92Activity — Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-93

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-99

Swept Features and Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

Types of Swept Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2Extrude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3

Activity — Starting the Draglink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9Start and End Limit Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13Extrude with Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-14Extrude with Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16Activity — Extruding with Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-17

Selection Intent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-22Activity — Extruding Using Selection Intent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-25

Sweep Along Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-27Activity — Sweeping Along an Open Guide String . . . . . . . . . . 14-29Activity — Sweeping Along a Closed Guide String . . . . . . . . . . 14-33

Revolve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-36Activity — Creating Revolved Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-38Activity — Adding a Revolved Feature to the Draglink . . . . . . . 14-42Activity — Extruding to a Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-45

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-48

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Editing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1

Accessing the Options to Edit Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2Part Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3

Deleting Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7Update Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8Activity — Edit and Delete Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11Activity — Using the Update Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15Activity — Reordering Features with the Part Navigator . . . . . . . . 15-18Delaying Model Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21Move Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-22Reattaching a Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-23

Activity — Reattaching and Moving Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-27Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32

Instance Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1

Instance Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2Rectangular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3Circular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4Activity — Rectangular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5Activity — Circular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8Activity (Optional) — Associativity of the Rotation Axis . . . . . . 16-12

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-15

The Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1

The Assembly Modeler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2Master Model Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4Activity — Exploring a Master Model Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5Activity — Creating a Non-Master Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10

Introduction to Drafting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1

Working with Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2Creating New Drawing Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3Opening a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4Editing a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5Deleting a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7Activity — Creating New Drawing Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8Activity — Opening and Editing Drawing Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . 18-12Drawing Monochrome Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-15

View Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17Hidden Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18Smooth Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19Virtual Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-20

Adding a Base View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-21View Creation Options Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-22

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Adding Projected Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-24Editing Existing Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-26Removing Views From a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-27Activity — Adding Views to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-28Utility Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-33

Creating a Linear Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-36Activity — Creating a Linear Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-37Manually Creating a Cylindrical Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-40Activity — Creating a Cylindrical Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-41

Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-45Annotation Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-47Dimension Preferences and Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-48Appended Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-50Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-52Text Orientation and Text Arrow Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-53Editing an Existing Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-54Activity — Creating Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-56

Text Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-61Creating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-62Activity — Creating Notes and Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-65The Annotation Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-67Editing Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-71Activity — Creating More Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-72

Master Model Drawing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-75Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-76

Additional Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

Project 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2Project 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3Project 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4Project 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6Project 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8Project 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10Project 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12Project 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-14Project 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-16Project 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-18Project 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-19Project 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-21Project 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-23Project 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-25Project 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-27Project 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-28Project 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-30Project 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-32Project 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-34

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Project 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-36Project 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-38Project 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-40

Expression Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2Precedence and Associativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3Legacy Unit Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4Built-in Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5

Point Constructor Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1Methods to Specify a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2WCS and Absolute Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-11

Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-12

Customer Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1Customer Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2

Customer Defaults Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3Setting Customer Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6USER, GROUP, and SITE directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8Managing Your Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-9Updating to a New Release of NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1

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Overview

Intended AudienceThis course is suited for designers, engineers, manufacturing engineers,application programmers, NC programmers, CAD/CAM managers, andsystem managers who have a need for understanding and using NXsoftware.

Course ObjectivesAfter successfully completing this course, the student should be able to:

• Demonstrate knowledge of CAD/CAM theory.

• Open and examine models.

• Create and edit parametric solid models.

• Create and modify basic assembly structures.

• Create and modify simple drawings.

• Modify existing geometry.

• Apply the standards used in class.

PrerequisitesThere are no prerequisites for this class.

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How to Use This Course

How to Use This Course

Activities

The format of the activities is consistent throughout this course. Stepsare labeled and specify what will be accomplished at any given point inthe activity. Below each major step are bulleted steps which describe theindividual actions that must be taken. As your knowledge of NX increases,the action boxes will seem redundant as the step text becomes all that isneeded to accomplish a given task.

Step 1: Open the design_topic_1 part.

Choose the Open icon. (File→Open)

Double-click on the parts folder.

Select the design_topic_1 part and choose OK.

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Overview

Mouse Buttons

The mouse will be used throughout this course to make selections. Examplesof different mouse devices are shown. The mouse buttons are referred to asthe first, second, and third mouse buttons, starting from left to right. Onmouses with mouse wheels, the wheel acts as mouse button 2 when it ispressed. On two-button mouses, the buttons represent 1 and 3. Both buttonspushed together equals mouse button 2.

The functional assignment of the mouse buttons can be reversed inmost operating systems for users who prefer that setup.

The following abbreviations are used for the mouse buttons in this course.

• MB1 — Mouse Button 1

• MB2 — Mouse Button 2

• MB3 — Mouse Button 3

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Class Standards

Class StandardsThe following standards will be used in this course. Standardization allowsyou to work with and predict the organization of parts created by others. Allwork should be performed in accordance with these standards.

Part File Naming

To facilitate the identification of design models without having to open apart, standard naming conventions can be established for the various filesassociated with the part definition. An example of a file naming standardis shown below:

1 — Part Number2 — Configuration3 — Revision4 — Extension

Currently up to 128 characters are valid for file names. A fourcharacter extension (.prt) is automatically added to define the filetype. This means the maximum number of user defined charactersfor the file name is actually 124.

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Overview

Seed Parts

Seed parts are an effective tool for establishing customer defaults or anysettings that are part-dependent (saved with the part). This may includenon-geometric data such as:

• Preferences

• Commonly used expressions

• Layer categories

• User-defined views and layouts

• Part attributes

Once a seed part is established, it should be write-protected to avoidaccidental modification.

Two seed parts are available for use in this course, seedpart_in for inch partsand seedpart_mm for metric parts. These parts incorporate the standardsdescribed above.

Colors

The following colors are preset to indicate different object types:

Object Default ColorSolid Bodies Light Gray (87)Sheet Bodies Light Dull Azure (92)Lines and Arc(non-sketch curves)

Dark Hard Blue (212)

Conics and Splines(non-sketch curves)

Dark Hard Blue (212)

Sketch Curves Obscure Dull Green (144)Reference Curves(in sketches)

Dark Faded Cyan (105)

Datum Features Light Weak Red (81)Points and Coordinate Systems Dark Hard Blue (212)System Display Color Orange Orange Red (114)

NX identifies colors using numbers with ID’s that range from 1 to 216.

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Definitions of Terms

Definitions of Terms

Explicit Modeling

Explicit modeling is modeling that is not parametric. Objects are createdrelative to model space, not each other. Changes to one or more objects do notnecessarily affect other objects or the finished model. Examples of explicitmodeling include creating a line between two existing points or creating anarc through three existing points. If one of the existing points were moved,the line/arc would not change.

Parametric Modeling

A parametric model is one in which the values (parameters) used forthe definition of the model are stored with the model for future editing.Parameters may reference each other to establish relationships between thevarious features of the model. Examples include the diameter and depth ofa hole or the length, width, and height of a rectangular pad. The designer’sintent may be that the hole is always as deep as the pad is high. Linkingthese parameters together may achieve the desired results. This is not easilyaccomplished with an explicit model.

Constraint-based Modeling

A constraint-based model is one in which the geometry of the model is drivenor solved from a set of design rules applied to the geometry defining the modelas constraints. These constraints might be dimensional constraints (suchas sketch dimensions or positioning dimensions) or geometric constraints(such as parallelism or tangency). Examples include a line tangent to an arcwhere the designer intends for that tangent condition to be maintained eventhough the angle of the line may change or a perpendicular condition beingmaintained as angles are modified.

Hybrid Modeling

Hybrid modeling refers to the selectively combined use of the three typesof modeling described above. Hybrid modelers allow designers to useparametric modeling where needed without requiring that the entire model beconstrained before proceeding. Because of this, designers have more flexibilityin modeling techniques. The NXhybrid modeler supports traditional explicitgeometric modeling along with constraint-based sketching and parametricfeature modeling. All tools are integrated so they can be used in combination.

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1Lesson

1 Getting Started

Purpose

This lesson is a fundamental introduction to working with NX parts.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Start an NX session.

• Create a New Part.

• Open a Part.

• Copy a Part.

• Close a Part and Exit NX.

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1

Getting Started

Starting NXThe first step in working in NX is to log on to a workstation and start an NXsession. Because this procedure may vary among companies and platforms,consult your system administrator for a site specific procedure to follow.

After starting NX, you will see the "No Part" interface. This interface onlyallows you to perform actions such as changing defaults and preferences,opening an existing part, or creating a new part.

The graphics shown in this text are taken from a workstation with aWindows operating system. The display of windows and dialogs on aUNIX workstation will differ slightly from those shown.

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Getting Started

Gateway ApplicationNX functions are divided into "applications". Gateway is the prerequisitefor all other interactive applications, and is the first application you enterwhen you start NX and open or create a part. Gateway allows the review ofexisting parts. To create or edit objects within a part, another application,such as Modeling, must be started.

1 — Work and displayed part names 3 — Status line2 — Cue line 4 — Resource bar

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Getting Started

Cue/Status LineThe Cue/Status line appears at the top of the main application window. TheCue line prompts you for user interaction. The Status line gives you feedbackabout system activity.

To relocate the Cue and Status line below the graphics window,choose Tools→Customize, choose the Layout tab, and change theCue/Status Position to Bottom.

Menu Bar Pull-Down Menus

The Menu Bar is a horizontal arrangement of options displayed near the topof the main NX window. These options correspond to different NX functionalcategories. Clicking the first mouse button (MB1) over a Menu Bar optiondisplays a pull-down menu. Arrows to the right of items in a pull-down menuindicate that further cascading menus are available.

By default, menus appear “folded” so that only the frequently used optionsare shown. The down arrow at the bottom of the menu can be selected todisplay the full menu.

To permanently display the entire menus, choose Tools→Customize,choose the Options tab, and turn on the Always Show Full Menusoption.

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1

Getting Started

Windows File DialogsThe New Part File, Open Part File, and Save Part File As dialogs have someuseful common features.

The Look in: option menu shows the name of the current selected drive orfolder.

Choosing the arrow on the right side of the box (or anywhere within the box)will list a hierarchy of the available folders and drives. Choosing anywhereaway from the list of the available folders and drives will dismiss the listingwithout selecting another folder or drive.

The list in the window below the Look In: box shows the available folders andfiles. NX parts have a .prt extension.

The Up One Level option works with the Look in: option menu totraverse back up through the folder hierarchy.

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Getting Started

The Create New Folder option allows new sub-folders to be created inthe current folder.

The View Menu option menu allows the appearance of the listing in thewindow to be modified. The default is a List. Selecting the Details button willdisplay a more detailed listing of the files and folders including Name, Size,Type, last Modified date and time, and any Attributes that may apply to thefile. Other options include Thumbnails, Tiles, and Icons.

The option at the top right of the dialog changes the cursor to andallows selection of any of the controls in the dialog for a short descriptionof their function.

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Getting Started

Activity — Creating a New Part

In this activity, you will create a new part.

Step 1: Create a new part.

Choose the New icon. (File→New)

The New Part File dialog appears as shown.

Step 2: Specify the units of measure for the new part.

Verify the Millimeters option is selected for the Units.

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Step 3: Key in a new part name.

With Mouse Button 1 (MB1), click in the File name field.

Key in ***_new_1, where *** represents your initials.

This will be a standard practice for this class to ensure that eachstudent has unique part names.

File names are governed by the naming conventions establishedfor the operating system on the computer. In addition, standardsset up by a company or project will affect naming conventions.Contact your system administrator for specific information on thenumber and types of characters for a valid file name.

Ensure the folder is set to your “home” folder. This will also bea standard practice for this class. Parts that you create shouldbe saved in a folder to which you have permissions.

Choose OK.

The part is created and “loaded” into the current NX session.

As the creator of a part, you will have read and write access. Thismeans that you can modify the file and save the changes.

Step 4: Save the part.

Choose the Save icon. (File→Save)

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Opening Multiple PartsMore than one part may be open (loaded) at any time. This means that youmay work on several parts concurrently. There are two special designationsfor loaded parts:

• Displayed - The part is displayed in the graphics window.

• Work - The part is accessible for creation and editing operations.

In most cases the displayed part and the work part are the same. There aretimes when working in an assembly when it is advantageous that the workpart be other than the displayed part.

Changing the Displayed Part

Since multiple parts may be open at any given time, you will need to controlwhich part is displayed in the graphics window. This can be accomplishedwith the Window menu bar option.

The Window option works in two ways:

• A list of up to ten previously displayed parts is generated. This listcontains the latest displayed part at the top (excluding the currentlydisplayed part) and then each previous part in the order that they weredisplayed until a total of ten are listed. To change the displayed part toany of these parts, simply select its name from the list.

• Choose Window→More to display the Change Window dialog. Thisdialog lists all parts being referenced in the current session, excludingthe current displayed part. This listing will include all components inan assembly structure as well as any loaded parts not contained in aloaded assembly.

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Activity — Opening an Existing Part

In this activity, you will load an existing part into the work session.

Step 1: Open the intro_1 part.

Choose the Open icon. (File→Open)

The Open Part File dialog appears.

Check the current folder displayed in the Look in: field. Ifnecessary, choose the parts folder.

Notice that there are no options to specify units (Inches andMillimeters) in the Open Part File dialog. The units of the partswere determined when they were created and cannot be changedwithin an active NX session. The units of a part can be convertedusing a program called ug_convert_part.exe outside of the activesession.

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Select intro_1 in the file list box and choose OK to open the part(or double-click on the file name).

The Status Line displays information while the part is beingretrieved as well as other information pertaining to the operationbeing performed.

Once the part is open the following actions occur:

• Options for viewing the contents of the file are availableon the menu bar.

• The graphics window is now active, showing the model inthe condition in which it was last saved.

• The title bar of the graphics window displays the nameof the current work part and a status of Read Only. Thismeans that changes may not be saved in this file.

A loaded part is only a copy of what is stored on disk. Any newwork that you do is not permanent until the part is saved on disk.

Step 2: Leave the part open. It will be used in the next activity.

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Activity — Save Part As (Copying a Part)In this activity, you will make a copy of an existing part by saving it with adifferent name.

Continue using the intro_1 part.

Step 1: Create a copy of a part.

Choose File→Save As.

In the Save Part File As dialog, use the Save in: option menuto navigate to the proper folder to save the part. (HINT: Thisshould be one level up from the parts folder.)

Click in the File name field.

Key in ***_intro_1 as the new part name where *** representsyour initials.

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Choose OK.

The Status Line states that the part is being saved. When thesave is complete, the message “Part file saved” displays. Workin NX may be resumed.

You can save your work andexit NX all at once by choosingFile→Close→Save All and Exit. However,do not close or exit at this time.

Step 2: Leave the part open. It will be used in the next activity.

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Activity — Closing PartsIn this activity, you will close parts.

Continue using the intro_1 part.

Step 1: Close a specific part.

Choose File→Close→Selected Parts.

The Close Part dialog appears showing a list of all open parts inthe session.

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Select the ***_intro_1 part and choose MB2.

Because the part was not changed since it was last saved, it isimmediately closed. If the part had been changed, a warningmessage would have appeared to let you know that the part hasbeen modified.

Closing the part does not save the part, it only clears the part fromthe local memory. Changes that have been made to the part willbe lost if you continue.

Step 2: Change the displayed part.

Choose Window→***_new_1 from the menu bar.

The ***_new_1 part is now the displayed part.

Step 3: Close all parts.

Choose File→Close→All Parts.

If there are any open parts in the session that have been modifiedand have not been saved, a warning message displays.

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Exiting NXYou can end an NXsession, by choosing File→Exit.

If any parts are still open and have been modified without saving, a warningmessage displays.

Do not exit NX at this time.

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SummaryIn this lesson you:

• Started an NX session.

• Created, opened, and saved parts.

• Copied a Part.

• Closed a Part.

• Exited NX.

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Lesson

2 The NX User Interface

Purpose

This lesson is a fundamental introduction to the NX User Interface.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Customize toolbars.

• Save and restore toolbars by applying a Role.

• Select objects in the graphics window.

• Manipulate the orientation of the work view.

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ToolbarsThe NX user interface supports the use of toolbars to allow quick access tofunctionality via logical groupings of common functionality displayed as icons.Each application has a set of toolbars which support functions within thatapplication (e.g. Modeling, Drafting, Assemblies, etc.).

When you exit an NX session, the state of the toolbars can be savedso that they will displayed the same when you start a new session.This is controlled by the Save layout at exit option under the Generaltab in the Preferences→User Interface dialog.

Toolbars may be in one of two states:

• Docked toolbars (1) are anchored to the main NX window, eitherhorizontally or vertically. Docked toolbars are always within the NXwindow.

• Undocked toolbars (2) are free floating on the screen. These toolbars areshown within the NX window, but may be located outside the windowdepending on screen setup.

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Customizing Toolbars

The display of the toolbars as well as the display of each element within atoolbar may be customized.

The display of a toolbar may be controlled in one of two ways:

• Choose Tools→Customize from the main menu bar to access theCustomize dialog. On the Toolbars page, choose the check box next tothe toolbar name to display or hide it. The toolbars with a check arecurrently displayed.

The Text Below Icon option can be used to display the names ofthe icons in a toolbar.

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• Use the Third Mouse Button (MB3) within the NX window but outsidethe graphics window, to display a menu of all toolbars. The toolbars listedwith a check box are displayed. Choosing a toolbar name with the FirstMouse Button (MB1) will turn it on or off. The Customize option may beselected to access the Customize dialog.

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To turn on and off the display of icons within a toolbar, select the ToolbarOptions area of the toolbar and choose Add or Remove Buttons, and thetoolbar name. This will display a cascading menu with all of the availableicons for the toolbar. Placing a check in the box next to the command willimmediately display the icon in the appropriate toolbar. Removing the checkwill hide the icon.

The Toolbar Options menu can be accessed in an undocked toolbar as shownbelow.

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Roles

NX has many advanced capabilities, but while learning you may want touse a smaller set of tools. Roles let you control the appearance of the userinterface in a number of ways. Some examples are:

• What items are displayed on the menu bar

• What icons are displayed on the toolbars

• Whether or not icon names are displayed below the icons

Choosing a Role

NX comes with a number of built-in roles. There are System Defaults roles:

There are also roles that are tailored to particular industry types andexperience levels, under the Industry Specific option:

In addition, you can define your own roles.

For more information about any role, hold your cursor over its icon.

To activate a role:

• Use the Roles tab to open the palette on the resource bar.

• Click the role you want or drag it into the graphics window.

• In the warning dialog, choose OK to accept the new role or choose Cancelto stop the change from occurring.

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Activity — Working with Toolbars

In this activity, you will move toolbars in the Gateway application.

The toolbars illustrated in this activity are shown without text belowthe icons. You may see this text on your screen to help you identifythe icons. This is controlled by choosing Tools→Customize andspecifying the Text Below Icon option for each toolbar.

Step 1: Open the intro_1 part.

Choose the Open icon. (File→Open)

Select intro_1 in the file list box and choose OK to open the part(or double-click on the file name).

Step 2: Verify which toolbars are displayed in the Gateway Application.

Click MB3 in the toolbar area (1) and choose Customize (2).

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The Customize dialog helps you identify and control which toolbarsare displayed.

The Text Below Icon option can be turned on for a toolbarto display the names of the icons in the toolbar.

Verify that the Standard, View, Utility, Analysis, Snap Point,and Selection toolbars are checked on.

The toolbars are displayed in a docked state. Toolbars maybe docked horizontally on the top or bottom and vertically onthe left or right.

Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog.

Step 3: Undock a toolbar.

Place the cursor on the handle portion (1) of the Analysistoolbar and press and hold down MB1.

Drag the toolbar onto the graphics window.

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Release MB1.

The name of the toolbar is displayed in its title bar while it isundocked.

Step 4: Dock a toolbar.

Place the cursor on the header portion (1) of the Analysistoolbar and press and hold down MB1.

Drag the toolbar such that the header portion falls within themain menu bar as shown.

Release MB1.

The toolbar is docked to the NX window.

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Step 5: Move a docked toolbar.

Place the cursor on the handle portion of the Analysis toolbarand press and hold down MB1.

Drag the Analysis toolbar up to the first row of toolbars belowthe menu bar.

Release MB1.

If necessary, select the Analysis toolbar on the handle and dragit so that it is aligned to the right of the Standard toolbar.

Step 6: Leave the part open. It will be used in the next activity.

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Activity — Working with Roles

In this activity, you will use Roles to save and apply standard toolbarconfigurations. In this course, the Essential with Full Menus role will be used.

Step 1: Continue using the intro_1 part.

Step 2: Apply the Essentials with Full Menus role.

Choose the Roles tab in the resource bar on the right side of thegraphics window.

If the resource is bar is not visible, choose View→ShowResource Bar to turn it on.

Change the display of the Role palette to Tiles.

This will display smaller icons so that all of the roles can beseen at once.

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Choose the Essentials with full menus role.

The Essentials with full menus role displays a limitednumber of icons and toolbars. However, all NXfunctions are still available from the menu bar.

Choose OK in the message window warning you that yourtoolbar customizations will be overwritten.

Changes you made to toolbars in previous activities areoverwritten. The toolbar settings that are defined in theselected role are used.

Step 3: Start the Modeling application.

Choose Start→Modeling.

Starting a different application will introduce a new set oftoolbars. The toolbars that were established in the Gatewayapplication may move and include different icons.

Step 4: Customize a toolbar in the Modeling application.

Locate the Utility toolbar in the NX window.

Select the Toolbar Options area of the Utility toolbar andchoose Add or Remove Buttons→Utility.

Turn the Work Layer and Layer Settings icons on.

This change to the toolbar will be maintained in your future NXsessions as long as the Save layout at exit option is turned on inPreferences→User Interface. However, the change would be lost ifyou were to apply one of the roles in the System Defaults.

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Step 5: Create a new user role with the toolbar change.

Choose the Roles tab in the resource bar on the right side ofthe graphics window.

Place the cursor in an open area of the Roles palette and chooseMB3→New User Role.

Choose OK in the Role Properties dialog to accept the defaultname of MyRole_0.

The new role will appear in a User folder in the Roles palette.

If you make additional toolbar changes and want toincorporate them into your saved user role, place thecursor over the role and choose MB3→Edit, turn off thePreserve Layout Information option, and choose OK.

Step 6: Close the part.

Choose File→Close→All Parts.

If a warning is displayed and you are asked if you are sure youwant to close the part, choose Yes.

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Mouse NavigationThe mouse may be used as well as the keyboard to make selections. A mousewheel acts as MB2 when it is pressed. On two button mouses, the buttonsrepresent MB1 and MB3. Both buttons pressed together act as MB2.

Below is a summary of the various actions that can be performed using themouse buttons.

Mouse Button ActionFirst Mouse Button

MB1Selects or drags objects.

Second Mouse Button(center or both buttons)

MB2

OK while in an operator. Press and hold down whilein the graphics window to Rotate the view. Holddown Shift+MB2 to Pan and hold down Ctrl+MB2to Zoom In/Out.

Third Mouse Button(in graphic window)

MB3

Displays pop-up menu with short cuts to variousfunctions. Also displays action information forobjects selected with MB1.

Rotating mouse wheel Zooms in and out in graphics window. Scrolls indialog list boxes, dialog option menus, and theInformation window.

Cursor over icons oroption in a dialog

Displays either the icon or option label.

Cursor over objects,features or componentsin graphics window

Pre–highlights objects based upon the Selectiontoolbar setting (e.g. Select Features)

A combination of mouse buttons can also be used to pan (MB2+MB3)and zoom In/Out (MB1+MB2).

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Mouse Pop-up Menu

The mouse may be used to perform various actions depending upon placementand position in the steps of the process. When the cursor is in the graphicswindow and MB3 is pressed and released, the View Pop-Up menu is displayed.This pop-up menu provides a shortcut to functions that are frequently used inNX to manipulate the viewing of objects in the graphics window.

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Option Description

Refresh Refreshes the entire graphics window. Erases temporarydisplay entities.

Fit Fits the entire part to the view. Utilizes the fit percentagefound on the Preferences→Visualization→Screen dialog.

Zoom Changes the view scale via a user specified rectangle.Rotate Activates the Rotate mode to rotate the view with the cursor.

Pan Activates Pan mode to pan the view with the cursor.Rendering

StyleSpecifies the method of shading and hidden edges in whichthe model is displayed.

Orient ViewDisplays the current view in a canned view orientation. Theoriginal visualization settings and view modifications areretained. Active only in modeling view.

Set RotatePoint

Defines a point that the model is rotated about. The pointmay be defined on a curve, edge, face, or point in space.

Clear RotatePoint

Removes the Rotate Point which has previously been set.

Undo Removes the effect of the last single operation performed.

When you press and hold MB3, a radial pop-up displays icons that surroundthe cursor location. These icons include display options that you can choosejust as you would from a menu. As you learn the position of the icons, justmoving the mouse in the appropriate direction will choose the option.

1 — Shaded

2 — Shaded with Edges

3 — Studio

4 — Fit

5 — Wireframe with Dim Edges

6 — Face Analysis

The View toolbar may also be used to perform many of the viewmanipulation functions found in the View Pop-Up Menu.

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Graphics Window View Manipulation

As you develop your model, you will need to view the model in differentorientations. The view may rotated by pressing and holding down MB2 anddragging.

If the cursor is near the boundary of the graphics window, rotation about ahorizontal, vertical, or normal axis is inferred and the cursor is displayed ina single axis rotation mode. If the cursor is in the middle of the graphicswindow, the axis of rotation is determined by the direction in which youdrag the cursor.

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Other options to manipulate the view orientation are described below:

Orient View – Modifies the orientation of a specified view to a predefined view.Changes only the alignment of the view, not the view name. This option canbe invoked from the View toolbar or from the MB3 pop-up menu.

Home Key — Orients the present view to the Trimetric view.

End Key — Orients the present view to the Isometric view.

F8 Key — Orients the present view to a selected planar face or datum planeor the planar view (top, front, right, back, bottom, left) that is closest to thecurrent view orientation.

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Selecting Objects

The Selection toolbar may be used to assist in the selection of an object forcreation, modification, or information. In NX, you may either select an objectfirst and then choose a function to perform, or, choose a function first andthen select the required object.

The Selection Type Filter is used to control precisely which type of object canbe selected. When a type is chosen from this list, no other object types canbe selected. The contents of the list depends on whether you have alreadychosen an NX function and which function you are performing.

There are many additional options which can be added as icons to theSelection toolbar to further discriminate in the selection of objects. Some ofthese options are also available by choosing Edit→Selection from the menubar.

MB3 may be used to choose an available operator for an object. The cursormust be on top of the object and the object highlighted for the MB3 pop-upmenu to appear.

The items on the pop-up menu will vary depending on the type of object. Thefollowing pop-up menu is typically displayed for a feature.

Options will also vary depending on the application (Modeling,Drafting, Manufacturing, etc.).

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If you press and hold MB3 over an object, a radial pop-up appears. Theoptions will vary depending on the type of object. The following radial pop-upmenu is typically displayed for a feature.

Deselecting Objects

If you select the wrong object, you can deselect it by holding down the <Shift>key and selecting it again with MB1.

To deselect all objects in the graphics window, press the <Esc> key.

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Preview Selection and QuickPick

Preview Selection

Preview Selection allows highlighting of objects as the selection ballpasses over them. By default, Preview Selection is enabled but may beturned off by choosing Preferences→Selection from the menu bar. Thecolor of the highlighting is determined by the Preselection setting foundunder Preferences→Visualization→Color Settings. This also applies tohighlighting objects that are being deselected using the <Shift> key and MB1.

The state of the Preview Selection setting is not saved with the partbut remains in effect for the NX session.

Using QuickPick for Multiple Selection Candidates

When selecting objects in the graphics window, more than one object willoften be within the selection ball. QuickPick is a selection confirmationinterface that provides a way to browse through multiple candidates to selecta specific object.

Moving the selection ball over an object will highlight it for preview. If thereis more than one selectable object at the selection ball location and the cursorlingers for a short period of time, the cursor changes to a QuickPick indicator:

This cursor display indicates that there is more than one selectable object atthat position. Using MB1 after the cursor changes will display the QuickPickdialog.

The amount of time the cursor must be stationary for theQuickPick indicator to appear can be adjusted by choosingPreferences→Selection and using the QuickPick Delay slider bar.

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All selectable objects beneath the cursor are listed in the dialog. Use MB2to cycle through the items in the list and then choose MB1 when the desiredobject is highlighted. The icons in the dialog may be used to narrow down listto include only construction objects, features, body objects (faces, edges, etc.),components, or annotations.

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Activity — Manipulating Views

In this activity, you will change the view display and orientation.

Step 1: Open the view_clevis_1 part.

Step 2: Manipulate the view.

Choose Shaded with Edges.(MB3→Rendering Style→Shaded with Edges)

Click and hold MB3 and choose the Wireframe with Dim Edges

icon. from the radial pop-up.

In the graphics window, but not on top of the part, click MB3.

Choose Orient View→Right in the pop-up menu.

Press the Home key on the keyboard.

The view is oriented to the Trimetric view.

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Place and hold the cursor at the location shown below until theQuickPick indicator appears.

Choose MB1 to display the QuickPick dialog.

Choose MB2 until the front face shown below is highlighted.

Choose MB1 to confirm the selection of the face.

Press the F8 key.

The view is oriented so that the selected face is parallel to thegraphics window.

Press the Home key.

Step 3: Close the part.

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SummaryIn this lesson you:

• Modified the location and contents of toolbars.

• Applied a Role to restore saved toolbar settings.

• Manipulated the work view orientation.

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Lesson

3 Coordinate Systems

Purpose

This lesson is an introduction to the coordinate systems that are used in NX.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Define the Absolute Coordinate System (ABS).

• Define the Work Coordinate System (WCS).

• Move the WCS using dynamic drag handles.

• Obtain geometric information relative to the WCS.

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Coordinate Systems

Overview of Coordinate SystemsBefore creating solid models, you should have a basic understanding of howNX represents the location and orientation of objects. Since you will becreating models in a three-dimensional environment, model space is definedas the infinite extension of a three-dimensional field represented in the viewsof your graphics window.

All NX coordinate systems are right-hand, Cartesian coordinate systems,made up of a set of X, Y, and Z axes, 90° apart from each other.

A three-axis symbol is used to identify a coordinate system. The intersectionof the axes is called the origin of the coordinate system. The origin hasthe coordinate values of X=0, Y=0, and Z=0. The figure below illustratesthat, starting at the origin, each axis has a positive direction and a negativedirection.

There are several types of coordinate systems that are utilized in NX. Thislesson will discuss the following types:

• Absolute Coordinate System (ABS)

• Work Coordinate System (WCS)

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Absolute Coordinate System

The Absolute Coordinate System (ABS) is not mobile. It defines a fixed pointand orientation in model space. The Absolute Coordinate System is necessaryto relate location or orientation between different objects, solid models, parts,and even MCAD/CAE systems. An object positioned at absolute X = 1, Y =1,and Z =1 in one part is the exact same absolute position in any other part.

Work Coordinate System

Since the ABS is not mobile, the Work Coordinate System (WCS) is used tofacilitate geometry construction in different orientations. The WCS can belocated and oriented manually anywhere in model space. The WCS is not aselectable entity.

Most modeling operations in NX do not require manual manipulation of theWCS because features are added to a model relative to existing geometry. Inthose cases, the WCS is handled automatically. However, certain functionsare dependent on the location and orientation WCS at the time they areperformed.

The location and/or orientation of the WCS will need to be considered whenusing the following functions:

• Creating a Primitive Feature (specifically a Block)

• Defining a plane when creating a Sketch

• Creating a Fixed Datum Plane or Fixed Datum Axis

• Creating a Rectangular Instance Array

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Manipulating the WCSYou can access WCS options from the Utility toolbar or by choosingFormat→WCS on the menu bar while a part is displayed.

In general, there are four different options available to manipulate the WCS;Origin, Dynamics (Move), Rotate, and Orient. The Dynamics and Orientoptions will be the focus in this lesson.

Move WCS provides an interface to dynamically control the locationand orientation of the WCS by keying in distance and angle values or bydragging origin, axis, and rotation handles in the graphics window.

Orient WCS displays the CSYS Constructor dialog which includesvarious options to position the WCS.

The Absolute CSYS option will move the WCS back to theAbsolute origin and orientation. This can also be accomplished byusing the Set WCS to Absolute icon which can be added to the Utilitytoolbar.

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Move WCS (Dynamics)To access the Move WCS option and display the WCS in a dynamic mode,double-click the WCS in the graphics window, turn on the Move WCS icon inthe Utility toolbar, or choose Format→WCS→Dynamics from the menu bar.

Drag handles are displayed and are used to move the WCS. These handlesare represented by a cube, three coneheads, and three spheres.

When the cursor passes over the WCS, it will highlight withtemporary rotation planes to indicate that it can be selected. Ifthere is other geometry in the vicinity and the WCS cannot be easilyselected, use the Utility toolbar or menu bar to access it.

After you move the WCS, you can either choose MB2 or turn off the MoveWCS icon to confirm the location and the WCS will return to a normal display.

Undo is available while in dynamic WCS mode and can be used torestore the WCS to a previous location or orientation.

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Origin Handle

When you select the cube-shaped handle at the origin of the WCS, you canrelocate the WCS to any point in the graphics window as dictated by the SnapPoint toolbar (End Point, Arc Center, etc.). Help indicators will display on ahighlighted object to help you predict where the WCS will be relocated.

Snap Point Toolbar

The Snap Point toolbar becomes active when you need to specify a location.It is available when the WCS origin handle is selected to help specify theorigin for the WCS.

Cursor Location is always available regardless of the other options that areenabled in the toolbar.

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Point Constructor Dialog

The Point Constructor dialog is a common tool that appears throughout NXto define a location. It is available as an icon in the Snap Point toolbar afterselecting the WCS origin handle.

With this dialog, you can define points using existing geometry, coordinatevalues, or offsets.

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Axis Handles

When you select a conehead axis handle, a dynamic input field appears inthe graphics window next to the WCS to input a specific distance or snapincrement. You can also drag the handle to move the coordinate system alongthe axis.

Double-clicking an axis handle will reverse the direction of the axis.

The Snap value is the incremental distance the WCS will move as you dragthe axis handle. The default Snap value is 0 (zero) but you may enter adifferent value. The Distance value will update as you drag the handle.

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Rotation Handles

When you select a spherical rotation handle, a dynamic input field appearsnext to the WCS to enter a specific angle or snap increment. You can alsodrag the handle to rotate the coordinate system about the axis.

The Snap value is an incremental angle to rotate the WCS. The defaultSnap value is 45 so the WCS snaps in 45 degree increments as you drag therotation handle. The Angle value will update as you drag the handle.

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Activity — Manipulating the WCS

In this activity, you will move the WCS to different positions and orientationsto help you obtain information about the location of points and objects onthe model.

By default, the WCS coincides with the Absolute Coordinate System in anew part. Moving the WCS can help you obtain information about geometryrelative to a coordinate system other than the Absolute Coordinate System.Moving the WCS is also sometimes required for certain modeling functions.

Step 1: Open the wcs_1 part.

Step 2: Change the Work Coordinate System origin.

Choose the Move WCS icon in the Utility toolbar.(Format→WCS→Dynamics)

Make sure Control Point is enabled in the Snap Pointtoolbar.

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Select the midpoint of the lower edge.

The origin handle is highlighted by default. You simply selectlocations in the graphics window to move the WCS based onthe Snap Point toolbar settings. The WCS maintains the sameXC, YC, and ZC directions.

Choose MB2 to return the WCS to a normal display.

Step 3: Rotate the Work Coordinate System.

Choose the Move WCS icon. (Format→WCS→Dynamics)

Select the Rotation Handle shown.

A dynamic input field appears allowing an Angle or Snap tobe entered.

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Key in 90 in the Angle text entry field and press Enter.

The origin of the WCS is unchanged, the coordinate systemis rotated about the XC axis 90°. The direction of rotation isbased on the Right Hand Rule.

Choose MB2.

Step 4: Find the location of a point on the model relative to the WCS.

Choose Information→Point.

The Point Constructor is displayed to specify the point.

Select the arc center shown by placing the cursor over thecircular edge. When the center highlighted, select the edge.

The coordinates of the arc center relative to both the WCS andAbsolute Coordinate System are displayed in an Informationwindow.

Information Units MillimetersPoint XC = 0.000000000 X = 32.500000000

YC = 25.000000000 Y = 14.000000000ZC = -14.000000000 Z = 16.000000000

Close the Information window.

Step 5: Reverse the direction of the YC Axis.

Choose the Move WCS icon. (Format→WCS→Dynamics)

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Double-click the YC Axis Handle.

This reverses the direction of the YC Axis so that is pointingdownward.

Choose MB2.

Step 6: Change the orientation of the WCS.

The image below has been rotated for clarity. You may shade orrotate the view for better viewing of the part.

Choose the Move WCS icon. (Format→WCS→Dynamics)

Move the WCS origin to the location shown below.

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Select the XC Axis Handle.

Select the edge at the location shown below. A vector willappear from the end of the selected edge.

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Select the YC Axis Handle.

Select the edge at the location shown below. A vector willappear from the end of the selected edge.

Choose MB2 when finished orienting the WCS.

Step 7: Find the location of an object relative to the WCS.

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Choose Information→Object.

Select the lower edge of the part shown.

Choose OK in the upper left corner of graphics window(or MB2) to accept the selected edge.

Information about the edge will appear in the Informationwindow. The coordinates of the start and end points aredisplayed relative to both the WCS and Absolute CoordinateSystem.

Edge Geometry Line

Angle = 0.000000000Length = 33.000000000

Vertex 1 XC = 16.000000000 X = 49.000000000YC = -0.000000000 Y = 145.069219382ZC = -25.000000000 Z = -33.669872981

Vertex 2 XC = 49.000000000 X = 16.000000000YC = -0.000000000 Y = 145.069219382ZC = -25.000000000 Z = -33.669872981

Close the Information window.

Step 8: Move the WCS back to the Absolute CSYS.

Choose Format→WCS→Orient.

Choose Absolute CSYS in the CSYS Constructor dialog.

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Choose OK.

The WCS moves back to the Absolute origin and orientation.

The Set WCS to Absolute icon can be added to the Utilitytoolbar. This can be used without having to use the CSYSConstructor.

Step 9: Close all parts without saving them.

Choose File→Close→All Parts.

Choose Yes to confirm the closing of modified parts.

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SummaryThe Absolute Coordinate System is a stationary coordinate system thatdefines a fixed point in model space while the Work Coordinate System (WCS)is a mobile coordinate system that may be moved and reoriented as necessaryto support other functions.

In this lesson you:

• Identified the difference between the Absolute Coordinate System and theWork Coordinate System.

• Relocated, rotated, and reoriented the WCS.

• Reviewed the Point Constructor and CSYS Constructor dialogs.

• Obtained geometric information relative to the WCS.

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Lesson

4 Introduction to Solid Modeling

Purpose

This lesson is a fundamental introduction to the NX Modeling applicationthrough the creation of primitives.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create and Edit a Block.

• Define a direction vector.

• Create and edit a Cylinder.

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PrimitivesA Primitive is a solid object that is analytic in nature. A Primitive may bethought of as "raw stock" to which material will be added or removed toachieve the finished part. There are multiple ways of defining each of the fourPrimitive types. Primitives may be used as the basic shape at the start ofthe solid modeling process.

When a Primitive is created, its type and its size must be specified as well asits location and orientation in model space.

The four types of Primitives are:

• Block

• Cylinder

• Cone

• Sphere

If a Primitive is used in a part, it should be used as the initial solidfeature. Although NX allows the use of multiple Primitives in onesolid body, the practice is not recommended because of the advantagesand associativity of other solid modeling functionality.

Primitives are positioned explicitly. Their origins are set by aspecified point in model space. However, they can be moved manuallyby either using Transform or the Move Feature functions. Thecreation parameter values of a Primitive may be edited and madeassociative to each other.

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BlockA Block may be created by specifying the size and location of the block inmodel space. The orientation will be implied from the orientation of the WCS.

There are three different methods that may be used to create a Block, OriginEdge Lengths, Two Points Height, and Two Diagonal Points. The middleportion of the dialog and the Selection Steps change depending on the typeof Block creation method you choose. This lesson discusses the first method,Origin, Edge Lengths.

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Origin, Edge Lengths Method

• Choose Insert→Design Feature→Block or choose the Block iconin the Form Feature dialog.

• Choose the Origin, Edge Lengths type.

• Define the length for each edge.

The Length, Width, and Height are measured relative to the XC,YC, and ZC axes of the WCS, respectively. These must be positivevalues since they are stored as the parameters of the block.

• Specify the origin of the corner of the block. The Snap Point toolbar isavailable to access the Point Constructor dialog or to specify a pointrelative to existing geometry. The edges of the block will be parallel tothe XC, YC, and ZC axes.

If an origin is not specified explicitly and OK is chosen, the cornerof the block will be placed at the WCS origin.

• Choose OK or Apply.

After the block has been created, its size may be changed by editing thevalues that were used for edge lengths during creation.

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Activity — Creating a Block

In this activity, a Block will be created using the Origin, Edge Lengthsmethod. Only numerical values will be used for the size of the block.

Step 1: Create a new inch part and name it ***_block_1 where ***represents your initials.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application. (Start→Modeling)

Step 3: Create a Block.

Choose Insert→Design Feature→Block.

Verify the Origin, Edge Lengths type is selected.

Key in the following parameters: Length (XC) = 8 (Tab)Length(YC) = 6 (Tab)Length (ZC) = 6/2 (an example of algebraic entry)

Choose MB2.

Choose the Fit icon from the View toolbar. (MB3→Fit)

Step 4: Change the size of the block.

Place the cursor over the block and double-click on it.

Select the p1=6.000 parameter to edit.

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Change the parameter value to 4 and choose MB2 twice.

Step 5: Choose File→Close→Save and Close.

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CylinderA cylinder may be created by specifying the orientation, size and location ofthe cylinder. There are two methods to create a cylinder.

• Diameter, Height

• Height, Arc

Diameter, Height Method

This method is used to create a cylinder by specifying the diameter andheight values. The location and axis direction vector must also be specified.After choosing this method:

• Define the cylinder axis vector using the Vector Constructor.

• Key in the Diameter and Height.

• Define the cylinder origin using the Point Constructor.

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Defining Vectors

The Cylinder and Cone features require a direction vector to be specified todefine the orientation of the axis. The Vector Constructor dialog is used tospecify this direction.

The XC, YC, and ZC Axis options are sufficient for the purpose ofthis course.

In the example below, the direction vector is the ZC Axis. The cylinderis shown created at an origin away from the WCS with a specifiedheight in the direction of the vector.

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Activity — Creating a Cylinder

In this activity, a cylinder will be created utilizing the direction vector menu.

Step 1: Open the seedpart_mm part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application. (Start→Modeling)

Step 3: Create the Cylinder.

Choose Insert→Design Feature→Cylinder.

Choose Diameter, Height.

Choose the YC Axis direction icon in the Vector Constructordialog.

Key in the following values:

Diameter = 75Height = 200

Choose OK. (MB2)

Locate the cylinder at XC=0, YC=0, ZC=0. Choose Reset in thePoint Constructor menu if needed and choose OK.

Choose Cancel.

Choose Fit from the MB3 pop-up menu.

Step 4: Edit the size of the cylinder.

Place the cursor over the cylinder and double-click on it.

Choose Feature Dialog.

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Change the values as follows:

Diameter = 15Height = 150

Choose MB2 twice.

Step 5: Choose File→Close→All Parts. Do not save the part.

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SummaryThis lesson was an introduction to the creation of solid models using primitivefeatures. If a primitive feature is used, it should be the base feature and thereshould only be one in a part because they cannot be associatively positioned.

In this lesson you:

• Created a block.

• Changed the size of a primitive after creation.

• Created and edited a cylinder.

• Reviewed the Vector Constructor dialog.

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Lesson

5 Positional Form Features

Purpose

This lesson introduces Form Features that can be associatively positionedfrom other features.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create Hole, Boss, Pocket, Pad, Slot, and Groove features.

• Position features.

• Edit the parameters and position of features.

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Positional Form Features

Creating Form FeaturesForm features are used to add detail to a model. These features include holes,slots, bosses, pads, pockets and grooves. Form features are fully associativeto the geometry and parameter values used to create them. These featurescan be accessed by choosing Insert→Design Feature or by adding them to theForm Feature toolbar.

Placement Face

All form features require a placement face. For a groove, the placement facemust be cylindrical or conical. For all other form features, the placement facemust be planar. This planar placement face defines the X-Y plane of thecoordinate system for the feature being created. Features are created normalto the placement face.

A datum plane may be used as the planar placement face. In the followingexample, the datum plane is used as the Planar Placement face for the holefeature.

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Horizontal and Vertical Reference

The Horizontal Reference defines the X axis of the feature coordinatesystem. Any linear edge, planar face, datum axis, or datum plane that canbe projected onto the planar placement face may be selected to define thehorizontal direction.

A Horizontal Reference is required to define the length direction of formfeatures having a Length parameter (slot, rectangular pocket, and pad). Itis also required to define horizontal or vertical positioning dimensions forfeatures that do not initially require a Horizontal Reference (holes, bosses,and cylindrical pockets).

1 — Planar Placement Face2 — Horizontal Reference3 — X Length of Feature

If there are no selectable objects to define a horizontal direction, you canspecify a Vertical Reference instead. The horizontal direction will be inferredas being perpendicular to it.

Feature Coordinate System

The WCS will move automatically to facilitate the creation of a feature basedon the selected placement face and reference direction. The coordinate systembeing represented is called a Feature Coordinate System (FCS) and is storedwith the feature definition. The WCS will return to the FCS orientation whenyou edit the position of the feature.

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Positioning Form Features

Positioning dimensions are distance values measured along the placementface. They may be used to place the form feature at the proper location onthe placement face. These dimensions should be considered as constraints, orrules, that the geometry must obey.

1 — Horizontal 6 — Angular2 — Vertical 7 — Point onto Point3 — Parallel 8 — Point onto Line4 — Perpendicular 9 — Line onto Line5 — Parallel at a Distance

Only the dimension types that apply to the feature being creatingwill be displayed.

Positioning dimensions are not required, but it is recommended that they beadded when features are created for ease of future editing.

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Hole

This option is used to create simple, counterbore, and countersink holes inan existing solid. The middle portion of the dialog contains fields to enterparameters and will vary depending on the type of hole that is chosen. Thedialog below appears for the Simple hole type.

Hole Creation Procedure

• Choose the Hole icon (Insert→Design Feature→Hole).

• Choose the Type (Simple, Counterbore, or Countersink).

• Select the placement face. If a datum plane is selected choose the ReverseSide button as required.

• Select the thru face if applicable.

• Key in the required parameter values.

• Choose OK or Apply.

• Create positional dimensions as required.

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Hole Types

Simple 1 – Diameter2 – Depth3 – Tip Angle

Counterbore 1 – C-Bore Diameter2 – C-Bore Depth3 – Hole Depth

Countersink 1 – C-Sink Diameter2 – C-Sink Angle3 – Hole Depth

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Boss

The Boss feature is used to add a cylindrical shape with a specified height toa model, having either straight or tapered sides.

1 — Diameter2 — Height3 — Taper Angle

A positive or negative value may be entered depending on which way the wallis to incline. A zero value results in a vertical cylinder wall.

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Positioning Terminology

• Fully Specified — The feature is uniquely located by the positioningdimensions specified.

• Underspecified — The feature position is not completely constrained.

• Overspecified — The feature has had more positioning constraintsapplied to it than are necessary.

• Target Solid — The solid body that a Boolean operation acts upon. In thecontext of a Form Feature it is the solid body that the Hole, Slot, Pocket orGroove will subtract from, or a Boss or Pad will unite with.

• Target Edge — An edge on the Target Solid that is selected for positioningpurposes.

• Tool Solid — The solid representation of the feature being definedby the current operation. In the context of a Form Feature it is therepresentation of the Hole, Slot, Pocket, Pad, Boss, or Groove that will besubtracted from or united with the Target Solid.

• Tool Edge — An edge on the Tool Solid that is selected for positioningpurposes.

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Positioning Methods

Horizontal

Specifies the horizontal distance between two points, one on the target solidand the other on the tool solid. Horizontal is measured along the X-axis of thefeature coordinate system (the Horizontal Reference). As edges are selected,the nearest valid point is selected (midpoints are not selectable).

1 — Horizontal Reference2 — Target Edge (End Point)3 — Tool Edge (Tangent Point)

Vertical

Specifies the vertical distance between two points, one on the target solid andthe other on the tool solid. Vertical is measured along the Y-axis of the featurecoordinate system (perpendicular to the Horizontal Reference). As edges areselected, the nearest valid point is selected (midpoints are not selectable).

1 — Horizontal Reference2 — Target Edge (End Point)3 — Tool Edge (Arc Center)

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Perpendicular

Specifies the shortest (normal) distance between a linear edge on the targetsolid (also datum planes or axis) and a point on the tool solid. The lineartarget edge is always selected first.

1 — Target Edge2 — Tool Edge (Arc Center)

Point onto Line

Specifies that the distance between an edge on the target solid (also datumplanes or axis) and a point on the tool solid is zero.

1 — Target Edge (Datum Plane)2 — Tool Edge (Arc Center)

Point onto Line is the same as the Perpendicular positioningdimension with the value automatically set to zero. You can change itto a non-zero value when you edit the feature.

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Parallel

Specifies the shortest distance between two points, one point on the targetsolid and the other point on the tool solid. As edges are selected, the nearestvalid point is selected (midpoints are not selectable).

1 — Target Edge (Arc Center)2 — Tool Edge (Arc Center)

Point onto Point

Specifies the distance between a point on the target solid and a point on thetool solid is zero. This is commonly used to align arc centers (concentric) ofcylindrical or conical features. This method fully constrains their locationsince rotation is not a degree of freedom for cylindrical or conical features.

1 — Target Edge (Arc Center)2 — Tool Edge (Arc Center)

Point onto Point is the same as the Parallel positioning dimension withthe value automatically set to zero. You can change it to a non-zerovalue when you edit the feature.

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Activity — Positioning Holes and Bosses

In this activity, you will create and position hole and boss features.

Step 1: Open the form_feature_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application. (Start→Modeling)

Step 3: Create a boss.

Choose Insert→Design Feature→Boss.

Key in the following values:

Diameter = 2Height = .125Taper Angle = 0

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Select the top face of the block (1) as the placement face.

Choose OK (MB2).

Notice Perpendicular is already selected.Select edge (2) and enter a value of 4.Select edge (3) and enter a value of 3.Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 4: Create a simple thru hole.

Choose the Hole icon. (Insert→Design Feature→Hole)

Choose Simple for the hole Type.

Key in a Diameter of 1.

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Select the top face of the boss (1) as the placement face and thebottom face of the block as the thru face.

Choose Apply.

Choose Point onto Point.

Select the top edge (2) of the boss.

Choose Arc Center.

Step 5: Create a counterbore thru hole.

Choose Counterbore for the hole Type.

Key in the following values:

C-Bore Diameter = 1C-Bore Depth = .5Hole Diameter = .5

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Select the top face of the block as the placement face and thebottom face of the block as the thru face.

Choose Apply.

Verify Perpendicular is selected.Select edge (1) and enter a value of 1.5.Select edge (2) and enter a value of 1.5.Choose OK (MB2).

Step 6: Create another counterbore hole.

Verify that Counterbore is still selected.

Verify the following values:

C-Bore Diameter = 1C-Bore Depth = .5Hole Diameter = .5

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Select the top face of the block as the placement face and thebottom face of the block as the thru face.

Choose Apply.

Verify Perpendicular is selected.Select edge (1) and enter a value of 1.5.Select edge (2) and enter a value of 1.5.Choose OK (MB2).

Step 7: Create a simple hole.

Choose Simple

Key in the following values:

Diameter = .25Depth = 1Tip Angle = 0

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Select the top face of the block as the placement face in theapproximate location shown (1).

Choose Apply.

Choose Horizontal .Select a front edge (2) of the block as theHorizontal Reference, select the edge of the boss (3) as thetarget edge, and choose the Arc Center option.

Key in a value of 1.375 and press Enter.

Choose Vertical.

Select the edge of the boss again as the target edge and choosethe Arc Center option.

Key in a value of 1.25.

Choose OK.

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If the placement face was selected near the right or back ofthe block, the hole may initially be positioned on the wrongside of the target edge. The location where you select theplacement face will determine the initial feature location.Always select the placement face approximately whereyou want the feature to be located. If the hole is on thewrong side of the target edge, you will have to change thepositioning dimension to a negative value.

Step 8: Create another simple thru hole that is aligned with the edges ofthe front face of the block.

Verify the Simple hole type is selected.

Key in a Diameter of 1.

Select the right face of the block (1) as the placement face andleft face (2) as the thru face.

Choose OK.

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Choose Point onto Line .Select the front edge (3) of the block.

Choose Perpendicular .Select the bottom right edge (4).

Key in a value of 1.5 and choose OK.

Step 9: Create another hole in the corner of the part.

Choose the Hole icon. (Insert→Design Feature→Hole)

Verify the Simple hole type is selected.

Key in a Diameter of 7.

Select the top face of the block as the placement face andbottom face as the thru face.

Choose OK.

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Choose Point onto Point .

Select the back right corner of the block (1).

The completed part should appear as shown.

Step 10: Close the part.

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Slot

This option allows you to create a slot in a solid body as if cut by a millingmachine tool. In each case, the shape of the cutting tool corresponds to theslot type and dimensions.

The slot feature will be created so that the axis of the cutting tool is normal tothe face or datum plane selected. Initially, the path of the slot will be parallelto the selected Horizontal Reference.

There are several different slot types available. You will be prompted for theparameters that apply to the type of slot chosen.

Rectangular Slot

The Rectangular slot type uses a tool that has cylindrical end faces and willproduce sharp edges along the bottom of the slot.

1 — Length2 — Width3 — Depth

The Width of the rectangular slot represents the diameter of the cylindricalcutting tool.

The Depth of the slot is measured in a direction parallel to the tool axis fromthe placement face to the bottom of the slot. Depth values must be positive.

The Length is measured parallel to the horizontal reference (X in the featurecoordinate system). Length values must be positive.

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Other Slot Types

The other available slot profiles are shown below.

Ball-End

U-Slot

T-Slot

Dove-Tail

Creating a Thru Slot

The Thru Slot option can be applied to all slot types and extends the length ofthe slot along the placement face in the direction of the horizontal referencebetween two specified faces.

You will be prompted to select starting and ending thru faces instead of alength parameter. The two thru faces cannot be parallel to the placement face.

The rectangular slot shown below was created with the Thru Slot optionenabled. The selected starting and ending thru faces are shaded.

You should not dimension to the end arcs of the slot when positioning a ThruSlot. The length of a Thru Slot is determined by the selected thru faces. Theonly positioning dimension required is to locate an edge or centerline alongthe length of the slot (tool) to a target edge or datum. Parallel at a Distancecan be used to constrain the feature and control the two remaining degreesof freedom.

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Pocket

The pocket feature is used to create a cavity in a solid body.

There are three types of pockets:

• Cylindrical (not covered in this lesson)

• Rectangular

• General (not covered in this lesson)

Rectangular Pocket

This option allows a rectangular pocket to be defined to a specified depth, withor without a floor and/or corner radius, having either straight or tapered walls.

The following parameters may be specified:

1 — Length2 — Width3 — Depth4 — Corner Radius5 — Floor Radius6 — Taper Angle

The pocket is initially oriented so that the Length is parallel to theselected Horizontal Reference.

Pocket features may be positioned from a tool edge or from the centerlinesprovided for this purpose.

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Pad

This option allows a raised pad on a solid body.

There are two types of pads:

• Rectangular

• General (not covered in this lesson)

Rectangular Pad

This option allows a rectangular pad to be defined to a specified height, withor without a corner radius and/or taper.

The following parameters may be specified:

1 — Length2 — Width3 — Height4 — Corner Radius5 — Taper Angle

The pad is initially oriented so that the Length is parallel to theselected Horizontal Reference.

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Additional Positioning Methods

Parallel at a Distance

Specifies that a linear edge on the target solid (also a datum plane or datumaxis) and a linear edge on the tool solid must be parallel and at a givendistance. This is typically used for features with length (slot, pocket or pad).

1 — Target Edge2 — Tool Edge (Centerline of Slot)

Using Parallel at a Distance will solve two of the three degrees of freedomnecessary to fully specify a feature having a length (rotation and translationin one direction). Adding another Parallel at a Distance or Line onto Linedimension would overspecify the location of the feature.

To fully specify the feature in the example an additional positioningdimension is required to solve the final degree of freedom (i.e. Horizontal,Vertical, Perpendicular).

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Line onto Line

Specifies that the distance between a linear edge on the target solid (or adatum plane or datum axis) and a linear edge on the tool solid is zero andthey are constrained parallel to each other. This is typically used for featureswith length (slot, pocket, or pad).

1 — Target Edge (Datum Plane)2 — Tool Edge (Centerline of Slot)

Using Line onto Line will solve two of the three degrees of freedom necessaryto fully specify a feature having a length (rotational and translation in onedirection). Adding another Line onto Line or Parallel at a Distance dimensionwould overspecify the location of the feature. To fully specify the feature inthe above example an additional positioning dimension is required to solvethe final degree of freedom (i.e. Horizontal, Perpendicular, or Point onto Line).

Line onto Line is the same as the Parallel at a Distance positioningdimension with the value automatically set to zero. This zero valuecan be changed to a non-zero value when editing the feature.

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Angular

Specifies that a linear edge on the target solid (also a datum plane or datumaxis) and a linear edge on the tool solid must be at a given angle to eachother. The angle is measured in a counter-clockwise direction (with respect tothe feature coordinate system), from the ends of the edges nearest to wherethey are selected.

1 — Target Edge2 — Tool Edge (Edge of Pocket)

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Parameter Entry Options

Parameter Entry Options let you easily define your model parametrically asyou specify values during feature creation. They are accessed by choosingthe “down-arrow” icon located next to many of the parameter entry fieldsthroughout the Modeling application.

Options are provided to let you specify a value based on a formula, a referenceto an existing value, or a derived value from a measurement without havingto copy and paste or reenter the values.

You can use these options to easily lookup functions and define relationshipsbetween features. You can use values that already exist in your model,making downstream changes easier and in agreement with your designintent.

Referencing Existing Parameters

Choosing the Reference option will display a Parameter Selection dialogand allow you to select an existing feature. Once a feature is selected, it’sparameters are listed in a dialog. Selecting one of the parameters andchoosing OK will insert it into the entry field.

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Activity — Creating Pockets and Slots

In this activity, you will locate a pocket and slot using the Line onto Line andParallel at a Distance positioning methods.

Step 1: Open the form_feature_2 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application. (Start→Modeling)

Step 3: Create and locate the rectangular pocket.

Choose Insert→Design Feature→Pocket.

Choose Rectangular.

Select the placement face (1) and horizontal reference (2) asindicated below.

The design intent is that the length of the pocket be the sameas the Y Length of the block.

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Choose the Parameter Entry Option down-arrow button.next to the Length field and choose the Reference option.

Select the block feature from the graphics window.

Choose the BLOCK(0) Size Y parameter from the ParameterSelection dialog and choose OK.

The parameter for the size of the block appears in the Lengthfield for the pocket. This “p-number” may be different in yourpart.

Key in the remaining values:

Width = 1Depth = .25Corner Radius = 0Floor Radius = 0Taper Angle = 0

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Choose OK.

Choose Line onto Line and select the target (1) and thetool (2) as indicated below.

Choose Point onto Line and select the target (3) andthe tool (4) as indicated below.

Choose Insert→Design Feature→Slot.

Verify the Thru Slot option is turned off and chooseRectangular.

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Select the placement face (1) and horizontal reference (2) asindicated below.

The design intent is that the depth of the slot be the same asthe X Length of the block.

Key in the following values:

Length = 1Width = .55

Press the Tab key to highlight the Depth field (or double-clickin the Depth field).

Choose the Parameter Entry Option down-arrow buttonnext to the Depth field and choose the Reference option.

Select the block feature from the graphics window.

Choose the BLOCK(0) Size X parameter from the ParameterSelection dialog and choose OK.

The parameter, or “p-number” for the X Length of the blockwill appear in the Depth field of the slot.

Choose OK.

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Choose Parallel at a Distance and select the target (1)and the tool (2) as indicated below. Key in a value of 1 andchoose OK.

Choose Perpendicular and select the target (3) and thetool (4) as indicated below. Key in a value of 1.25.

Choose OK.

Step 4: Close the part.

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Groove

The groove feature requires a cylindrical or conical placement face. A groovecan be thought of as a feature that would result from a part being cut in alathe. After specifying the groove parameters, you will be shown a previewof the tool solid. The tool solid can be thought of as the path that the lathewould make as it cuts the solid.

Positioning a Groove

You only have to position a groove along the axis of the cylindrical or conicalplacement face. The Positioning dialog will not appear. Instead, you are onlyrequired to specify a horizontal dimension along the axis by selecting a targetedge followed by a tool edge or centerline.

Two grooves are shown in the following example.

1 — Target Edge2 — Tool Edge (or centerline)

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Activity — Positioning a Groove

In this activity, you will create a groove feature and position it along theaxis of a cylindrical solid body.

Step 1: Open the groove_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create and locate the groove.

Choose Insert→Design Feature→Groove.

Choose Rectangular.

Select the outside cylindrical face as the placement face.

Key in the following values:

Groove Diameter = 2.25Width = .25

Choose OK.

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Select the front outside circular edge (1) as the target edge andthe centerline of the groove (2) as the tool edge.

Key in a value of 1.5 to position the groove and choose OK(MB2).

Step 4: Close the part.

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Editing the Size and Location of Form FeaturesAs features are created the parametric data is captured in expressions.The parametric data consists of the actual feature size definition (i.e.diameter, height, length) as well as the positional data that is captured inthe positioning dimensions.

Edit Parameters

The Edit Parameters and Edit with Rollback options allow you to redefine theparameter values of any parametric feature and update the model to reflectthe new values. To edit the parameters of a feature:

• Select the feature to edit.

– With the cursor over the feature, choose MB3→Edit Parameters orMB3→Edit with Rollback.

– Double-click on a feature. (The default action is Edit with Rollback.)

– Double-click the feature or use the MB3 popup menu in the PartNavigator.

– Choose Edit→Feature→Edit Parameters and select the feature.

– Choose the Edit Feature Parameters icon and select the feature.

• Select the parameters to edit.

– Some parameters will appear in the graphics window.

– Any of the valid parameters types may be chosen from the EditParameters dialog. This displays the original creation dialog wherethe parameters may be edited.

• Choose OK until the editing dialogs are dismissed and the model updates.

Edit with Rollback

This option allows you to edit the parameters of a feature but it alsotemporarily returns the model to its state when the feature was created. Thefeatures that occur after the edited feature in the model history are hiddenfrom the display.

This simplifies the display and makes it easier to select features to referencewhen using the Parameter Entry options.

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Edit Positioning

This option allows a feature to be moved by editing its positioning dimensions.In addition, positioning dimensions may be added to features that are eitherunderspecified or were not given any positioning dimensions at the timeof creation.

Once the feature has been selected, the following options are offered basedupon the positioning status of the selected feature.

If the selected feature has no positioning dimension associated withit, the Add Dimension option is automatically selected.

To edit the position of a feature:

• Select the feature to edit.

– With the cursor over the feature in the graphics window, chooseMB3→Edit Positioning.

– With the cursor over the feature in the Part Navigator, chooseMB3→Edit Positioning.

– Choose Edit→Feature→Positioning and then select the feature to edit.

– Choose the Edit Feature Positioning icon and select the featureto edit.

• Choose the type of edit (Add, Edit, or Delete).

• Select an existing dimension or new dimension type.

• Choose OK until the editing dialogs are dismissed and the model updates.

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Add Dimension

This option may be used to add a positioning dimension to a feature.

When adding positioning dimensions, any edge (1) resulting from theintersection of the feature being positioned (2) and a face on the target solid(3) may not be selected as the tool edge.

The intersection edge is a child object of the tool and target solid’s face andis defined by the boolean operation associated with the feature type beingcreated. The boolean operation does not occur until after the position of thefeature has been defined. Therefore, the intersection edge is not a validselection to specify location.

When adding positioning dimensions to a Thru Hole, no edges will beselectable as the target edge because both edges are intersection edges. TheIdentify Solid Face option is used to select the center of the cylindrical face (1).

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Valid target edges for positioning purposes must belong to features existingin the feature creation list of the model before the feature being positioned.

In the example below the features are numbered in the order in which theywere created. Feature (2) may not be positioned using any face or edge fromfeature (3). If an edge or face from feature (3) is selected as a target, a messageis displayed stating that you cannot select an object from a later feature and adialog will let you highlight those edges and faces which can be selected.

Edit Dimension Value

Features may be moved by changing the values of the feature’s positioningdimensions.

To use this option:

• Select the dimension to edit (if there is only one positioning dimension, itis selected automatically).

• Key in the new value.

Continue editing as many dimension values as desired. Once all the desireddimension values have been edited, choose OK.

Delete Dimension

Use this option to delete a positioning dimension from a feature. The featurewill then remain in its current location as its position is no longer associatedto the model.

If you are replacing a dimension, add the new dimension beforedeleting the old one. The Edit Positioning dialog is maintained whenyou add a dimension but is automatically dismissed when you deletea dimension.

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Error Messages

If the model cannot be updated based on the new parameters or location ofthe feature, the Edit During Update dialog will be presented. This dialogprovides several options for dealing with the failed update.

You can choose Show Current Model followed by the Show FailureArea option to help identify the problem visually.

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Editing Features with the Part Navigator

The Part Navigator is a powerful tool that may be used to identify and editfeatures. Holding down MB3 on a feature node in the Part Navigator displaysa feature specific pop-up menu. This menu provides an alternative method toedit the parameters and the position of a form feature.

To access the Part Navigator, choose the icon on the resource bar on the rightside of the NX window.

If the resource is bar is not visible, choose View→Show ResourceBar to turn it on.

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Activity — Editing Positional Form Features

Step 1: Open the edit_feature_3 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Edit size parameters.

In the graphics window, select the hole feature indicated below.

With the cursor over the highlighted hole feature, click MB3and choose Edit Parameters.

Choose Feature Dialog.

Change the Diameter to .375 and choose OK twice.

Notice that both holes changed. This is because a referencedparameter was established when the second hole was created.

Step 4: Edit the position.

In the graphics window, select the same hole as before.

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With the cursor over the highlighted hole feature, click MB3and choose Edit Positioning.

Choose Edit Dimension Value.

In the graphics window, select the positioning dimension thatequals 2.625 and change the value to 3.25.

Choose OK three times to finish the update.

Notice how both holes changed location. This is because areferenced parameter was established when the second holewas positioned.

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Step 5: Change a hole type.

In the graphics window, select the counterbore hole indicatedbelow.

With the cursor over the highlighted hole feature, click MB3and choose Edit Parameters.

Choose Change Type.

Choose Simple and choose OK.

Choose OK to accept the Diameter value of .3125.

Choose OK again to complete the edit of the hole.

Step 6: Change the positioning design intent.

In the graphics window, select the same hole that you justedited.

With the cursor over the highlighted hole feature, click MB3and choose Edit Positioning.

Choose Add Dimension.

Choose Perpendicular.

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Select the front edge, as shown below, as the target edge.

Because the hole was created as a thru hole, you are limited inwhat you can select for a tool edge. In cases where you cannotselect an appropriate tool edge or, if the resulting edge is nota true circle (like shown at one end), you can use the IdentifySolid Face option.

Choose Identify Solid Face.

Select the cylindrical face of the hole as shown below.

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Accept the dimension value by choosing OK. Notice the Statusline indicates that the feature position is overspecified.

There are two dimensions competing against each other. Thedesign intent was changed to locate the hole from the frontedge of the part so you will need to delete the old dimensioncausing the overspecified condition.

Choose OK in the Positioning dialog.

Choose Delete Dimension.

Select the existing dimension causing the overspecifiedcondition and choose OK.

Step 7: Close the part.

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Additional Positioning Techniques

Information→Feature

Choosing Information→Feature will display a Feature Browser dialog whereyou can obtain detailed information about features in a model. Selecting afeature and choosing OK or Apply will display an Information window.

Accessing the Information pull-down menu options will not cancel featureconstruction dialogs. This allows you to find necessary information neededwhile creating new features.

You can also list information about a feature by highlighting it in thegraphics window, choosing MB3→Properties, and then choosing theInformation icon in the Properties dialog.

Display Dimensions

The Display Dimensions option in the Feature Browser temporarily displaysthe parameters of size and location in the graphics window for the feature.Refreshing the graphics window removes the temporary display of theparameters.

Display Dimensions can also be accessed using the Part Navigator.

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Positioning from Edges

When you select an edge of the target solid to constrain a feature, a curve isextracted to match that edge. This curve is maintained internally and islinked to the target solid. If you modify the edge (for example, by adding ablend), the constraint is maintained to the original edge.

Try to position features from edges before they are blended. This minimizespotential update errors when blends are modified or deleted. You can use theMake Current Feature option, within the Part Navigator, to add the featurebefore the blend feature in the Model History.

When positioning from edges, select edges that are less likely to beaffected by downstream features and editing operations. This willreduce the chances of future model update failures.

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SummaryIn this lesson you were introduced to Form Features. Form features are usedto add detail to the model during creation. Form features are fully associativeto the geometry and parameter values used to create them. The differentform features are: Hole, Boss, Pocket, Pad, Slot, and Groove.

This lesson you:

• Identified a Placement Face.

• Identified a Horizontal Reference.

• Identified Target and Tool Solids.

• Created Hole, Boss, Pocket, Pad, Slot, and Groove features.

• Applied positioning dimensions form features.

• Edited parameters and positioning dimensions of form features.

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Lesson

6 Expressions

Purpose

This lesson is a fundamental introduction to Expressions.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create Expressions.

• Edit Expressions.

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Expressions

OverviewExpressions are arithmetic or conditional formulas that define thecharacteristics of a part. Expressions define the dimensions and relationshipsof a model.

Expressions are automatically created when:

• a feature is created.

• a sketch is dimensioned.

• a feature is positioned.

All expressions have a single, unique name and a string or formula thatcan contain a combination of variables, functions, numbers, operators, andsymbols.

Expression names are variables that you can insert in the formula strings ofother expressions. This can be helpful in breaking up lengthy formulas aswell as defining relationships that can be used in place of numbers.

Expression formulas are evaluated for values.

Here are some examples of expressions, their formulas and their resultingvalues:

Expression Name Formula Valuelength 5*width 20p39 (Extrude(6) End Limit) p1+p2*(2+p8*sin(p3)) 18.849555921p26 (Simple Hole(9) Tip Angle) 118 118

Expression names are no longer case sensitive, with the followingexceptions:

• Expression names are case sensitive if their dimensionality isset to Constant.

• Expression names are case sensitive if they were created beforeNX 3.

When expression names are case sensitive, they must be referencedexactly when used in other expressions.

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Creating and Editing ExpressionsTo work with expressions, choose Tools→Expression.

The Expressions Dialog with Less Options

1 Expression Name Up to 132 letters, numbers, or underscore.

Must begin with a letter.

Case Sensitive.2 Formula Can contain a combination of numbers,

functions, operators, and other expressionnames.

3 Dimensionality Choose from Constant, Length, Area, Volume,Mass, and many others

4 Units Units appropriate to the dimensionality will beavailable in a pull-down.

The system will handle unit conversionsautomatically if, for example, you specifyinches in a metric part.

Not active during editing or if dimensionalityis constant.

5 More Options

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The Expressions Dialog with More Options

1 ListedExpressions

Choose from User Defined, Named, Filter byName, Filter by Value, Filter by Formula,Unused Expressions, Object Parameters,Measurements, and All

2 Expression list List contains columns for Name (followed byusage in the part), Formula, Value, Units, andComment

3 Accept Edit4 Reject Edit5 Less Options

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Creating Expressions

There are three methods to create expressions:

• System generated expressions (p#).

• User defined expressions created during text input (Rad=5.00).

• Predefined, user created expressions (Thk=0.60, Thk used as a text entryin a parameter field).

Procedure:

• Choose the Dimensionality and Units for the expression.

• Key in the name of the expression in the Name field and press the<Enter> key.

• Key in the formula for the expression in the Formula field and press the<Enter> key.

• Choose Apply or OK to save the expression.

After keying in the name of the expression the <Tab> or = key can beused to advance the cursor to the Formula field.

Editing Expressions

Procedure:

• Display the Expressions dialog with More Options.

• Choose the expression to modify from the expression list. The expressionwill be displayed in the Name and Formula fields.

• Modify the Name, Formula, or Units of the expression.

• Press the <Enter> key or the Accept Edit icon.

• Choose Apply or OK to save the expression.

Editing the name of an expression will also edit the formula of anyexpression that references it.

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Listing Expressions Associated with Features

It is often necessary to determine which expressions control which features ina model. If the Listed Expressions option is set to All, all of the expressionsin the part are listed. If an expression defines a feature, the feature name islisted with it (i.e. p8 (Simple Hole(5) Diameter).

All of the expressions associated with a feature may also be listed in anInformation window by choosing Information→Feature and selecting thefeature or MB3→Information in the Part Navigator.

List Referencers

The List Referencers option provides a means of finding out if an expressionis referenced in another expression and what feature(s) use the expression.To use this option, select the expression, and choose List Referencers fromthe MB3 pop-up menu.

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Specifying Formulas while Creating Features

The Expressions dialog may be accessed while creating a feature by choosingFormula from the parameter entry option menu. This will allow you tospecify a complex formula for the expression that is generated for thefeature parameter. Parameter entry options are available with many of theparameter entry fields throughout the Modeling application.

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Activity — Getting Familiar with Expressions

In this activity, you will create user-defined expressions.

Step 1: Open the expression_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Examine the Expressions of the Block.

Choose Tools→Expression.

Change the Listed Expressions option to All.

The dialog lists all of the expressions in the part. Notice thedefault expression names p0, p1, and p2 which define the block.

Step 4: Delete the Block.

Choose the Delete icon from the Standard toolbar.(Edit→Delete)

Select the block in the graphics window and choose OK .

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Step 5: Create a new Block.

Choose Insert→Design Feature→Block.

Choose Origin, Edge Lengths.

Key in the following expressions:

Length (XC) = length=8Width (YC) = width=6Height (ZC) = height=6/2

Choose OK.

Step 6: Examine the Expressions for the newly created Block.

Choose Tools→Expression.

Notice the expressions height, length, and width. Theseexpressions are referenced in the formulas of the expressionsdefining the block.

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Change the Listed Expressions option to Named.

This lists only the expressions in the part that you explicitlynamed.

The formula for height is a constant numeric value 6/2. Thedesired design intent is that the height grows proportionallywith the width. This relationship could not be established uponcreation as the width expression was not in existence.

Step 7: Edit the expression.

Select the height expression from the Expressions list. Thiswill fill in the Name and Formula fields.

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Key in a new formula for the expression width/2 and pressEnter.

The formula for the expression height is now changed towidth/2. Any time that the width changes, the height valuewill change accordingly.

Step 8: Change the width value.

Select the width expression.

Key in 4 for the formula and press Enter.

Choose OK.

The block will update with the new width and height.

Step 9: Close the part.

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SummaryExpressions are algebraic or arithmetic statements used to control thecharacteristics of a part. All expressions have a name, a formula, and a valueand are used to define the dimensions and relationships of a model.

In this lesson you:

• Created Expressions.

• Edited Expressions.

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Lesson

7 Shell

Purpose

This lesson introduces the Shell feature operation.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create a Shell feature.

• Specify faces to be removed and apply an alternate thickness to a face.

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Shell

Shell Feature OverviewThe Shell feature operation provides additional definition to an existing solidby creating a cavity inside the solid or a shell around the solid based upon aspecified thickness. This can be accessed in the Feature Operation toolbar orby choosing Insert→Offset/Scale→Shell.

The entire solid body is hollowed during this operation but faces can beremoved to create openings. In the following example, the top face wasselected to be removed.

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Shell

Creating a Shell FeatureWhen you choose the Shell option, the Shell dialog is displayed.

The Remove Faces icon is initially active by default and you are prompted toselect the faces to remove. You may also enter a Thickness value.

After the selecting faces to remove, the resulting solid previews in thegraphics window. The Thickness can be adjusted by dragging the handle (1)to the desired value or keying in the value in the dynamic input field (2).

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Initially, the drag handle will point inward and a positive value for thicknesswill hollow the original solid. To reverse the direction, double click the draghandle (or use MB3). When the drag handle points outward, a positivethickness value will create a shell around the original solid.

You may also specify a negative thickness value to create the shellin the opposite direction of the drag handle.

When you achieve the desired Thickness value and direction , choose OK (orMB2) to create the feature.

Selection Intent Face Options

The Selection Intent toolbar is available to specify face selection rules whileselecting faces. These rules can be applied to automatically select a collectionof faces in a single step instead of selecting each one individually.

Alternate Thickness List

A unique thickness may be assigned to faces with the Alternate ThicknessList option. This option allows you to select sets of faces and specify adifferent thickness value using a drag handle or entry field.

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Activity — Creating a Shell Feature

In this activity, you will use the Shell feature to define a plastic molded part.

Step 1: Open the shell_hair_dryer part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Inspect the Part.

Set the Rendering Style to Shaded with Edges androtate the part to verify that a shell feature is required.

Step 4: Create the shell feature and remove the proper faces.

Choose the Shell icon from the Feature Operationtoolbar. (Insert→Offset/Scale→Shell)

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Key in a Thickness value of 2.

Select the right (1), and back (2) planar faces to remove.

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Choose OK (MB2).

Step 5: Rotate the part to verify the shell was created correctly.

Step 6: Close the part.

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Activity — Creating a Shell and Removing Multiple Faces

In this activity, you will create a Shell feature and select multiple faces toremove.

Step 1: Open the shell_face_selection part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a shell feature.

Choose the Shell icon. (Insert→Offset/Scale→Shell)

Key in a Thickness of .12.

Select the following five faces to remove: front, back, left, right,and bottom.

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Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 4: Edit the Shell feature.

Orient the work view to Front. (MB3→Orient View→Front)

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

Choose Edit→Feature→Edit Parameters.

Choose the Shell feature and OK.

Change the Thickness to –.12 and choose OK twice (or MB2twice) to update the model.

Notice the material is offset in the opposite direction.

Step 5: Close the part.

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Activity — Creating a Shell with an Alternate Thickness

In this activity, you will create a Shell feature with an alternate thicknessapplied to a face.

Step 1: Open the shell_alternate_thickness part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create the shell feature.

Choose the Shell icon. (Insert→Offset/Scale→Shell)

Key in a Thickness of 4.

Verify the Face option is set to Tangent Faces in the SelectionIntent toolbar.

Select the top face to remove.

This will automatically include the right and left faces becausethey are tangent.

Choose Alternate Thickness List.

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Select the bottom face.

Key in a Set1 T value of 8.

Choose OK twice. (or MB2 twice)

Step 4: Close the part.

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SummaryThe Shell feature creates a cavity inside, or a shell around an existing solid,based upon a specified thickness. In addition, selected faces may be assignedalternate thicknesses.

In this lesson you:

• Created a Shell feature with a uniform thickness.

• Created a Shell feature and selected multiple faces to remove.

• Created a Shell feature and specified an alternate thickness for a face.

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Lesson

8 Edge Operations

Purpose

This lesson introduces Edge Blend and Chamfer operations.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create Edge Blends.

• Create Chamfers.

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OverviewEdge operations are available to provide additional definition to the edges of amodel. These operations include Edge Blend and Chamfer. They are availablein the Feature Operation toolbar or by choosing Insert→Detail Feature.

You may also create edge blends and chamfers by first selecting theedge(s) and choosing Blend or Chamfer from the MB3 pop-up menu.

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Edge BlendThis option creates cylindrical or conical faces in place of an edge on a solidbody. Material is added or subtracted depending on the topology of the solidbody and the faces intersecting the selected edges (1,2) are shortened.

Creating Edge Blends

After choosing the Edge Blend option, a dialog is displayed and you areprompted to select a set of edges. You can key in the radius in the Set1 R field.

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After the selecting edges, the result is previewed in the graphics window. Theradius value can be adjusted by dragging one of the radius drag handles (1) orby keying in the value in the dynamic input field (2).

Choose OK, Apply, or MB2 twice to create the edge blend feature.

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Multiple Edge Sets

A single blend feature may consist of one or more sets of edges and each setmay have a different radius value. After the first set of edges is selected anda radius is specified, choose the Complete set and start next set icon in thedialog (or MB2 once) to select another set of edges.

The drag handles for the first edge set disappear and an anchor and label(Set1) are displayed. You may then select edges to include in the second edgeset (Set2) and specify the radius using the new drag handles or dynamicinput field.

You may continue to define another edge set or complete the blend operationby choosing OK (or MB2 twice).

Selection Intent

The Selection Intent toolbar is available while creating an edge blend tospecify edge selection rules. These rules can be applied to automatically selecta collection of edges in a single step instead of selecting each edge individually.

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Activity — Creating Edge Blends

In this activity, you will create Edge Blends.

Step 1: Open the edge_blend_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create the first Edge Blend.

Select the edge (1), click MB3, and choose the Blend optionfrom the pop-up menu.

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Key in .75 for the radius and press Enter (or use the draghandles).

Choose OK (or MB2 twice) to create the blend.

Step 4: Create the second Edge Blend.

Choose the Edge Blend icon.(Insert→Detail Feature→Edge Blend)

In the Selection Intent toolbar, verify the Curve option is set toTangent Curves.

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Select the edge (1) shown below.

Notice the tangent edges are automatically selected based onthe Add Tangent Chain selection rule.

Key in a radius of .5 (or use the drag handles).

If you were to choose OK now, only the three tangent edgeswould be blended. Instead, you will blend the entire left side ofthe part so the additional edges must be selected manually.

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Select the two additional edges on the left side of the partshown below.

Choose OK (or MB2 twice) to create the blend.

Step 5: Close the part.

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ChamferThis option bevels the edges of a solid body by defining the desired chamferdimensions.

Material is added or subtracted depending on the topology of the solid bodyand the faces intersecting the selected edges (1,2) are shortened.

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Creating Chamfers

The Chamfer dialog is displayed and you are prompted to select the edges tochamfer. You can specify an Input Option and offset values in the dialog.

After edges are selected, you can also use the drag handles or dynamic entryfields in the graphics window to specify the offsets.

Choose OK (or MB2 ) to create the chamfer.

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Chamfer Input Options

Symmetric Offsets

The same offset value (1) is measured alongboth adjacent faces.

Asymmetric Offsets

Different offsets (1, 2) are measured alongthe adjacent faces.

Offset and Angle

An Offset value (1) and an Angle (2) arerequired.

You can change the Input Option in the dialog or by highlighting thedrag handle in the graphics window with the cursor and choosingMB3.

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Activity — Creating Chamfers

In this activity, you will apply chamfers to the edges of a model.

Step 1: Open the chamfer_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a chamfer by specifying an offset and angle.

Choose the Chamfer icon.(Insert→Detail Feature→Chamfer)

Choose Offset and Angle in the Chamfer dialog.

Key in the following values:

Offset = 1.75Angle = 30

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Select the edge (1).

If your model does not look like the figure below, choose the

Reverse Offsets icon in the Chamfer dialog.

Choose Apply.

Step 4: Create a chamfer with asymmetric offsets.

Choose the Asymmetric Offsets icon in the Chamfer dialog.

Key in the following values:

First Offset = .25Second Offset = .5

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Select the edge (2).

If your model does not look like the figure below, choose theReverse Offsets icon.

Choose OK.

Step 5: Close the part.

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SummaryThe Edge Blend and Chamfer operations are available to provide additionaldefinition to the edges of a model. All of the blended edges or chamfered edgescreated in a single operation are considered to be one feature.

In this lesson you:

• Blended a single edge.

• Blended edges using a selection intent rule.

• Chamfered edges using different input options.

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Lesson

9 Model Construction Query

Purpose

This lesson demonstrates different methods to query a part to determinecreation method, design intent, and physical properties.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Retrieve layer information.

• Access the Part Navigator.

• Access feature and expression information.

• Playback the model construction.

• Suppress and Unsuppress features.

• Identify where expressions are used.

• Measure the distance between objects.

• Assign a material and calculate mass properties.

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Visually Inspect the PartVisual inspection of the solid model may be accomplished by rotating themodel to view the different features. At times this is very beneficial in orderto clearly see what is displayed in the graphics window. The model may berotated by using the middle mouse button or the Rotate icon in the Viewtoolbar.

Different rendering styles are available in the MB3 pop-up menu or Viewtoolbar to display the part. You can choose from Shaded or Wireframe modes,with or without edges displayed.

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LayersLayers are used to organize a part. They work like invisible containers tohouse the different objects used to create an NX solid model. A layer is asystem-defined attribute that all objects must have.

There are 256 layers in NX, one of which is always the Work Layer. Any ofthe layers can be assigned to one of four classifications of status:

• Work

• Selectable (on)

• Visible Only

• Invisible (off)

The Work Layer is the layer that objects are created on and is always visibleand selectable while it remains the Work Layer. Layer 1 is the default WorkLayer when a new part is created. When the Work Layer is changed, theprevious Work Layer automatically becomes Selectable and could then beassigned a different status.

The number of objects on one layer is not limited. You may choose whichlayers to create objects on and what the status will be. However, employingcompany standards for the use of layers is recommended.

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To assign a status to a layer or layers, choose the Layer Settings icon from theUtility toolbar or choose Format→Layer Settings from the menu bar.

Select a layer from the Layer/Status list area and choose one of the fouroptions below the list (Selectable, Invisible, Make Work, or Visible Only).

Double-clicking on a layer (other than the work layer) toggles itbetween Selectable and Invisible.

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Things to look for in the Layer Settings dialog:

• Object Count — Enabling Show Object Count using the checkboxwill change the display in the Layer/Status listing window to aLayer/Status/Count listing window that shows the number of objectscontained on each layer.

• Category Names — Layers or groups of layers can be named usingCategories. These names are listed in the Category listing window on theLayer Settings dialog as well as in the Layer/Status listing window nextto assigned layers when Show Category Names is enabled.

• Layer Listing — The filtering option menu at the bottom of the dialogallows the Layer/Status listing window to display All Layers, Layers withObjects, or All Selectable Layers.

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Layer Categories

The following layer and category standards will be followed in this class.

Model Geometry

Object Geometry Layer Assignment Category NameSolid Geometry 1–20 SOLIDSInter-part Modeling 15–20 LINKED_OBJECTSSketch Geometry 21–40 SKETCHESCurve Geometry 41–60 CURVESReference Geometry 61–80 DATUMSSheet Bodies 81–100 SHEETS

Drafting Objects

Object Geometry Layer Assignment Category NameDrawing Borders 101–110 FORMATS

Engineering Disciplines

Object Geometry Layer Assignment Category NameMechanism Tools 121–130 MECHFinite Element Meshesand Engineering Tools

131–150 CAE

Manufacturing 151–180 MFGQuality Tools 181–190 QA

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Moving Objects Between Layers

While creating a model, it may be necessary to move an object to a differentlayer. This can be accomplished by choosing Format→Move to Layer. Theobjects which need to be moved are selected using the Class Selection menuand the Layer Move dialog appears.

The destination layer may be specified by keying it in the Destination Layeror Category field or by selecting it from the layer list. Choosing OK or Applywill move the object(s). If Apply is chosen, additional objects may be selectedto move by choosing the Select New Objects button.

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Part NavigatorThe Part Navigator is useful to identify the features of the model. Selectinga feature in the Part Navigator window will highlight that feature in thegraphics window and will also highlight its parent and/or child features inthe Part Navigator. Conversely, selecting a feature in the graphics windowwill highlight that feature and its parents/children in the Part Navigator.

To access the Part Navigator, choose the Part Navigator icon on the resourcebar located vertically to the right of the graphics window.

If the resource is bar is not visible, choose View→Show ResourceBar to turn it on.

Suppress and Unsuppress

The display of features can be temporarily removed (suppressed) from thegraphics window by selecting the check box next to the feature name. When acheck is present, the feature is displayed in the graphics window.

The Suppress and Unsuppress options are also in the MB3 pop-up menu ofthe Part Navigator, the Edit→Feature menu, and the Edit Feature toolbar.They can be used to help investigate how a model was created and how itwould be affected if the feature was removed.

Feature Playback

The Playback option (Edit→Feature→Playback) can also be used toinvestigate a model. It temporarily hides features and allows you to stepthrough the construction of the model, one feature at a time.

Playback does not suppress reference features or sketches. It does allowediting of features during the update.

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InformationThe Information pull-down menu offers a number of options to obtaininformation about the model.

Information→Feature

This provides another interface to identify Parent/Child relationshipsbetween the selected feature and the other features in the model. In addition,expressions that control the feature may be displayed in the graphics windowby toggling on the Display Dimensions option. Choosing OK or Apply willdisplay the Information window with the geometric data and associatedexpressions.

Feature information may also be accessed by selecting the feature inthe Part Navigator and choosing MB3→Information or, by selectingthe feature in the graphics window and choosing MB3→Properties.

Information→Object

This is used to display information about selected objects in an Informationwindow. Any type of geometric object may be selected including curves, edges,faces, and bodies. The Information window will display information such asname, layer, color, object type, and geometric properties (length, diameter,start and end coordinates, etc.).

Information→Expression→List All

This lists all expressions in the part in the Information window. From theInformation window, the list can be printed or saved to a text file.

Information→Expression→List All by Reference

This is used to identify expressions that reference other expressions and thefeatures that they define. The Edit→Find option within the Informationwindow can be used to search for a specific expression.

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Referenced Expressions

If an expression defines a feature directly, the feature name is listed with it inthe Expressions dialog. However, an expression may also be included in theformula of other expressions. The referencing expressions and features maybe identified by using the List References option in the Expressions dialog.

To use this option:

• Choose Tools→Expression.

• If necessary, change the Listed Expressions filter to list the expression tointerrogate.

• Select the expression and choose List References in the MB3 pop-up menu.

An Information window will list the features and other expressions thatare referencing the selected expression.

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DistanceThis Distance option is used to obtain the minimum distance between anytwo objects such as points, curves, planes, bodies, edges, and/or faces.

This can be accessed by choosing Analysis→Distance or the Distance iconin the Analysis toolbar. An icon option bar appears in the upper left cornerof the graphics window with options to select the first point or object (1) andthe second point or object (2).

After selecting the two objects, a temporary ruler and measurement resultare displayed in the graphics window. The resulting units for the distanceare determined by the setting in Analysis→Units.

Choosing the Information option will display the results in an Informationwindow along with the closest points on each object and the delta distancesrelative to the absolute and work coordinate systems.

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Mass PropertiesBasic mass properties data can be calculated by choosingAnalysis→Mass Properties and selecting the solid body.

The units for the results are determined by the setting in Analysis→Units.

A density may be assigned to the solid body bychoosing Edit→Feature→Solid Density or by choosingTools→Material Properties and creating a new material or selecting amaterial from the existing library.

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Activity — Model Construction QueryIn this activity, you will identify feature relationships and design intent.Although detailed instructions are provided, it may be beneficial to attemptto navigate through the interface without using them.

Step 1: Open the inspect_arm_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Visually inspect the model.

Choose the Shaded with Edges icon.(MB3→Rendering Style→Shaded with Edges)

Rotate the model (MB2).

Choose the Trimetric icon to orient the view back to thetrimetric orientation. (MB3→Orient View→Trimetric)

Step 4: Inspect the layers.

Viewing the layers may help gain an understanding of thecomplexity of the model. If there is only one object on a “solids”layer and several objects on a “sketches” layer, the model is likelyan extrusion.

Choose the Layer Settings icon.(Format→Layer Settings)

Verify the Show Object Count option is turned on.

Turn the Show Category Names option on.

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Review the listing for category names and object count.

Notice that there are objects on a SOLIDS layer, a SKETCHESlayer, and a DATUMS layer.

Choose the Static Wireframe icon to better view interiorfeatures. (MB3→Rendering Style→Static Wireframe)

Make layers 21 and 61 selectable so that the constructiongeometry may be seen.

Choose OK in the Layer Settings dialog.

Choose the Fit icon. (MB3→Fit)

Step 5: Identify the features using the Part Navigator.

Choose the Part Navigator icon from the resource bar onthe right side of the graphics window.

Choose the push pin icon in the upper right corner ofthe Part Navigator to permanently display it. If the graphicswindow is maximized, the display will be adjusted to fit thepart within the viewing area.

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Choose Tools→Part Navigator and ensure the TimestampOrder option is turned on. This will list all features in theModel History tree of the Part Navigator.

Select Extrude(5) “large knuckle extrusion” in the PartNavigator Model History.

The corresponding feature will be highlighted in the graphicswindow. The parent feature (Sketch(3) “S21”) and child (SimpleHole(7) “large thru hole”) will highlight in the Part Navigator.

Select a few other features in the Part Navigator to identifythem and their parent/child relationships.

Step 6: Review the model construction using Playback.

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Choose Edit→Feature→Playback.

All of the solid features are suppressed except the referencefeatures and the sketch. The Edit During Update dialoginforms you that the Fixed Datum Plane(0) feature has beenupdated, this is the first feature in the model history.

Choose the Step option.

The next feature, Fixed Datum Axis(1), is updated. You mayhave to move the slider to read the entire message displayed inthe Edit During Update dialog.

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Choose the Step option again.

The next feature (Fixed Datum Axis(2)) is updated.

Continue to Step through the model until all features havebeen updated.

Step 7: Review the model construction using Suppress and Unsuppress.

Starting at the top of the Part Navigator Model History list,select the check box in front of the first feature (Fixed DatumPlane(0)) to suppress it.

Notice that many of the other features are also suppressed.This is because all of the features except for the two fixeddatum axes are children of the suppressed datum plane.

Select Fixed_Datum_Plane(0) in the Part Navigator.

Choose the Dependencies option at the bottom of the PartNavigator

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In the Dependencies area, expand SKETCH(3) ”S21”.Now you can see how the various features are dependent onthe datum plane.

Choose the Dependencies option to close the area.

Starting at the top of the Part Navigator Model History list,select the "empty" checkbox in front of the first feature withMB1 to unsuppress the feature.

Continue down the list and unsuppress the remaining features,one at a time, by selecting each of the empty check boxes withMB1.

Step 8: Find the values that control the thickness of the web extrusion.

In the Part Navigator, place the cursor onExtrude(4) “web extrusion”, press MB3, and chooseInformation.

Scroll through the Information window to see the parametersand controlling expressions.

The expression p4 is identified as the Both Side Distance.This expression controls the start and end distances from thesection geometry for the extrusion. A value of .125 on bothsides produces a web thickness of .25.

Note that the parent of this feature is the sketch S21:Sketch(3).

Close the Information window.

Step 9: Identify the expression that controls the distance from the largehole center to the small hole center.

Since the web feature was generated from the sketch geometry, theobvious place to look for the expression that controls the hole tohole distance is in the sketch.

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In the Part Navigator, place the cursor on Sketch(3) “S21”,press MB3, and choose Edit Parameters.

Orient the view to the Front using the View toolbar.

The expression in question can clearly be identified asarm_length=8.500.

Orient the view back to the Trimetric orientation.

Choose Cancel in the Edit Sketch Dimensions dialog.

Step 10: Close the Part Navigator.

Select the push pin icon again and drag the cursor off thePart Navigator to hide it.

Step 11: Determine how the large thru hole is positioned.

You will select a feature directly from the graphics window ratherthan from a list which will take less time if you do not know thename of the feature.

Choose Information→Feature.

Select the Large Thru Hole feature in the graphics window andaccept it if necessary. You can zoom, pan or rotate the part toget a better view of the feature.

Turn the Display Dimensions option on in the FeatureBrowser dialog.

The diameter and positioning dimension appear in the graphicswindow.

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Choose OK. (MB2)

The Information window appears and shows that p18 is aparallel positioning dimension with a value of 0 (zero). Thelogical assumption can be made that the hole is located Pointto Point relative to the Large Knuckle extrusion.

Close the Information window.

Step 12: Identify where an expression is referenced.

Choose Tools→Expression.

Change the Listed Expressions filter to Named.

Select the small_dia expression.

This expression is listed as defining(S21:Sketch(3) Diameter Dimension on Arc2)

Choose MB3→List References.

The Information window appears and also shows that anotherexpression is referencing it (large_dia=2.5*small_dia).

Close the Information window.

Cancel the Expressions dialog.

Step 13: Identify the arc in the sketch that is referencing the expression.

Choose Information→Feature.

Select S21:Sketch(3).

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Choose the Object Dependency Browser option.

The child objects of the sketch are listed. Notice that Arc2 ispresent.

Select Arc - Arc2.

The arc is highlighted in the graphics window. The feature andobject associated with the expression have now been identified.

Cancel the Object Dependency Browser dialog.

Step 14: Measure a distance.

Choose the Layer Settings icon.(Format→Layer Settings)

Make layers 21 and 61 invisible and choose OK.

Choose the Distance icon in the Analysis toolbar.(Analysis→Distance)

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For the first object, select one of the upper edges of the web.

For the second object, select one of the lower edges of the web.

The shortest distance between the edges is displayed.

Step 15: Assign a material to the solid body.

Choose Tools→Material Properties.

Select the solid body in the graphics window.

Choose Library in the Materials dialog.

Choose OK to accept the default search criteria. (MB2)

Choose Steel and OK.

Choose OK in the Materials dialog. (MB2)

Step 16: Determine the mass properties of the solid body in units ofkilograms and meters.

Choose Analysis→Units→kg -m

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Choose Analysis→Mass Properties.

Select the solid body.

Individual mass properties may be selected from the list inthe graphics window or all of the properties may be listed inan Information window.

Choose the Information icon in the upper left corner ofthe graphics window.

Step 17: Choose File→Close→All Parts.

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Model Construction Query

SummaryIn this lesson, you queried a model to determine the creation method anddesign intent. These skills are important to review parts created by otherusers.

In this lesson you:

• Accessed the Part Navigator.

• Examined layer settings.

• Identified expressions.

• Reviewed the model construction using Playback, Suppress, andUnsuppress.

• Measured a distance.

• Calculated mass properties.

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Lesson

10 Introduction to Assemblies

Purpose

This lesson introduces the Assembly application.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Set Load Options.

• Work with the Assembly Navigator.

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Definitions and Descriptions

Assembly

An assembly is a part which contains component objects. It is acollection of pointers to piece parts and/or subassemblies. In the figurebelow, the toy laser gun is an assembly consisting of many components.

Subassembly

A subassembly is an assembly used as a component within a higher levelassembly. The figure below shows the subassembly of the integrated circuitboard for the toy laser gun. A subassembly has components of its own.

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Component Objects

A component object is the entity that contains the pointer that links theassembly back to the master component part.

A component object can also be a subassembly made up of other componentparts and/or component objects.

An example of an assembly structure is shown below:

1 – Top level assembly.2 – Subassembly. This is a component part and has been added to the

top level assembly.

3 – Piece Parts. These are component parts and have been added to thetop level assembly or subassemblies.

4 – A Component Object.

Component Parts

A component part is a part which is pointed to by a component object withinan assembly. The actual geometry is stored in the component part and isreferenced, not copied, by the assembly.

The term “piece part” is used to refer to master geometry as it exists outsideof an assembly.

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Introduction to Load OptionsWhen an assembly part is opened (loaded) using File→Open, the componentparts that are referenced by the assembly must be found and loaded. TheLoad Options establish how and from where the component parts are loaded.

The Load Options dialog can be accessed by choosingFile→Options→Load Options or by choosing the Options buttonin the Open Part File dialog.

1 — Determines where to lookfor component parts.

2 — Determines whichcomponents will be loaded.

3 — Controls whethercomponents are fully orpartially loaded.

4 — Controls what to do if acomponent is not found.

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Load Method

The Load Method determines where to search for the component parts whenan assembly is opened. There are three possible settings.

• As Saved — looks for each component part in the same directory it was inwhen the assembly was last saved.

• From Directory — looks for each component in the same directory as theassembly part.

• Search Directories — looks for each component in directories specifiedin a user-defined list.

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Load States

The Load Options also control whether component parts will be fully loaded,partially loaded, or unloaded when an assembly is opened. These are referredto as Load States.

Fully Loaded

A part is fully loaded if all of its data is loaded into system memory.

All components can be fully loaded by changing the Load Components optionto All Components and toggling off the Use Partial Loading option beforeopening the assembly.

Partially Loaded

When a part is partially loaded, only the data required to display the part isloaded into memory. Components will be partially loaded if the Use PartialLoading option is turned on when the assembly is opened.

Partially loading components reduces the memory requirements and improvesperformance. This is beneficial when working with large assemblies.

Unloaded

A component part is unloaded if it is not loaded when the assembly is opened.Component parts may be refrained from loading by changing the LoadComponents option to No Components before opening the assembly. Thiswill drastically reduce the amount of memory required and improve systemperformance but the component geometry will not be visible.

Individual components or subassemblies may be opened at a later time whenthey are needed.

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Load Failure

The Abort Load on Failure option specifies what to do if a component partis not found, based on the current load method.

• When turned on, no parts are loaded unless all of the components arefound. The first component that cannot be found will be listed in an errorwindow.

• When turned off, the assembly is loaded along with any of the componentsthat are found. Those components that are not found will be listed in awarning window and left unloaded.

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Activity — Setting Load Options

In this activity, you will set load options to control how assembly componentsare opened.

Step 1: Set the Load Options to As Saved.

Choose File→Options→Load Options.

Verify the Load Method is set to As Saved.

Verify Abort Load on Failure is turned on.

Choose OK.

Step 2: Open the test assembly.

Choose the Open icon. (File→Open)

Open the laser_test_assm_1 part.

A warning appears informing you that a component could notbe found.

The system is trying to locate each component in the directoryin which it resided when the assembly was last saved. Thecomponents may have been moved to a new directory or theoriginal directory may no longer exist. The warning would alsooccur if you did not have read access to the original directory.

Choose OK to dismiss the warning.

Choose Options in the Open Part File dialog.

Set the Load Method to From Directory.

Choose OK.

Open the laser_test_assm_1 part.

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If a warning appears informing you that the parts are readonly, choose OK to dismiss the warning.

Step 3: Review the list of components in the assembly.

Choose Assemblies→Reports→List Components.

Scroll through the Information window and confirm that all ofthe component parts are located in the same directory as theassembly part.

Close the Information window.

Step 4: Do not close any parts. You will use the assembly in the nextactivity.

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The Assembly NavigatorThe Assembly Navigator provides a graphical display of the structure of thedisplayed assembly and provides a quick and easy method of manipulatingcomponents in the assembly.

The Assembly Navigator may be accessed by choosing the AssemblyNavigator icon from the resource bar on the right side of the graphics window.

You may re-size the Assembly Navigator window and use the scrollbars to see the entire tree structure and all of the columns.

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Node Display

Each component of an assembly is displayed as a node in the assembly treestructure. If you select on a node with MB1, the system will highlight thecomponent geometry in the graphics window.

Each node consists of a check box, an icon, the part name, and additionalcolumns. If the part is an assembly or subassembly, an expand/collapse boxwill also be present.

Components may be selected for various operations by choosing theappropriate node in the Assembly Navigator with MB1.

Icons

Assembly (or subassembly) — If the icon is yellow, the assembly iswithin the work part. If the icon is gray with solid edges, the assembly is anon-work part. If the icon is gray with dashed edges, the assembly is closed.

Component Piece Part — If the icon is yellow, the component is withinthe work part. If the icon is gray with solid edges, the component is anon-work part. If the icon is gray with dashed edges, the component is closed.

Expand/Collapse Box — Children of a node are only displayed when itis expanded. To expand or collapse the node, place the cursor over the boxand click MB1. When a node is collapsed, the expand/collapse box is markedwith a +. An expanded node is marked with a — .

Check Boxes

The check box provides a quick means of determining a part’s status. A checkbox also lets you load and show a part with a single action.

No check — The part is closed. Clicking on this type of check box:

• Loads the component and its children partially or fully, depending on theload options. Unloaded parents may also be loaded at this time.

• Any components that were blanked are now unblanked.

• Afterwards, the check boxes of the part and its children will contain redcheck marks except for those which fail to load, are excluded from areference set, or reside on invisible layers.

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Gray check — The part is blanked, and at least partially open. It alsoappears for unblanked parts which either have an excluded reference set orare on invisible layers. Clicking on this type of check box:

• Unblanks the component, along with any of its children that were blanked.

• If any of its children were unloaded, they are now loaded.

• Afterwards, the check boxes of the part and its children have large redchecks, except for those whose loading failed, who have an excludedreference set, or are on invisible layers.

Red check — The part is unblanked, at least partially open, in a visiblereference set, and on a visible layer. Clicking on this type of check box:

• Blanks the component and its unblanked children.

• Afterwards, the component’s check box has a gray check and its childrenhave gray checks (if blanked) or no checks (if unloaded).

You cannot close a part by clicking on its check box. To close a part, use theFile→Close option or the Close option in the Assembly Navigator pop-upmenu.

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Activity — Working with the Assembly Navigator

In this activity, you will work with the Assembly Navigator.

Continue working with the laser_test_assm_1 assembly.

Step 1: Review the nodes in the Assembly Navigator.

Choose the Assembly Navigator icon from the resource bar onthe right side of the graphics window.

If the resource is bar is not visible, choose View→ShowResource Bar to turn it on.

Expand the laser_ic_board_13 node by clicking on the + sign.

Step 2: Blank and Unblank a component node.

Click MB1 on one of the laser_ic9_13 nodes.

Notice the component highlights on the screen.

Click the check box in front of the highlighted node.

Notice the component is blanked.

Click on the check box again to unblank the component.

Step 3: Blank and Unblank a subassembly node.

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Click the check box in front of the subassemblylaser_ic_board_13.

Notice the subassembly and all of its components are blanked.Also notice the color of the check marks become gray.

Click on the subassembly check box again to unblank thesubassembly.

Step 4: Close a component.

Choose File→Close→Selected Parts.

Choose All Parts in Session at the top of the Close Parts dialog.

Select laser_ic9_13 from the list and choose OK.

In the Assembly Navigator, the laser_ic9_13 nodes no longerhave check marks in their boxes and the components arenot displayed in the graphics window. This means that thecomponents are not loaded.

Step 5: Open the components using the check box.

In the Assembly Navigator, click on the check box in front ofeither laser_ic9_13 nodes.

Both occurrences of the laser_ic9_13 component are now openand are once again displayed in the graphics window.

Step 6: Do not close or save the part. You will use this assembly in thenext activity.

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Selecting Components in the Assembly Navigator

In many assembly functions, components may be selected from a list in adialog or from the graphics window. You may also select components usingthe Assembly Navigator by choosing the appropriate node with MB1. You canselect single or multiple components.

To select multiple components in the Assembly Navigator, select the firstcomponent and then either:

• Use <Shift>MB1 (together) on another component to select all thecomponents between those components

• Or use <Ctrl>MB1 on another component if you want only it and thefirst component

You can also use <Shift>MB1 on components in the graphics window or<Ctrl>MB1 on components in the Assembly Navigator to deselect them.

Identifying Components

In the Assembly Navigator, if you click MB1 while the cursor is over anon-work part whose check box has a red check, that part is highlighted. Thepart remains highlighted until you select another part. (Hovering the cursorwithout clicking MB1 has no effect.)

Check boxes of components that are not visible will have a thin gray checkor no check.

If you hover the cursor over a part that is not visible (e.g., blanked, onanother layer, or unloaded), a box defining the boundaries of the componentappears in the graphics window. The box disappears when you move thecursor to another part. This only occurs when the Preselect Invisible Nodesproperty is turned on.

The Preselect Invisible Nodes property is accessed by clicking MB3in the Assembly Navigator away from the component nodes andchoosing Properties from the pop-up menu.

Because of configuration differences, you may have to hold MB1 downfor a few seconds before the box displays. In some cases, the box maynot be drawn until you release MB1. Also, the box will not be drawnif you double-click MB1.

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Selecting Components in the Graphics Window

The QuickPick dialog may be used to control the selection of components orobjects within a component.

Once a component has been highlighted in the graphics window, the MB3pop-up menu may be used to choose an available action for that component.The cursor must be on top of the component for the component-specific pop-upmenu to appear.

The options available in the component pop-up menu will varydepending on whether the Assemblies and Modeling applicationsare on.

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Designing in Context

Designing in Context is the ability to directly edit component geometry asit is displayed in the assembly. Geometry from other components can beselected to aid in the modeling.

The Displayed Part

NX allows multiple parts to be open at the same time. This can occur eitherimplicitly, as a result of being referenced by a loaded assembly, or explicitly,when you use File→Open. The part that is currently displayed in the graphicswindow, whether it be an assembly or component, is called the Displayed Part.

There are several ways to change the displayed part:

• Select the component from the graphics window and use the MB3 pop-upmenu.

• Choose the Make Displayed Part icon in the Assemblies toolbar.

• Choose Window→More (Change Window dialog).

• Choose Window and selecting a part from the Loaded Part List, whichcontains up to the last ten loaded parts.

• Use the Assembly Navigator pop-up menu.

• Choose Assemblies→Context Control→Set Displayed Part.

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Window

Choosing Window→More will display the Change Window dialog which listsall partially and fully loaded parts other than the current displayed part.

When this dialog is active, a part may be selected by:

• Choosing it from the list of loaded parts. You may enter a portion of thepart name in the Search Text field to help find the part in the list. TheOptions button can be used to specify how to perform the search.

• Selecting geometry in the graphics window (if the current displayed partis an assembly).

• Selecting the node in the Assembly Navigator.

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The Work Part

The part in which geometry is created and edited is defined as the Work Part.The Work Part may be the displayed part or any component part which iscontained in the displayed assembly part.

When a part is opened, it will initially be both the displayed and the workpart. The displayed part and the work part do not need to be the same. Inthe case where the displayed part is not the work part, the work part will bedisplayed in color and the other component parts will be de-emphasized.

There are several ways to change the work part:

• Double-click on the component in the graphics window.

• Select the component from the graphics window and use the MB3 pop-upmenu.

• Choose the Make Work Part icon in the Assemblies toolbar.

• Use the Assembly Navigator pop-up menu.

• Choose Assemblies→Context Control→Set Work Part.

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If a component has already been selected, choosing the Make Work Part iconwill immediately make it the work part. If no component has been selected,the Set Work Part dialog is displayed. This dialog allows you to select acomponent from a list or enter a name.

Choosing the Displayed Part option changes the work part back tothe displayed assembly. This makes the displayed part and the workpart the same.

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Assembly Navigator Pop-Up Menu Options

If you position the cursor over a node in the Assembly Navigator thatrepresents a component and click MB3, a pop-up menu appears.

The options available in the Assembly Navigator pop-up menu willvary depending on the status of the component and whether theAssemblies and Modeling applications are invoked.

Pack and Unpack

Pack removes multiple occurrences from the Assembly Navigator display andreplaces them with a single node. (Multiple occurrences are components withthe same parent, and whose prototype is the same part.) Unpack reversesthis process and shows all occurrences.

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Make Work Part

Selects the part in which to create new geometry or edit existing geometry,giving you the ability to design in context.

Double clicking on a node in the Assembly Navigator will also makethat component the Work Part. In addition the reference set ischanged to Entire Part. When the component is no longer the workpart, the reference set is returned to its original condition.

Make Displayed Part

Switches the display between currently loaded parts. The displayed partbecomes the top node in the Assembly Navigator.

Display Parent

Switches the displayed part from a component or an assembly to one of itsparent assemblies.

The Maintain option in the Assembly Preferences dialog(Preferences→Assemblies) determines the work part when a parentbecomes the displayed part. If Maintain is turned on, the componentwill remain the work part. If Maintain is turned off, the parentbecomes the displayed part and work part.

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Activity — Working with the Assembly Navigator (continued)

In this activity, you will use the Assembly Navigator to navigate throughthe assembly structure.

Continue working with the laser_test_assm_1 assembly.

Step 1: Review the nodes in the Assembly Navigator.

If the Assembly Navigator is not visible, choose the AssemblyNavigator icon from the resource bar on the right side of the

graphics window.

Notice that there are several nodes of the same component.Packing the nodes will make the assembly structure easierto view.

Step 2: Pack like nodes in the Assembly Navigator.

In the Assembly Navigator, locate the laser_c1_13 nodes.

On any of the laser_c1_13 nodes, click MB3 and choose Pack.

Pack the laser_diode_13 nodes.

In the Assembly Navigator, place the cursor in an open areabelow or to the left of the component nodes, click MB3 andchoose Pack All. (Tools→Assembly Navigator→Pack All)

Step 3: Make one of the laser_c1_13 components the work part.

In the Assembly Navigator, select laser_c1_13x4 with MB3and choose Unpack.

Double-click on anyone of the laser_c1_13 nodes.

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Choose OK to the Read Only message.

All of the components in the graphics window change to thesame color except for one of the laser_c1_13 components, whichremains in its original color. This color convention denoteslaser_c1_13 as the work part. The component may now beedited and the design continued in the context of the assembly.

Step 4: Make laser_t1_13 the displayed part.

You may not want to work on a component in the context of theassembly. If this is the case, you would make the component thedisplayed part.

Select the component laser_t1_13 from the graphics window asshown below.

Place your cursor over the highlighted component, press MB3and choose Make Displayed Part.

The pop-up menu may contain additional options if theAssemblies application is turned on.

The assembly is no longer displayed.

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Step 5: Display the top level assembly.

In the Assembly Navigator, click MB3 on the laser_t1_13 nodeand choose Display Parent→laser_test_assm_1.

The Maintain option in the Assembly Preferences dialog(Preferences→Assemblies) determines the work part whena parent becomes the displayed part. If Maintain is turnedon, the component will remain the work part. If Maintainis turned off, the parent becomes the displayed part andwork part.

Step 6: Close all parts and do not save.

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Saving the Work PartAfter editing, the work part must be saved to keep the modifications. This canbe performed with the File→Save or the File→Save Work Part Only option.

File→Save

• If the work part is a piece part (lowest level component), only that partwill be saved.

• If the work part is an assembly or subassembly, all modified componentparts below it are also saved. Higher level assemblies will not be savedeven if they were modified.

File→Save Work Part Only

The Save Work Part Only option will only save the work part, even if the workpart is an assembly or subassembly.

File→Save All saves all loaded parts in the session that have beenmodified regardless of the work part designation.

Open parts for which you do not have write privileges will not besaved.

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SummaryAn assembly is a part which contains component objects. It is a collection ofpointers to piece parts and/or subassemblies.

Assemblies provides the ability to design in context.

In this lesson you:

• Set Load Options.

• Worked with the Assembly Navigator.

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11 Adding Components & MatingConditions

Purpose

This lesson demonstrates adding components to an assembly and theassociativity that may be designed between components with matingconditions.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Add components to an assembly.

• Define mating conditions.

• Reposition components.

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General Assembly ConceptsThere are two basic ways to define an assembly structure.

• Top-Down Modeling

• Bottom-Up Modeling (Demonstrated in this course)

Top-Down Modeling

As the name suggests, an assembly is created at the top level hierarchy andparts are filed down the hierarchy, creating subassemblies and components.

Bottom-Up Modeling

A Bottom-Up assembly modeling approach starts by creating the lowest levelpiece parts that will make up the assembly. Existing component parts andsubassemblies are added to assemblies as the process moves up the assemblylevel hierarchy.

In the Bottom-Up approach, component parts are created separate fromthe assembly and later added to the assembly. This approach applies topurchased parts or existing parts.

First, the pin iscreated in separatepart outside of theassembly

Then, the pin is added to the assembly as acomponent.

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All assemblies are automatically updated, when opened, to reflect changesmade to the component parts. For example, if a hole feature is added to thesolid in a component part, it will be seen in all occurrences of that componentin the assembly when it is opened.

Combining Both Approaches

It may be more practical for the methods to be combined. For example,purchased or existing hardware for the assembly may be added using thebottom-up method, new subassemblies and piece parts may be defined in atop down mode as the design progresses, and finally existing fasteners maybe added in a bottom up mode from a standard parts library.

Designing in Context

The ability to make a component of an assembly the work part while leavingthe assembly itself as the displayed part allows the assembly to be designedin context. All new geometry that is created is added to the work part. Editscan be made to the features and expressions residing within the work part.

If a component exists several times in the assembly (i.e. a fastener), anychange to the component while it is the work part will affect all the otheroccurrences as well.

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Assemblies ApplicationThe Assemblies application may be turned on and off by choosingStart→Assemblies. Toggling on the Assemblies application displays theAssemblies toolbar and expands the functions available in the Assembliespull-down menu.

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Assemblies Pull-down Menu

Turning on the Assemblies application will expand the Assemblies pull-downmenu (1). Some assemblies functions are still available when the Assembliesapplication is turned off (2).

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Assemblies Toolbar

Turning on the Assemblies application will also display the Assembliestoolbar.

If the Assemblies toolbar is not visible, choose Tools→Customize and turn iton in the Toolbars page.

You can control which icons appear on this toolbar by choosingAdd or Remove Buttons→Assemblies from the Toolbar Options as shown ina docked (1) and undocked (2) toolbar. This will list all of the available optionsin the toolbar and allow you to turn on those which you want to display.

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Adding Components to an Assembly

A component part may be added to an assembly by choosing theAdd Existing Component icon from the Assemblies toolbar or choosingAssemblies→Components→Add Existing from the menu bar. TheAssemblies application must be turned on to access this option.

The component part to add can be specified with the Select Part dialog.

There are several ways to identify a part when the Select Part dialog is active:

• Select Choose Part File to retrieve an unopened part.

• Select a previously loaded part from the list.

• Key in the name of a previously loaded part.

• Select an existing component in the graphics window.

• Select an existing component in the Assembly Navigator.

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After the part is identified, the Add Existing Part dialog appears. This dialogis used to specify how the existing part will be added as a component object tothe assembly and what information will be stored with the component object.

Reference Set - Allows you to control the amount of data that is loaded fromeach component and viewed in the context of the assembly.

• Default reference sets are Empty and Entire Part.

• Reference sets may be manually or automatically created.

For a "BODY" reference set to be created automatically, the ModelReference Set Name option must be set to BODY in the customerdefaults settings. (File→Utilities→Customer Defaults and thenchoose Assemblies→Site Standards)

Layer Options - Defines the layer to which the objects in the new componentwill be added in the current work part.

• Work - Places all objects from the component part on the current worklayer.

• Original - Places each object from the component part on the same layerin which it resides in the component part.

• As Specified - Places all objects from the component on the layer specifiedin the Specified Layer entry field.

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Creating a New Parent Assembly

This option lets you create a new parent assembly for your current work part.The new parent assembly is a completely new part, which becomes the newdisplayed part and work part in your session.

When you choose this option, the New Part File dialog is displayed so thatyou can enter a name for the new parent. The former work part is added tothe parent assembly as a component.

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Adding Components & Mating Conditions

Activity — Creating an Assembly

In this activity, you will create an assembly and add a component.

Step 1: Open the seedpart_in part and save it as ***_clevis_assm.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Activate the Assemblies toolbar.

Make sure the Assemblies application is turned on.(Start→Assemblies)

Step 4: Add a component to the assembly.

Choose the Add Existing Component icon from theAssemblies toolbar. (Assemblies→Components→Add Existing)

Choose Choose Part File.

Select clevis_1 and choose OK.

Choose OK to accept the defaults in the Add Existing Partdialog.

Choose Reset to ensure that the coordinates are set to zero.

Choose OK in the Point Constructor dialog.

Choose Cancel in the Select Part dialog.

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Step 5: Verify the presence of the assembly and component parts.

If the Assembly Navigator is not visible, choose the AssemblyNavigator icon from the resource bar on the right side of the

graphics window.

The Assembly Navigator contains two nodes that represent thetop level assembly and the component part.

Step 6: Close all parts.

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Mating ConditionsBy applying mating conditions to components in an assembly, you establishparametric, positional relationships between objects in the components.These relationships are termed mating constraints.

In the example shown, if you align the cylindrical face of a bolt to thecylindrical face of a hole in a block and then move the hole, the bolt willautomatically move with it.

A mating condition is made up of one or more mating constraints. Thereare eight types of constraints.

1 — Mate 4 — Parallel 7 — Distance2 — Align 5 — Perpendicular 8 — Tangent3 — Angle 6 — Center

FROM / TO

When selecting objects to mate, the Cue line will be directing you toselect FROM and TO objects. The FROM object is part of the component thatis going to move to a new position. The TO object is part of the componentthat is remaining in its present location.

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Mate Constraint

When applying the Mate constraint to components using planar faces anddatum planes, the objects will be oriented so that their normals are paralleland point in opposite directions. The components will not necessarily havephysical contact but will be coplanar. By definition, a face normal in a solidbody points away from the solid.

When mating non–planar faces (i.e. cylindrical to cylindrical, spherical tospherical) the radii must be the same; for conical to conical faces, the tapermust be the same.

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Align Constraint

When you apply the Align constraint to components using planar objects(planar faces and datum planes), the objects will be oriented so that theirnormals are parallel and point in the same direction. The components willnot necessarily have physical contact but will be coplanar.

When aligning non-planar faces, i.e. cylindrical to cylindrical, spherical tospherical, or conical to conical, the radii and/or taper do not have to be thesame.

The Align constraint can also be used to position an edge or curve object ofa component with a planar object (planar face or datum plane) of anothercomponent. A vector will be determined from the edge or curve object andthe objects will be oriented so that the vector and the planar object lie on thesame plane (same behavior as with mate constraint).

Using the CSYS Filter

The Align constraint allows existing coordinate systems to be used asFROM/TO selection objects. When using the CSYS option, select the FROMCSYS and then immediately select the TO CSYS. This constraint will removeall DOFs between the two components.

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Angle Constraint

Use the Angle constraint when you need to control specific angles betweenobjects of components.

The example below illustrates an angle constraint that is being applied inconjunction with two other constraints. The two planar faces of the blocksmust always be coplanar by virtue of the Mate constraint. The pivot for theAngle constraint is determined by the Align constraint that is applied tothe two edges.

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Parallel Constraint

Use the Parallel constraint when you need to establish parallelism betweenobjects of components. Objects that have surface normals associated to themwill be oriented parallel based on those normals.

When applying the Parallel constraint to position a planar object of acomponent (planar face or datum plane) with an edge or curve object ofanother component; a vector will be determined from the edge or curve object.The vector and the planar object’s normal will then become parallel.

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Perpendicular Constraint

Use the Perpendicular constraint when you need to establish perpendicularitybetween objects of components. Objects that have surface normals associatedto them will be oriented perpendicular based on those normals.

When applying the Perpendicular constraint to position a planar object of acomponent, (planar faces and datum planes), with an edge or curve object ofanother component; a vector will be determined from the edge or curve object,that vector and the planar object’s normal will then become perpendicular.

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Center Constraint

Use the Center constraint to center 1 or 2 objects of a component to 1 or 2objects of another component.

Center Objects 1 to 1

Center Objects 1 to 2

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Center Objects 2 to 2

Procedure

• Choose the Center constraint.

• Set the Object filter.

• Specify the number of objects to use (Center Objects 1 to 1, 1 to 2, 2to 1, or 2 to 2).

• Select the objects as instructed in the Cue line.

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Distance Constraint

Use the Distance constraint to define a distance between two geometricobjects. The sign (+/-) of the dimension controls which side of the object thesolution is on.

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Tangent Constraint

Use the Tangent constraint to define a physical contact between two geometricobjects. There can be multiple solutions to a tangent constraint. To specifywhich solution is desired, a help point will be computed from the pick positionon the surface and used to find a unique solution to the tangent constraint.

The following are some examples of tangent constraints:

• Point on Surface.

• Line tangent to Surface.

• Plane tangent to Sphere.

• Plane tangent to Cylinder.

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The Mating Conditions Dialog

Mating conditions are applied from the Mating Conditions dialog and can beaccessed by choosing the Mate Component icon in the Assemblies toolbar or bychoosing Assemblies→Components→Mate Component from the menu bar.

1 — Mating Conditions Tree Listing

2 — Mating Constraint Types

3 — Selection Steps

4 — Expression Value (for Angle and Distance constraints)

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Defining Mating Constraints

• Choose the type of constraint to apply.

• Select the Filter type (optional).

• Select an object FROM component to be mated (component you aremoving).

• Select an object on the component to mate TO (component that willremain stationary).

• Choose Preview and then choose Apply (the dialog remains to let youadd more constraints).

or

• Choose OK to accept the constraint and dismiss the dialog.

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Vary Constraints

The Vary Constraints option can be used to reposition the active componentin the Mating Conditions dialog. Existing mating constraints will limit thefreedom of movement. This dialog is similar to the Reposition Componentdialog. A different component can be selected and repositioned by choosingthe Select Component icon.

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Degree of Freedom Indicators

Temporary arrows are displayed to indicate the remaining degrees of freedom.The Show Degrees of Freedom/Remove Degrees of Freedom options in theMating Condition pop-up menu may be used to turn on and off the displayof these arrows.

A Mate constraint applied to the faces shown below, constrains the smallblock in the direction normal to the faces. The small block is still free totranslate and rotate in the plane that the two shaded faces have in common.

Preview

The Preview option becomes active after all the objects have been correctlyselected for a constraint. This option lets you preview the solution byactually moving the component based on the existing constraints. Additionalconstraints may still be applied. After previewing the constraint, chooseApply or OK to accept the constraint or continue creating another constraint.If the constraint is not correct, choose Unpreview and use the Selection Stepsto define different FROM and TO faces.

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List Errors

If there are no degree of freedom indicators visible and the Preview option isunavailable, you may have tried to define an invalid mating constraint. Thiswill activate the List Errors option. Choosing it will present informationabout the error. The constraint must be deleted and recreated.

OK, Apply, and Cancel Buttons

• OK — This should be selected only after all constraints have been applied.This will save the mating condition (and its constraints) and dismiss theMating Conditions dialog.

• Apply — This will apply the constraint and the dialog will remain open.

• Cancel — This will dismiss the dialog without saving any of theconstraints you added.

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Tree Listing

The Mating Conditions Tree Listing list all of the assemblies matingconditions and constraints. Several options and viewing preferences maybe controlled from the Listing Tree.

1 — Mating Condition expanded to display constraint2 — Mating Constraint suppression toggle3 — Mating Condition4 — Mating Constraints5 — Mating Constraint pop-up menu

Suppress/Unsuppress

Mating Conditions or individual Mating Constraints may be suppressed orunsuppressed using the check box.

• A suppressed mating constraint is ignored during geometric edits.

• If a mating constraint is being unsuppressed, the mating condition mustbe solved again.

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Mating Constraint Pop-up Menu

The mating constraints pop-up menu is activated by placing the cursor on amating constraint and pressing MB3.

• Alternate Solution – Produces any other solution that is applicable to theselected constraint.

• Convert To – Allows the constraint to be changed to another applicableconstraint, i.e. Mate to Distance.

• Delete – Removes the selected mating constraint.

• Rename – Allows the renaming of a mating constraint.

Mating Condition Pop-up Menu

The mating condition pop-up menu is activated by placing the cursor on amating condition and pressing MB3.

Highlight/Unhighlight – will highlight or unhighlight the current condition.

• From – Highlights the FROM object for all constraints of the selectedcondition.

• To – Highlights the TO object for all constraints of the selected condition.

• With/Without Direction – Controls the display of the object normal ordirection vectors.

Show/Remove Degrees of Freedom – Controls the display of the remainingDegrees of Freedom (DOF).

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Suppress/Unsuppress – Controls the suppression status of the selectedcondition. Can also be performed by using the suppression toggle in frontof the condition name.

• A suppressed mating condition is ignored during geometric edits.

• No error messages will be displayed for suppressed mating conditions.

• If you modify a component creating a failed constraint, that constraintmust be deleted before the mating condition can be unsuppressed.

Delete – Removes the selected mating condition.

Rename – Allows the renaming of a mating condition.

Remember Constraints – Mating constraints may be saved for a selectedmating condition within the assembly part. This allows “learned” orautomatic mating when the same component is added to the assembly again.

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Repositioning ComponentsThe Reposition Component option may be used on a component that does nothave any mating conditions, has suppressed mating conditions, or is onlypartially constrained. If the component is partially constrained, its matingconstraints will be enforced within the reposition function.

To reposition a component choose the Reposition Component icon fromthe Assemblies toolbar or choose Assemblies→Components→RepositionComponents from the menu bar.

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Transform Options

The Reposition Component dialog includes the following transform options:

1 — Point to Point 5 — Reposition2 — Translate 6 — Rotate Between Axes3 — Rotate About a Point 7 — Rotating Between Points4 — Rotate About a line

Move Objects or Move Handles Only

These radio buttons let you specify whether you want to move the componentalong with the drag handles or just the drag handles. The drag handles canbe repositioned to a specific orientation and used to drag the component alonga specific vector direction or about a specific axis.

Distance or Angle

The Distance input field (or Angle field if a rotation is being defined) lets youdefine a distance (or angle) for movement.

Snap Increment

Snap Increment allows snapping to “whole-multiple” distances when usingthe direction or rotation drag handles.

Vector Method

Provides options to define a vector when moving a component using one ofthe direction drag handles.

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Snap Handles to WCS

Provides a means for moving the handles to the origin and orientation ofthe current WCS.

Motion Animation

This slider lets you specify how finely the motion is animated (from Fine toCoarse) during the motion that you have defined.

Collision Action

Specifies what the system will do if a collision occurs.

• None — no action is taken.

• Highlight Collision — you can continue moving the components, and theareas that collided are highlighted.

• Stop Before Collision — the motion stops just before a collision occurs.The distance between the components when the motion stops dependson the setting of the Motion Animation slider. The closer the slider isto Fine, the shorter the distance.

Collision Checking Mode

Allows you to specify what types of objects will be checked for clearance whilerepositioning.

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Repositioning Components Using Drag Handles

Components can be repositioned quickly and easily using drag handles.

When the Reposition Component dialog is displayed, the graphics windowdisplays a set of handles.

There are several ways to reposition a component with the drag handles.

• To move the origin of the component to a specific point, select the origindrag handle (filled square) with MB1 and then select a destination point.The destination points that can be selected are determined by the SnapPoint toolbar.

• To drag the component to an arbitrary cursor location, select the origindrag handle (filled square) with MB1 and drag to a new cursor locationwhile holding down MB1.

• To translate the component along an axis, select a translation drag handle(cone head) and drag the component while holding down MB1.

• To rotate the component about an axis, select a rotation drag handle (filledcircle) and drag the component while holding down MB1.

• To orient the component to a saved coordinate system, select the origindrag handle (filled square) with MB1 and then select the saved coordinatesystem.

The Move Handles Only option is used to first move the drag handlesto a specific orientation before using them to move the component.

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Activity — Mating the Nut Cracker ComponentsIn this activity, you will assign mating constraints to components of anassembly. Most of the component parts have already been added to anassembly. In consideration of available class time, some of the parts havealready had mating conditions applied to them.

Apply associative relationships between components so that changesin size and shape to an individual component part will update thelocations of adjacent components in the assembly.

Step 1: Open the nut_cracker_assm part and save as***_nut_cracker_assm.

1 – Crank 4 – Ramrod 7 – Base2 – Shaft 5 – Smasher Plate 8 – Mount3 – Link 6 – Hinges

Step 2: Start the Modeling application and turn on the Assemblyapplication.

Step 3: Assign mating conditions between the Mount and the Shaft.

Choose the Reposition Component icon.(Assemblies→Components→Reposition Component)

Select the Shaft component and click MB2.

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Select the square drag handle (origin) and while holding downMB1, drag the shaft to the location shown below, release MB1,and choose OK.

Choose the Mate Component icon.(Assemblies→Components→Mate Component)

Choose Center.

Notice that the From Selection Step isactive.

The Cue line reads: “Select object FROM component to bemated.” Select the cylindrical face of the shaft component asshown below.

The Selection Step advances to the TO object and the Cueline reads: “ Select object on component to mate TO”.

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Select the cylindrical face of the Mount component as shownbelow and choose Preview.

Choose Apply. The constraint is applied and the selection step

returns to From.

Choose Distance.

Select the planar face of the Shaft component as shown below.

Select the face of the Mount component as shown below, key ina Distance Expression value of 1.5, and then choose Preview.

Choose Apply and then Cancel.

Step 4: Assign mating conditions between the Shaft and the Crankcomponents.

Choose the Mate Component icon.(Assemblies→Components→Mate Component)

Choose Align.

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Select the planar face of the Crank component as shown below.

Select the planar end face of the Shaft component as shownbelow and choose Preview. The shaft is oriented to meet theconstraint although it has not been applied yet.

Choose Apply. The previous constraint has now been applied.

Choose Center.

Select the cylindrical face (1) of the Crank component as shownbelow.

Select the cylindrical face (2) of the Shaft component as shownabove. Choose Preview to verify your constraint and thenchoose Unpreview.

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Choose Parallel.

Select the internal planar face of the crank as shown below.

Select the planar face on the Shaft component as shown belowand then choose Preview.

The shaft and crank are oriented to reflect the constraint.

If the planar faces are flipped 180°, choose the AlternateSolution option and then choose OK. If the planar faces areoriented properly, choose OK until the Mating Conditionsdialog is dismissed.

Step 5: Add the nc_arm component to the assembly.

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Choose the Add Existing Component icon in theAssemblies toolbar. (Assemblies→Components→Add Existing)

Choose Choose Part File.

Select nc_arm and choose OK.

The Component Preview window appears and displays the part.

In the Add Existing Part dialog, verify the following settings:

Reference Set = BodyPositioning = MateLayer Options = Original

Choose OK.

Choose Center.

In the Component Preview window, select the cylindrical faceas shown below.

In the main graphics window, select the cylindrical face of theshaft as shown below.

Choose Distance.

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In the Preview window, select the planar face of the Armcomponent for the FROM selection as shown below.

In the main graphics window, select the planar face of theShaft component for the TO selection as shown below, enter aDistance Expression of -.25 and DO NOT press Enter.

Choose Parallel.

Select the internal planar face of the Arm component as shownbelow.

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Select the planar face of the Shaft component as shown belowand then choose Preview.

If the planar faces are flipped 180°, choose Alternate Solutionand then choose Apply. If the planar faces are orientedproperly, choose Apply.

Cancel the Mating Conditions dialog.

Step 6: Reposition the crank component to see the effect of the matingconditions applied so far.

Choose the Reposition Component icon.(Assemblies→Components→Reposition Component)

Select the crank component and choose OK.

Select the square drag handle (origin) and holding down MB1,drag the crank around in a circular motion and verify that theshaft and the arm rotate.

Choose MB2 to cancel the repositioning.

Step 7: Assign mating conditions between the Arm and Link components.

Choose the Mate Component icon.(Assemblies→Components→Mate Component)

Choose Center.

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Select the cylindrical face of the link (1) shown below for theFROM selection.

Select the cylindrical face of the arm (2) shown below for theTO selection.

Choose Apply to apply the constraints.

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Step 8: Assign mating conditions between the link and the ramrod.

Set the Center Objects filter to 2 to 2.

You will be selecting four faces.

1 — FROM2 — TO3 — Second FROM4 — Second TO

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Select the faces below in the order indicated:

1 — FROM2 — TO3 — Second FROM4 — Second TO

The orientation of your components may differ thanthe illustrations below.

Choose Apply.

Set the Center Objects filter to 1 to 1.

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Select the faces below as indicated:

1 — FROM2 — TO

Choose Apply.

Cancel the Mating Constraints dialog.

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Step 9: Visually verify the mating constraints.

Orient the view to the Trimetric view(MB3→Orient View→Trimetric).

Choose the Reposition Component icon.(Assemblies→Components→Reposition Component)

Select the crank component and accept with MB2.

Drag the crank around using the handles.

Notice how the components move based on the constraints thathave been assigned to them.

Step 10: Save and close all parts.

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SummaryAssemblies may be created using the Top-Down, Bottom-Up, or a combinationof the two methods.

By applying mating conditions to components, you were able to relate theirlocations and orientations in an assembly.

The Reposition Component option may be used in preparation for matingcomponents.

In this lesson you:

• Added components to an assembly.

• Defined mating conditions.

• Repositioned components.

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Lesson

12 Datum Features

Purpose

This lesson will define datum plane and datum axis features.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create a Datum Plane.

• Create a Datum Axis.

• Use datum features to position other features.

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Datum Feature OverviewDatum features are construction tools that assist in the creation of solidfeatures and sketches in locations and orientations where planar placementfaces do not exist or as associative linear objects. Datum Features may becreated relative to an existing solid model or fixed in model space.

In the case where a hole must pierce a cylinder to a certain depth from theoutside of the cylinder, a construction tool is necessary. This tool is neededbecause the hole feature requires a planar placement face for creation ratherthan the cylindrical face of the base solid.

Datum Features may be accessed from the General Datums and Points menuin the Feature Operation toolbar or by choosing Insert→Datum/Point.

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Datum PlanesThe datum plane option allows a planar reference feature to be created thathas many uses.

• To define a sketch plane.

• To serve as the planar placement face for the creation of form features(i.e. hole, slot, pad, boss, pocket).

• As a target edge for positioning features.

• As a horizontal or vertical reference.

• For the mirror plane when using Mirror Body and Mirror Feature.

• To define the start or end limits when creating extruded and revolvedfeatures.

• To trim a body.

• To define positioning constraints in assemblies.

• To help define a relative Datum Axis.

Relative Datum Planes

A relative datum plane is created in reference to other objects in your model.You can use curves, faces, edges, points, and other datums as reference objectsfor datum planes. There is a wide range of methods you can use to createrelative datum planes.

Fixed Datum Planes

Fixed datum planes do not reference and are not constrained by othergeometric objects. There are methods you can use to create fixed datumplanes based on the WCS and Absolute coordinate systems and by usingcoefficients in an equation. You can also use any of the relative datum planemethods to create fixed datum planes by turning off the Associative optionin the Datum Plane dialog.

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Creating Relative Datum Planes

The Datum Plane dialog provides several methods to define a plane. SinceInferred Plane is the default, you can immediately begin selecting objects inthe graphics window and the type will be inferred. As you select objects, apreview of the datum is displayed in the graphics window.

You can also select the objects first and then choose the Datum Planeoption. The constraints will be inferred from the selected objects anda preview is displayed.

While the datum plane is previewed, you can specify new constraints andobjects or change the parameters using drag handles displayed in thegraphics window.

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Cycle Solution

This option allows you to cycle through alternate solutions when more thanone type of datum plane can be created, based on the object selections andconstraints.

Flip Direction

The datum plane preview displays an arrow conehead in its center thatpoints in the direction of the plane normal. You can change this direction bychoosing this option or using MB3→ Reverse Direction on the conehead.

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Common Datum Plane Types

The following are the common datum plane creation methods that will becovered in this lesson:

• Offset Parallel and at a Distance

• Centered Between Two Faces or Planes

• Through the Axis of a Cylindrical Face

• At an Angle to Face or Datum

• Tangent to a Cylindrical Face

• Through Three Points

• Through a Point on a Curve

• Through a Point and at a Specified Direction

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Offset Parallel and at a Distance

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Select a planar face. A preview of the datum plane displays, with an offsetdrag handle.

• Do one of the following:

– Choose OK to accept a value of 0 (zero).

– Key in an Offset value, press Enter, and choose OK.

– Select the handle, drag the datum plane to the desired location andchoose OK.

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Centered Between Two Faces or Planes (Bisector Plane)

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Select a planar face. A preview of an offset datum plane displays.

• Select a second planar face. A preview of the bisector plane is displayed.

• Choose OK.

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Through the Axis of a Cylindrical Face

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Select the cylindrical axis symbol of the cylindrical face in the graphicswindow.

• Choose OK.

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Datum Features

At an Angle to a Face or Datum Plane and Through an Edge or Axis

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Select the edge through which the datum plane is to pass. You may choosethe axis of a cylinder instead of an edge.

• Select the planar face or datum plane that the angle will reference.

• Do one of the following:

– Key in a value for the angle (in degrees), press Enter, and choose OK.

– Select the rotation drag handle and drag the datum plane to thedesired angle and choose OK.

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Tangent to a Cylindrical Face and Through a Point

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Select the cylindrical face.

• Turn on the Point on Curve option in the Snap Point toolbar.

• Select an edge of the cylinder.

• Drag the point to the desired location.

• Choose Cycle Solution until the correct tangent datum plane ispreviewed.

• Choose OK.

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Tangent to a Cylindrical Face and At an Angle to a Face/Plane

• Establish a planar reference. This could be an existing face/plane or anew datum plane could be created as follows:

– Choose the Datum Plane icon.

– Select the cylindrical axis symbol.

– Choose OK.

• Choose the Datum Plane icon.

• Select the cylindrical face (not on the axis).

• Select the previously created datum plane.

• Choose Cycle Solution until the correct tangent datum plane ispreviewed (parallel, perpendicular, or at an angle).

• Choose OK.

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Through Three Points

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Set the Snap Point toolbar as desired.

• Select three points. A preview of the datum plane is displayed.

• Choose OK.

If it is difficult to select points using the Inferred Plane mode, you canchoose the Curves and Points option in the Datum Plane dialog toprevent the selection of other inferred object types.

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Through a Point on a Curve

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Choose the Plane on Curve type.

• Select a point on a curve or edge. A preview of the datum plane isdisplayed, with the point on curve marked with a handle.

You can alter the datum plane by dragging the handle of the point tochange its position along the curve or keying in a Location value.

• Choose Cycle Solution until the desired datum plane (tangent,normal, binormal) is previewed.

• If, in addition to the curve, you select another face or linear edge, thedirection of the datum plane is defined based on this second object asfollows:

– for a planar face, the datum plane is made parallel to the object.

– for a linear edge, the datum plane is made normal to the object.

– for a non-planar face, the datum plane is made parallel to the tangentplane at the closest point on the surface.

• Choose OK or Apply to create the datum plane.

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Through a Point and at a Specified Direction

• Choose the Datum Plane icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

• Choose the Point and Direction option.

• Set the Snap Point toolbar as desired.

• Select a point.

• Use the Vector option menu to define a direction, or accept the default. Apreview of the datum plane is displayed.

• Choose OK or Apply to create the datum plane.

In the example below, a point was defined at the arc center of the hole and adirection was defined using the Vector Constructor dialog.

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Activity — Creating Relative Datum Planes

In this activity, you will create relative datum planes that are associatedto a solid model.

Step 1: Open the datum_ref_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a Datum Plane Offset at a distance of 1 inch above theupper face of the block.

Choose the Datum Plane icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

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Select the top face of the block (1) and confirm the selection ifnecessary.

A preview of the Datum Plane is displayed along with an Offsetentry field. A direction vector points normal to the face andrepresents the positive offset direction.

Key in an Offset value of 1 and press Enter.

Choose Apply (Ctrl-MB2).

Step 4: Create a second datum plane through three points.

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The second datum plane will be created diagonally through theblock. The Datum Plane dialog should still be displayed.

In the Snap Point toolbar, verify that Control Point is

turned on and Point on Curve is turned off.

Select the first point (1) and confirm any of the edges. Any ofthe edges are acceptable because they share the end point.

Carefully select each of the two midpoints (2 & 3).

Choose Apply. (Ctrl-MB2)

The datum plane is created and positioned through the threeselected points. The relationship of this datum plane throughthe points will remain if the block parameters are changed.

Step 5: Create the third datum plane midway between the left and rightfaces.

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The Datum Plane dialog should still be displayed.

Select the right planar face (1).

Select the left planar face (2).

Choose OK (MB2).

The datum plane is created and located at the center of thepart and is parallel to the faces selected.

Step 6: Edit the block to verify the parametric relationship of the datumplanes to the block.

With the cursor over the block in the graphics window, pressMB3 and choose Edit Parameters.

Choose Feature Dialog.

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Key in the following parameters:

X Length = 2Y Length = 2Z Length = 5

Choose OK.

The revised values are displayed in the graphics window. Thefeature may still be modified without updating the model.

Choose OK in the Edit Parameters dialog to complete thechange.

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

The constraints applied to the datum planes at the time ofcreation continue to control the positioning of the datum planesafter the block is edited.

Step 7: Close the part.

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Selecting and Using Datum Planes

To select a datum plane in the graphics window, the selection ball must beplaced over one of its displayed boundaries.

Form features created using datum planes as the planar placement face arecreated normal to the datum plane. These features are initially located in thecenter of the datum plane by default and will remain there if no positioningdimensions are specified. If positioning dimensions are specified, the featurewill be moved to the constrained position.

When a datum plane is selected for the planar placement face, a directionvector is displayed showing the side of the datum plane on which the featurewill be created. An option is available to reverse the direction when creatingthe feature.

Editing Datum Planes

To edit the constraints or parameters of a datum plane, use any of thefollowing methods:

• With the cursor over the datum plane boundary, chooseMB3→Edit Parameters or MB3→Edit with Rollback.

• Double-click on a datum plane boundary (The default action is Edit withRollback).

• Choose MB3→Edit Parameters in the Part Navigator.

• Choose Edit→Feature→Edit Parameters and select the datum plane.

• Choose the Edit Feature Parameters icon in the Edit Feature toolbar.

To edit the size of a datum plane, you can drag one of the handles alongits boundaries. These handles appear when previewing the datum duringcreation and when editing its parameters.

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Deleting Datum Planes

Use any of the following methods to delete a datum plane.

• Choose Edit→Delete

• With the cursor over the datum plane boundary, choose MB3→Delete.

• Select the datum plane from the graphics window and either press theDelete key on your keyboard or choose the Delete icon.

• Choose MB3→Delete in the Part Navigator.

Positioning Features to Datums

When positioning a feature or sketch to a datum plane or axis, you cannot usepositioning dimensions that constrain a point to a point, such as a Horizontal,Vertical, and Parallel dimensions. You can only use dimensions that constraina point to a line, such as a Perpendicular dimension, or a line to a line, suchas a Parallel at a Distance dimension.

If a datum plane is selected, the system projects the datum plane until itintersects with the planar placement face of the target solid. The intersectionbetween the datum plane and the target face forms a line, which is usedto constrain the feature or sketch.

The method used to position features should be dictated by the designintent. Construction of datum features can aid in the application ofpositioning dimensions by making design intent easier to achieve.

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Activity — Cylindrical Faces and Datum Planes

In this activity, you will create relative datum planes associated to acylindrical face.

Step 1: Open the datum_ref_2 part.

A hole is required through the cylindrical face at the bottom ofthe part, centered in the feature. Relative reference features arerequired to accomplish this task.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a Datum Plane through the feature axis, at an angle tothe existing plane of 90 degrees.

Choose the Datum Plane icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

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Move the cursor over the outside cylindrical face of the featureat the bottom of the part and select the cylindrical axis symbol.

Select the existing Datum Plane.

Choose Apply to accept the default value of 90 and create thedatum plane. (Ctrl-MB2)

Step 4: Create a datum plane tangent to the outside of the same cylindricalface to use as a placement face for the hole feature.

The Datum Plane dialog should still be displayed.

Select the cylindrical face of the feature at the bottom of thepart.

Select the original Datum Plane.

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Choose Cycle Solution until the new tangent datumplane is in the orientation shown below.

Choose Apply to create the datum plane. (Ctrl-MB2)

Step 5: Create a center datum plane.

Select the two faces shaded below.

Choose OK to create the datum. (MB2)

Step 6: Create a hole.

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Choose the Hole icon. (Insert→Design Feature→Hole)

Choose Simple.

Specify a Diameter of 10.

Select the tangent datum plane as the placement face (1).

Ensure that the tool solid for the hole is pointing into the part.

Select the datum plane (2) at the center of the part as thethru face.

Choose OK.

Use Point onto Line positioning to locate the hole centeredon datum planes (3) and (4).

Step 7: Move the datum planes to another layer.

Choose Format→Move to Layer.

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Select all the datum planes.

Choose OK.

Key in 62 and choose OK.

The newly created hole will remain centered in the part dueto its relationship with the datum planes that are constrainedto the solid body.

Step 8: Close the part.

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Activity — Creating a Feature on a Relative Datum Plane

In this activity, you will create a relative datum plane and use it as aplacement plane for a hole feature.

Create a simple hole at an angle which can be controlledparametrically.

Step 1: Open the datum_ref_1 part.

If the part was opened recently, you can chooseFile→Recently Opened Parts and select the part froma short list rather than the Open Part File dialog. TheRecently Opened Parts list may contain up to ten partsthat have been opened in the current or previous sessions.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a datum plane through an edge and at an angle to a face.

Choose the Datum Plane icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

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Select the right edge (1, not the mid point) and confirm theselection if necessary.

Make sure Point on Curve is turned off in the SnapPoint toolbar.

Select the top face (2), and confirm the selection if necessary.

Key in and Angle of 20 and press Enter.

Choose OK (MB2) to create the datum plane.

A datum plane is created at the specified angle from the topface and passes through the selected edge.

Step 4: Create the hole normal to the datum plane.

Choose the Hole icon. (Insert→Design Feature→Hole)

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Choose Simple for the hole type.

Key in .5 for the diameter.

Select the boundary of the newly created datum plane for theplacement face.

Select the bottom face (1) of the block as the Thru Face.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Features are initially located in the center of the datum plane.If no other positioning dimensions are specified, the hole willstay in this position. In this case, the hole will be positionedto the front and right edge of the model.

The Perpendicular icon is already selected for the firstpositioning dimension.

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Select the edge of the block shown (1), as the target edge.

Key in .75 as the positional expression value.

Select the edge of the block shown (1), as the target edge.

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Accept the value of 2.0 by choosing MB2.

The hole is positioned to the newly constrained location.

Step 5: Modify the angle parameter of the datum plane.

Double-click on the datum plane.

Change the angle from 20 degrees to 75 degrees.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Try 80 and 90 degrees. Can you explain the results?

Step 6: Close the part.

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Activity — Creating a Hole Corner to Corner

In this activity, you will create a relative datum plane using the Point andDirection option.

The intent is to create a hole feature that goes through one corner of ablock and comes out the opposite corner and maintains associativity.

Step 1: Open the seedpart_mm part and save it as ***_hole_corners,where *** represents your initials.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a block that is 200 x 100 x 100 on layer 1.

Step 4: Change the work layer to layer 61.

Step 5: Create a datum plane with the point and direction method.

Choose the Datum Plane icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

Choose Point and Direction.

Select the end point (1) as shown to define a point on the datumplane.

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Set the Vector Method to Two Points.

Select the end points (1 & 2) shown below.

Choose OK (MB2).

Step 6: Create a simple hole perpendicular to the datum plane, throughthe block.

Fit the view.

Choose the Hole icon. (Insert→Design Feature→Hole)

Choose Simple for the hole type.

Key in a diameter value of 25.

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Select the datum plane (1) as the placement face.

If the hole is not going into the block, choose Reverse Side.

Select the far side of the block as the thru face (2) and chooseOK.

Choose Point onto Point .

Select the end point (1) as shown.

Change the work layer to 1 and make layer 61 invisible.

Step 7: Modify the size of the block.

With the cursor on the block, click MB3 and choose EditParameters.

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Click on p2=100.000.

Key in 400.

Choose MB2 twice.

Fit the view and note the associativity of the features.

Step 8: Choose File→Close→Save and Close.

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Datum AxisThis option allows a linear reference feature to be created and has severaluses.

• Axis of rotation for revolved features.

• Axis of rotation for circular arrays.

• To help define a relative datum plane.

• Directional reference.

• Target for feature positioning dimensions.

Creating Datum Axes

When you choose the Datum Axis option, the Datum Axis dialog is displayed.The default constraint type is Inferred so that you can immediately beginselecting objects in the graphics window to define the axis.

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Datum Axis Types

Some common methods that will be covered in this lesson include:

• Through Two Points

• Through an Edge

• Through a Cylindrical, Conical or Revolved Face Axis

• At the Intersection of Two Faces/Datum Planes

The important function of these Reference Features is that they areassociative to existing geometry.

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Through Two Points

To create a datum axis through two points, do the following:

• Choose the Datum Axis icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Axis)

• Set the Snap Point toolbar as desired.

• Select two different point locations.

• Choose OK.

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Through an Edge or Curve

To create a datum axis through an edge or curve, do the following:

• Choose the Datum Axis icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Axis)

• Select the edge or curve but not on a control point.

• Choose OK.

The Point on Curve icon in the Snap Point toolbar must be off inorder to create a datum axis through an edge or curve.

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Through a Cylindrical Face Axis

To create a datum axis through a cylindrical face, do the following:

• Choose the Datum Axis icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Axis)

• Select the cylindrical face or axis symbol.

• Choose OK.

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Through the Intersection of Two Faces/Datum Planes

To create a datum axis through the intersection of two faces or datum planes:

• Choose the Datum Axis icon. (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Axis)

• Select the faces or datum planes.

• Choose OK.

There is no option to create a datum plane at the intersection of twofaces/planes at a specified angle. You would first have to create adatum axis at the intersection to serve as the pivot position. Then,create a datum plane through the axis using any other constraintthat applies.

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Editing Datum Axes

To edit datum axes parameters, use any of the following methods:

• With the cursor over the selection, click MB3 and choose Edit Parametersor Edit with Rollback.

• Double-click a datum axis in the graphics window. (Edit with Rollback isthe default action.)

• Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters.

• Choose MB3→Edit Parameters in the Part Navigator.

• Choose the Edit Feature Parameters icon.

Deleting Datum Axes

• Use Edit→Delete

• With the cursor over the datum axis, click MB3 and choose Delete.

• Choose the Delete icon.

• Choose MB3→Delete in the Part Navigator.

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Activity — Constraining Locations using Datums

In this activity, you will create a relative datum axis and datum plane toconstrain the pivot location of a hole feature.

A 0.5 inch diameter hole is to be located in a block. The origin of thehole will be on the top face and located from the right face. The holeis to remain centered in the block along the YC axis. The angle of thehole shall be editable in a plane parallel to the front face.

Step 1: Open the datum_ref_1 part.

If the part was opened recently, you can chooseFile→Recently Opened Parts and select the part from ashort list rather than the Open Part File dialog.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create the Reference Features.

Change the work layer to 61.

Choose the Datum Plane icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

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Select the right face (1) on the block as shown.

Key in -2 for the Offset value and press Enter.

Choose MB2 to create the datum plane.

Choose the Datum Plane icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

Select the back face (2) of the block as shown and confirm.

Select the front face (3) of the block as shown and confirm.

Choose MB2 to create the datum plane.

A center datum plane is created.

Choose the Datum Axis icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Axis)

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Select the datum plane (1) as shown.

Select the top face (2) as shown.

Choose MB2 to create the datum axis.

A datum axis is created at the intersection of the top of theblock and the associative datum plane.

Choose the Datum Plane icon.(Insert→Datum/Point→Datum Plane)

Select the right face (1) of the block as shown.

Select the Datum Axis.

Key in an Angle value of –45 and press Enter.

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Choose Apply to create the datum plane.

Select the newly created datum plane.

Key in 1 for the Offset value and press Enter.

Choose OK (MB2) to create the datum.

Fit the view.

Step 4: Create a Simple Thru Hole.

Choose the Hole icon. (Insert→Design Feature→Hole)

Choose Simple.

Key in .5 for the Diameter.

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Select the edge of the offset datum plane (1) as shown.

Select the bottom face of the block (2) as the Thru Face, confirmand choose MB2.

Choose Point onto Line.

Select the datum axis as the target edge.

A positioning dimension appears in the graphics window witha value of 0.

Choose Point onto Line.

Select the center datum plane (1) as shown and choose MB2.

The hole will always remain on the datum axis and staycentered in the block.

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Step 5: Modify the angle parameter of the datum plane.

Double-click on the angled datum plane (1).

Change the angle from –45 degrees to –20 degrees.

Choose OK.

The angle of the hole changes, but the point of entry remainsthe same.

Step 6: Change the Location of the Datum Axis.

Double-click on the offset datum plane as shown.

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Change the Offset from -2 to -3 and choose OK.

Step 7: Close the part.

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Datum CSYSA Datum CSYS (Insert→Datum/Point→Datum CSYS) provides a set ofassociative objects consisting of three planes, three axes, a coordinate system,and an origin point. The Datum CSYS appears as a single feature in the PartNavigator but its objects can be selected individually to support the creationof other features, constraining sketches, and positioning of components inan assembly.

The dialog provides options to create a Datum CSYS at the absolutecoordinate system, relative to another existing Datum CSYS, or relative toexisting geometry.

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SummaryDatums are reference features that are used as construction tools to assist inthe creation of solid features and sketches in locations and orientations whereplanar placement faces do not exist.

In this lesson you:

• Created associative datum planes and datum axes.

• Used datum features to create and position form features.

• Edited datum planes to see how associative features are affected.

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Lesson

13 Sketching

Purpose

This lesson introduces the method of creating a sketch and free handsketching of curves.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create a sketch.

• Create sketch curves.

• Apply dimensional constraints to sketches.

• Apply geometric constraints to sketches.

• Identify constraints.

• Convert a sketch curve to reference.

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Sketching Overview

What is a sketch?

A sketch is a collection of two-dimensional geometry within a part. Eachsketch is a named collection of 2D curves and points residing on a plane thatyou specify. You can use sketches to address a wide variety of design needs.For example, you might create.

• Detailed part features by sweeping, extruding, or revolving a sketch into asolid or a sheet body.

• Large-scale 2D concept layouts.

• Construction geometry, such as a path of motion, or a clearance arc, thatis not meant to define a part feature.

This lesson will focus on the use of sketches to define detailed partfeatures.

Sketcher tools let you fully capture your design intent through geometric anddimensional relationships that we refer to collectively as constraints. Useconstraints to create parameter-driven designs that you can update easilyand predictably. Sketcher evaluates constraints as you work to ensure thatthey are complete and do not conflict.

Sketcher offers you the flexibility to create as many, or as few, constraints asyour design requires. Geometric relations may be established between thecurves within a profile as well as with curves in other profiles and modelgeometry such as edges or datums.

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Why sketch?

Sketches provide a high level of control over features and automate thepropagation of changes. You can quickly apply constraints to capture awell-known design intent.

Once a sketch is placed on a face or datum plane, it will automatically movewhen the position of the placement face/datum is changed. Since sketches donot require constraints, this approach is the quickest way to build featuresand still have a sufficient level of associativity.

The inherent ability to solve a sketch in real time means that, as rules areapplied, the sketch objects change and move to reflect the effect that theassigned rule has on the geometry. This gives you the ability to quicklychange profiles of features created using sketches.

Using Sketches for Detail Part Features

When there is a commonly used shape that varies in size, a sketch can easilyaccommodate the iterations of the design by editing a single constraint.

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Sketches should be used as base features of a model if the shape lends itselfto extruded or revolved geometry.

Sketches may be used in a number of different ways. Consider them for guidepaths for swept features, or as section curves for free form features.

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An important aspect of modeling that will help you decide how to use asketch is defining the design intent of the model. The design intent consistsof two items:

• Design Considerations — The geometric requirements on the actualpart, including engineering and design rules that determine the detailconfiguration of the part.

• Potential Areas for Change — Known design changes or iterations, andtheir effects on the part configuration.

As a general rule, the more design considerations and potential areas forchange, the more likely there are benefits from sketching.

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Sketches and the Part Navigator

Sketches can be created by choosing the Sketch Section icon in certain featurecreation dialogs such as Extrude and Revolve, choosing the Sketch icondirectly in the Form Feature toolbar, or by choosing Insert→Sketch.

If you create a sketch from within a feature creation dialog, the sketch of thesection remains internal to the feature. It does not display in the graphicswindow or in the Part Navigator. You can edit the sketch by accessingthe associated feature. If the same sketch is required to create additionalfeatures, you can choose the Make Sketch External option from the MB3popup menu in the Part Navigator and it will appear in the graphics window.

If a sketch is not created from within a feature creation dialog, it will appearas a separate feature in the Part Navigator.

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Sketch Visibility

Organizing the data in a part is an important aspect of modeling. Thesketcher helps in this endeavor by automating the visibility of sketches areactivated and deactivated.

• If a standalone sketch is created by choosing the Sketch icon in the FormFeature toolbar (or Insert→Sketch), the current work layer is assigned tothe sketch as it is created. When you subsequently activate the sketch,the work layer is set to the layer assigned to the sketch so that you do notaccidently construct objects in the active sketch across multiple layers.

• If the sketch is created internal to a feature, it automatically becomesvisible when you edit the feature and choose the Sketch Section icon inthe feature dialog.

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Creating a New Sketch

Defining a Sketch Plane

When creating a sketch, you first need to define the plane on which to placethe sketch curves. But, you must consider the state of the model. Sincethe goal is to develop a parametric model, all of the features need to beassociative. Is the sketch going to define the base feature? Is the sketch goingto be attached to an existing reference feature or face of an existing body?

An icon option bar shown below appears in the upper left corner of thegraphics window and contains options to define the sketch plane.

1 – Sketch in Place 4 – YC–ZC Plane 7 – Datum CSYS2 – Sketch Plane 5 – XC–ZC Plane 8 – OK3 – XC–YC Plane 6 – Datum Plane 9 – Cancel

Defining the Sketch as the Base Feature

If the sketch is going to define the base feature and there is no existinggeometry or reference features in the part, you may define the plane bychoosing one of the following options:

• XC-YC Plane• YC-ZC Plane• ZC-XC Plane• Datum CSYS

Initially, the XC-YC plane will be highlighted in the graphics window. Youcan accept this plane or choose one of the other options.

To accept the plane, choose OK (MB2).

After the plane is accepted, the view in the graphics window isautomatically oriented so that it is parallel to the sketch plane. If youdo not want the view to be oriented in this manner, you can turn offthe Change View Orientation setting in Preferences→Sketch.

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Associate Sketch to Existing Face or Reference Feature

You can also define the sketch plane on an existing planar face, DatumPlane, or Datum CSYS. A relative Datum Plane or Datum CSYS may alsobe created on the fly.

To create the sketch on an existing face, Datum Plane, or Datum CSYS plane.

• Select the face, Datum Plane, or Datum CSYS plane.

• Define the horizontal or vertical reference.

• Choose OK.

To create a relative Datum Plane on the fly:

• Choose Datum Plane from the icon option bar in the upper leftcorner of the graphics window.

• Select the required objects to define the Datum Plane.

• Choose OK in the Datum Plane dialog.

• Define the horizontal or vertical reference.

• Choose OK.

A similar procedure can be used to create a relative Datum CSYSon the fly.

If there is an existing Datum CSYS in the part and it is coincident with theWCS. The X-Y plane of the Datum CSYS will initially highlight as the defaultsketch plane. If you choose the XC-YC, YC-ZC, or ZC-XC option, you will beasked whether to use the corresponding Datum CSYS plane instead.

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Defining the Reference Direction

The reference direction is used to specify the horizontal direction on thesketch plane. When there is no linear object pointing in the desired horizontaldirection, a vertical reference may be defined. Because vertical is 90 degrees(counterclockwise) from horizontal by definition, the horizontal directionis interpreted from it.

In the example below, the shaded face (1) is specified as the placementface. An edge (2) is defined as the vertical reference. The resultant sketchorientation is shown to the right.

The direction of an axis may be changed as follows:

• To flip the direction of a sketch axis, double-click on it.

• To specify a new direction, select the axis to redirect and then select astraight edge. The straight edge is projected to the sketch plane to definethe new direction.

If a datum plane is selected to define the sketch plane, a Z axis willalso be displayed. The normal of the sketch plane may be changed bydouble-clicking on the Z sketch axis.

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Naming a Sketch

Since a unique name is required for each sketch, a default name willinitially be assigned with a numeric suffix. The format of the default nameis "SKETCH_###" where ### is replaced by the next sequential three digitnumber beginning with 000 (SKETCH_000, SKETCH_001, etc.). A sketchname may be defined during or after the sketch has been created by clickingon the default sketch name, typing in the new name and pressing Enter.

The sketch can also be renamed by choosing Sketch→Sketch Properties.

Sketches should be given descriptive names rather than accepting thedefault. This allows downstream users to understand the functionof the sketch at a glance.

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The Active Sketch

In any given part there may be numerous sketches of different featuresat different orientations. When using the sketcher, only one sketch maybe worked on at a time. This sketch is called the active sketch. Curvescreated while a sketch is active become associated with the active sketch.When returning to a sketch to add to or modify a profile, the sketch must beactivated. There are a few ways to activate a sketch:

• Double-clicking on a sketch curve.

• In the Part Navigator double-click on the sketch feature node.

• Choose the Sketch icon and select the desired sketch from the SketchName pull-down.

There are also a few ways to deactivate an active sketch:

• Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

• Choose Sketch→Finish Sketch.

• Activate a different sketch.

• Choose Sketch→New and create a new sketch.

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Sketch Creation Steps

Sketch for a Base Feature

• Set the work layer for the sketch.

• Choose the Sketch icon.

• Define the sketch plane on a WCS plane (XC-YC, YC-ZC, or ZC-XC) orcreate a Datum CSYS at absolute coordinates.

• Name the sketch.

• Choose OK.

Sketch on an Existing Face or Reference Feature

• Set the work layer for the sketch.

• Choose the Sketch icon.

• Select the face, Datum Plane, or Datum CSYS plane. (You could alsocreate a relative Datum Plane or Datum CSYS on the fly.)

• Define the horizontal or vertical reference

• Name the sketch.

• Choose OK.

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Activity — Sketch Creation

In this activity, you will create a sketch on an existing face and anothersketch on a datum plane that is created on the fly.

Step 1: Open the seedpart_in part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a sketch for a base feature.

Make layer 21 the work layer.

Choose the Sketch icon. (Insert→Sketch)

Choose the YC-ZC Plane.

Click on the sketch name, key in base and press Enter.

Choose OK. (MB2)

The sketch is created. In addition, a fixed datum plane is createdon the specified sketch plane and two fixed datum axes are createdalong its major axes.

The specified sketch plane defines a Feature Coordinate System(FCS) for the sketch such that the X axis is parallel to thehorizontal direction and the Y axis is vertical. The WCS isautomatically manipulated to the FCS orientation to facilitatethe creation of sketch geometry.

Step 4: Exit the Sketcher.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. (Sketch→Finish Sketch)

Step 5: Close the part and do not save.

Step 6: Open the sketch_creation_1 part.

Step 7: Start the Modeling application.

Step 8: Create a sketch on an existing face.

Make layer 21 the work layer.

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Choose the Sketch icon. (Insert→Sketch)

The Sketch Plane icon is already selected.

Select the face (1) shown below.

The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the X-Axis is active(highlighted).

Select the horizontal reference (2) at the location shown below.

Click on the sketch name, key in skt1 and press Enter.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 9: Create a curve on the sketch plane.

Choose the Circle icon. (Insert→Circle)

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Create a circle by selecting at location (1) and then location (2).

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. (Task→Finish Sketch)

Step 10: Change the orientation of the face that defines the sketch plane.

Choose Tools→Expression.

Select the expression Change_Me and change the formula to3.5.

Choose OK.

Rotate the part and notice how the circle remains associativeto the face.

Step 11: Create a sketch on a datum plane.

Orient the view to Trimetric. (Home key)

Make layer 22 the work layer, layer 21 invisible, and layer 1selectable.

Choose the Sketch icon. (Insert→Sketch)

Choose Datum Plane.

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Select the two shaded faces shown below.

Choose OK in the Datum Plane dialog.

A center datum plane is created.

The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the X-Axis is active(highlighted).

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Select the edge for the horizontal reference at the locationindicated below.

Click on the sketch name, key in skt2 and press Enter.

Choose OK. (MB2)

XC

YC

ZC

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 12: Activate an existing sketch by selecting geometry.

Make layer 21 selectable.

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Double-click on the sketch curve (1) shown below.

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

Sketch SKT1 is activated and oriented in the graphics window.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 13: Activate an existing sketch by name.

Choose the Sketch icon.

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Choose SKT2 from the sketch name option menu.

Sketch SKT2 is activated and oriented in the graphics window.

XC

YC

ZC

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 14: Close the part.

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Sketch CurvesSketch curves are created via the Sketch Curve toolbar. As curves arecreated geometric constraints are assigned to the curves relative to the InferConstraints Settings.

1 – Profile2 – Line3 – Arc4 – Circle

Infer Constraint Settings

The Infer Constraints Settings dialog determines which constraints areautomatically created during curve creation. It is accessed by choosingthe Infer Constraint Settings icon from the Constraints toolbar orTools→Constraints→Infer Constraint Settings.

As you create the curves a symbol will appear near the curve being created torepresent the constraint that will be applied, if any.

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Locking a Constraint

When a constraint symbol appears during curve creation you may lock in thatconstraint by pressing MB2. For example, if you are creating a line and theparallel symbol appears, press MB2. As you move the cursor, the new linethat is rubber banding is doing so parallel to the reference curve.

Snap Angle

The snap angle is a preference setting in the Sketch Preferences dialog that isapplied when curves are being created. It is used to "snap" a line to horizontalor vertical. The default snap angle is set to 3° and is user definable between0° and 20°. This angular tolerance is defined on either side of horizontal orvertical from the first specified location, effectively creating a 6° tolerancezone by default.

When creating lines outside of the sketcher, snap angle only applieswhen using inferred cursor location.

Snap Point Toolbar

The Snap Point toolbar can be displayed when creating most of the curve typesin the sketcher so that you have more control over the selection of locations.

When the Snap Point toolbar is active, regardless of the point types turnedon, cursor location is always available.

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Alignment Lines While Creating Curves

In the process of creating a curve, if you are horizontally or vertically oppositea control point, the system will display an alignment line. The example belowdepicts an existing curve (1) with a new curve (2) being created as well as thealignment curves (3).

Profile Tool

The Profile tool allows creation of a string of lines and arcs without having tospecify a start for each curve after the first curve is created. The Profile toolis turned on by default when you first create a sketch and can be accessed bychoosing the Profile icon on the Sketch Curve toolbar.

The icon options in the upper left corner of the graphics window allow you toswitch between creating lines (1) or arcs (2) and allow you to switch betweenCoordinate Mode (3) or Parameter Mode (4). Line creation and CoordinateMode are the defaults.

Once you have created the first curve (line or arc), the default will revert backto Line. You can switch to arc creation by using press-drag-release with MB1.

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The "circle-X" symbol (1) controls the direction in which the arc will becreated.

If the desired arc is in the wrong direction, release MB1, pass the cursor overthe end of the line, and exit in a different quadrant of the symbol.

Arc originating fromtop quadrant

Arc originating fromleft quadrant

Arc originating fromright quadrant

Arc originating frombottom quadrant

As you create curves with the profile tool, the string mode can be brokenby clicking MB2.

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Creating Lines

Line creation is accessed by choosing the Line icon on the Sketch Curvetoolbar.

Once in line creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics windowprovide two options: Coordinate Mode (by cursor location or keying in an XCand YC coordinates) and Parameter Mode.

There are several ways to create a line:

• Locate the start, and then locate the end.

• Locate the start, and then enter the length and angle parameters.

• Locate the start, enter one parameter, and then locate the end.

• Key in the parameters and then locate the start.

Once you indicate a start location, the system will switch to the ParameterMode. But, you can still specify an end location without switching back toCoordinate Mode.

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Creating Arcs

Arc creation is accessed by choosing the Arc icon on the Sketch Curve toolbar.

Once in arc creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics windowgive you two sets of options. The first is creation method, and the second isfor the Coordinate/Parameter Mode.

There are two different arc creation methods:

Arc by 3 Points — There are several ways to create the arc withthis method:

• Locate the start, locate the end, and then locate a point on the arc.

• Locate the start, enter a radius value and press Enter, locate the endpoint, and then move the cursor to preview and choose which of thefour possible solutions to create.

• The same as the previous, but enter the radius value after locating theend point, but before the point on arc.

Arc by Center and End Points — There are several ways to createan arc with this method:

• Locate the center, locate the start point, and locate the end point. (Thestart point location determines the radius.)

• Locate the center, locate the start point, enter a radius value and pressEnter, locate the end point.

• Locate the center, enter radius and sweep angle values and pressEnter, locate the start of the sweep, and specify the direction for thesweep.

Once you indicate a first location, the system will switch to ParameterMode. But you can still specify locations with the cursor without switchingback to Coordinate Mode.

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Creating Circles

Circle creation is accessed by choosing the Circle icon on the Sketch Curvetoolbar.

Once in circle creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphicswindow provide two sets of options. The first is creation method, and thesecond is for the Coordinate/Parameter Mode.

There are two different circle creation options:

Circle by Center and Diameter — There are a few ways to create acircle with this option:

• Locate the center, and then locate a point on the circumference ofthe circle.

• Locate the center, enter a Diameter, and press Enter. The circle iscreated. You are then in multiple circle creation mode - just indicateanother location for a circle center.

• Locate the center, drag the radius until you get the size you want.Press Enter. The circle is created, and you are in multiple circlecreation mode. Indicate another center.

Circle by 3 Points — There are two ways to create a circle withthis option:

• Locate three points on the circumference of the circle.

• Locate two points on the circumference of the circle, enter a radiusvalue and press Enter, then choose which of the two options you wantby cursor location.

Once you indicate a first location, the system will switch to the enterParameters mode. But you can still give a location without changingback to XY.

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Activity — Using the Sketch Profile Tool

In this activity, you will use the Profile tool to create sketch geometry.

Step 1: Open seedpart_in and save it as ***_sketch_profile_1 where ***represents your initials.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Change the Work Layer to 21.

Step 4: Create a sketch on the XC-YC plane.

Choose the Sketch icon. (Insert→Sketch)

Choose OK to accept the XC-YC Plane.

Step 5: Add icons to the Sketch Constraints toolbar.

Select the Toolbar Options area of the Sketch Constraintstoolbar and choose Add or Remove Buttons→SketchConstraints.

Make sure the Infer Constraint Settings and Create InferredConstraints icons are toggled on.

You may have to move the toolbar to see the icons afterthey are added.

Step 6: Set the Infer Constraints Settings.

This is done so that only the constraints that you may want toapply will be available during curve creation.

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Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon.(Tools→Constraints→Infer Constraint Settings)

Turn on only the following constraints.

HorizontalVerticalTangentParallelPerpendicularCoincidentDimensional Constraints

Choose OK.

Step 7: Create a Profile.

In this step you will create the sketch curves shown below usingthe Profile tool.

Choose the Profile icon (Insert→Profile) and move thecursor into the graphics window.

Select a start location with the cursor near the bottom leftcorner of the graphics window (approximately XC=-4, YC=-2)

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Move the cursor so that the rubber-banding line snaps to thehorizontal orientation and the horizontal symbol displays (1)as shown below.

Notice the horizontal symbol indicating the constraint that isgoing to be applied to the line.

Press MB2 to lock in the horizontal constraint.

Now notice that as you move the cursor around, therubber-banding line remains horizontal.

Key in 3 for the Length and press Enter.

Notice that a dimensional constraint is created automatically.This is because a Length value was explicitly entered andthe Dimensional Constraints option was turned on in theInfer Constraint Settings dialog.

Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor straight up from the endpoint of the last line and then release.

You are now in Arc creation mode.

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Key in 1 for the Radius and press Enter.

Key in 180 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter.

Click MB1 in the graphics window to apply.

Continue using the Profile tool to create the remaining curvesin the sketch as shown below. You do not have to key in exactvalues but just create the approximate shape.

Close the profile by selecting the end point of the first line.

Dimensions maybe added at a later time to constrainthe remaining curves to specific sizes.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 8: Save and close the part.

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Optional Challenge

Practice sketching the following profiles:

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Creating Fillets

Fillet creation is accessed by choosing the Fillet icon on the Sketch Curvetoolbar.

Once in fillet creation, icon options appear in the upper left corner of thegraphics window. The Trim Inputs option (1) determines whether or not theoriginal curves are trimmed. The Delete Third Curve option (2) determineswhether the middle curve is deleted in a three-curve fillet. The CreateAlternate Fillet option (3) will produce a complementary solution for the fillet(e.g. a 270 degree arc instead of the default 90 degree arc).

You can create fillets between lines, arcs or conics. You can also create a filletbetween two parallel lines.

There are several ways to create Fillets:

• Select two curves with a single selection (at their intersection), and thendrag the size and quadrant.

• Select two curves individually, and drag the size and quadrant.

• Select one curve, enter a radius value, and select the second curve.

• Select two curves individually, enter a radius value, and the indicate thedesired quadrant.

• Drag (with MB1) across the two curves you want to fillet. The size of thefillet is determined by where the curves are selected.

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Trimming and Extending Curves

Quick Trim

This option will allow you to trim any curve to the closest curve in the sketchand preview the results in preselection color.

You can trim multiple curves at one time, by using the "crayon" select method.Hold down MB1 and drag across the portion of curves you want to trim away.

You can select a specific curve to trim to, by using Ctrl-select to select thedesired boundary curve. More than one bounding curve can be selected usingthis method.

In the example below, both the arc on the left and the spline on the right wereCtrl-selected as boundary curves. With the cursor on the top line, (betweenthe two boundary curves), the center section is previewed as the portion tobe removed.

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When a curve is trimmed, appropriate constraints are automatically created.In the previous example, two Point on Curve constraints and one Collinearconstraint are added. If one of the boundary curves is later trimmed to theline, the Point on Curve constraint would change to Coincident.

If you trim an arc to a line that is tangent, the tangency constraint is retained.

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Quick Extend

This option will extend lines, arcs and conics to the closest curve in thesketch. The system will preview the results in the preselection color.

The curve being extended must extend to an actual intersection with theboundary curve.

You can extend multiple curves at one time, by using the "crayon" selectmethod. Hold down MB1 and drag across the ends of curves you want toextend.

You can also select specific boundary curves by using the control-selectmethod.

As with Quick Trim, when you use Quick Extend, appropriate constraints areautomatically created.

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Activity — Creating Fillets

In this activity, you will create fillets in an existing sketch.

Step 1: Open the sketch_fillet_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Activate the sketch.

Double-click on any of the sketch curves.

Step 4: Set the Infer Constraints Settings.

Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon.(Tools→Constraints→Infer Constraint Settings)

Turn off the Dimensional Constraints setting.

Choose OK.

Step 5: Create a 4 mm radius fillet using lines L16 and L20 with a singleselection and trimming the lines.

Choose the Fillet icon. (Insert→Fillet)

Make sure Trim Inputs is on (highlighted background).

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Key in 4 in the Radius field on the graphics window, and pressEnter.

Select both lines at the same time, by selecting at theirintersection.

Drag the cursor around the screen and notice that you canselect which quadrant you want.

Select in the lower right quadrant to place the fillet in thedesired quadrant.

Step 6: Create a 4 mm fillet using lines L16 and L17 with a single selectionand do not trim the lines.

Turn off Trim Inputs. (background not highlighted)

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Select the two lines at their intersection.

Select in the upper right quadrant.

Step 7: Create a 4 millimeter fillet between lines L17 and L18. Select bydragging across the two lines.

The 4.0 Radius value should still be in the text field on thegraphics window.

With MB1 held down, drag across the two lines as below: (Thisis another method of selecting the curves to be filleted. Thecurves crossed with the "crayon" are the curves selected.)

Notice that the 4 millimeter radius was used.

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Step 8: Create another fillet between lines L18 and L20 by using the"crayon", but this time do NOT use a radius value.

Use Backspace to erase the 4 in the text field.

Drag (with MB1), as shown below:

It used the selection location of the curves to determine theradius.

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Step 9: Create a fillet between lines L18 and L19, and drag the size andquadrant.

Individually select the lines L18 and L19.

Drag the cursor around the screen.

Select a location to create an arc similar to the one shown below.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 10: Close the part.

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Activity — Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend

In this activity, you will trim and extend existing sketch geometry.

Step 1: Open the sketch_quick_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Trim curves with Quick Trim.

Double-click on one of the sketch curves to activate the sketch.

Choose the Quick Trim icon. (Edit→Quick Trim)

Select the line at the location of the arrow below.

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Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor across the two curves asshown below.

Ctrl-Select the curves (1) and (2) for boundaries. Select oncurves (3) and (4) to trim the center portion.

Step 4: Extending curves with Quick Extend.

Choose the Quick Extend icon. (Edit→Quick Extend)

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Place the cursor on the arc at location (1) shown below.

The status line informs you that the curve cannot be extended.This is because there is no other curve that would intersectthe arc.

Place the cursor on the arc at location (2) shown below.

This time, an intersection is found and a preview is provided.

Select the arc at location (2) to create the extension.

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Step 5: Continue to experiment with Quick Trim and Quick Extend untilthe instructor is ready to continue.

Step 6: Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 7: Close the part.

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Sketch PointsSketch objects are defined by theoretical points. A line, for instance, is definedby two points. The sketcher attempts to mathematically solve for the locationof the points by analyzing the constraints (rules) that are placed on objects.

The points that the sketch solver analyzes are referred to as sketch points.By controlling the locations of these sketch points the curve itself may becontrolled. There are various ways to control these points. The sketch pointsassociated with different types of curves are illustrated in the graphic below.

Line Arc Circle Fillet

Spline Point Ellipse

Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) Arrows

Degree of freedom arrows are displayed at a sketch point when the solver isunable to fully determine where the sketch point is located on the sketchplane based on existing constraints and dimensions. They are only displayedduring the creation of dimensions or constraints.

The DOF arrows can point in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Anarrow pointing to the right means that the sketch point is free to move left orright in the horizontal direction. An arrow pointing up means that the sketchpoint is free to move up or down in the vertical direction.

These arrows provide visual feedback while you are constraining the sketch.

Undefinedin X and YDirections

Undefined inY Direction

Undefined inX Direction

Defined inX and YDirections

(no display)

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DOF arrows are removed as rules are written that define the location of thesketch points.

• Arc - Arcs have sketch points at the center and at either end. Thesesketch points as well as the radius of the arc may be defined.

• Circle - Circles may have the center point as well as a radius or diameterdefined.

• Ellipse - An ellipse may have the location of its center defined; also, theparameters for the size and orientation of the ellipse are stored for futureediting.

• Fillet - A Fillet is a special case of arc. By definition a fillet is tangent tothe objects with which it is associated and this rule is applied as it iscreated. Fillets are also defined by the center and end points but thetangency will help determine the location of these points.

• Line - Lines may have the sketch points at either end defined.

• Point - Points may be defined relative to other objects or at specificlocations in space.

• Spline - Degree three splines may have their defining points located.Slopes of the spline at the defining points may also be defined. Splinesthat are of a degree other than three may be added to sketches; however,since their defining points are not located at their knot points, there is noway to locate their defining points using constraints.

If any of the sketch points that define a curve are unconstrained, the curve isdisplayed in the color specified by the Partially Constrained Curves settingin Preferences→Sketch→Colors. When all defining points are constrained,the curve will change to the color specified by the Fully Constrained Curvessetting in Preferences→Sketch→Colors. Theses colors only apply during thecreation of dimensions or constraints.

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Dimensional Constraints

Design Intent

The power in sketching is derived from the ability to capture design intent.

You do this by creating rules, called constraints, that dictate how sketchobjects will react to changes.

As many or as few constraints as necessary may be applied to cause thesketch profile to update in the manner desired.

NX sketches are not required to be fully constrained.

Creating Sketch Dimensions

A dimension controls the size of a sketch object, such as the length of a line orradius of an arc, or the relationship between two objects, such as a distanceor angle.

Dimensions appear in the graphics window. Unlike drafting dimensions,changing the value of the sketch dimensions changes the shape and or size ofdimensioned objects. This changes any features, such as extrude or revolvefeatures, that the sketch curves control.

Dimensions may be applied by usingthe dimension menu on the SketchConstraints toolbar.

1 — The default Inferred Dimensions iconinfers the dimension type based on theobjects that are selected and the positionof the cursor.

2 — The other dimension icons are usefulwhen the system is unable to infer thedesired dimension type. These differentoptions are "filters" that when selectedwill only allow a specific dimension typeto be created.

Certain types of geometry may not beselectable if they do not coincide with thedimension type selected.

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As dimensions are being created, the dimension, its extension lines, andarrows are displayed as soon as the geometry has been selected.

• Drag the dimension until it is the correct type, for example horizontalor parallel.

• Place the dimension by clicking MB1.

• Click and drag the dimension to the desired location.

Sometimes, a dimension type may be inferred before all of the geometry hasbeen selected. In this case, continue to select geometry until the correctdimension type is displayed, or select the icon for the dimension type youdesire and select the geometry again.

An expression is also created for each dimension. The name (1) and value(2) of the expression appear in a text box in the graphics window after thedimension has been placed. You may key in a new name or value. Pressthe Enter key to activate the change.

Sketch Dimension Dialog

The Sketch Dimensions Dialog icon accesses the Dimensions dialog.

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You can use the dialog to help create and edit dimensions. You can change thevalue of a dimension by either keying it in or using the slider bar.

There are also two option menus to change the appearance of the dimension.

The Placement option menu is for defining how the text and arrows of thedimension will be displayed. Options are for automatic placement of text andarrows (1), manual text placement with arrows inside the extension lines (2),or manual text placement with the arrows outside the extension lines (3).

The Leader option menu is for defining whether the dimension’s leader isattached to the left (1) or right (2) of the dimension text.

Both of these option menus may be used before, during or after dimensioncreation.

Text Height

The Text Height controls the displayed height of the dimension text.Modifying this value will affect the display of all dimensions in the activesketch.

The Text Height option can also be accessed by choosingPreferences→Sketch.

The Fixed Text Height option in Sketch→Preferences controls the size ofthe dimension text when you zoom. If this option is turned on, the text willremain the same size relative to the screen as you zoom in and out.

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Dimension Types

Inferred — The dimension type (except perimeter) is inferred based onthe objects selected and the cursor location.

Horizontal — Specifies a distance constraint between two points withrespect to the X-axis of the sketch coordinate system. Points, points on sketchcurves, edges, lines, and arcs are selectable.

Vertical — Specifies a distance constraint between two points withrespect to the Y-axis of the sketch coordinate system. Points, points on sketchcurves, edges, lines, and arcs are selectable.

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Parallel — Specifies a constraint for the shortest distance between twosketch points. All sketch objects are selectable using this method. The pointsselected will be inferred from the objects selected.

Perpendicular — Specifies a distance constraint measuredperpendicular to a selected line and a point. If the desired point is anendpoint of a line, this endpoint must be selected as the second object.

Angular — Specifies an angular constraint between two linear objects.

Radius — Specifies a radial size constraint for an arc or circle.

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Diameter — Specifies a diameter size constraint for an arc or circle.

Perimeter — Constrains the collective lengths of lines and arcs to adesired value. After selecting the curves and choosing MB2, an expressionis automatically generated with a “Perimeter_” prefix added to the name.(i.e. Perimeter_p7=6.456). There will be no graphical representation of thisconstraint in the graphics window.

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Activity — Adding Dimensional Constraints

In this activity, you will capture the design intent for a part by adding rulesthat will control how the part is to change. These rules allow the part to beeasily modified.

The included angle of the adjustment slot should change from 45° to75° by dimensional constraints.

Step 1: Open angle_adj_1.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Add the required dimensions.

Double-click on one of the sketch curves to activate the sketch.

Choose Preferences→Sketch.

Verify the Text Height is set to .10 and choose OK.

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon.(Insert→Dimensions→Inferred)

Select the lower angled line (1, not endpoint).

The system infers that you wish to create a horizontal, vertical,or parallel dimension depending on the placement of the cursorrelative to the geometry. DO NOT PLACE THE DIMENSION!

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Select the upper angled line (2, not endpoint).

Select a cursor location to place the dimension.

Select the horizontal line (1, not endpoint) across the bottom.

Select the lower angled line (2, not endpoint).

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Select a cursor location to place the dimension.

Choose MB2 to exit dimension creation mode.

Step 4: Change the viewpoint.

Choose MB3→Orient View to Model.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

There are times, such as geometry creation, when looking directlyat the plane of the sketch is beneficial. At other times, it mayhelp to change the view point to see the effects of changes on thegeometry.

Step 5: Close the part.

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Editing Dimensions

The editing of dimensions may be achieved as follows:

• To edit the value or the name, simply double-click on the dimension andedit the value or the name in the text box and press Enter.

• To edit the position, place cursor over a dimension, press and hold downMB1, and simply drag the dimension’s location.

• Additional editing that may be done with the Dimensions dialog as listedbelow:

Name — Key in a new name in the text entry field.Value — Key in a new value in the text entry field or use

the slider.Position — Click and hold MB1 on the dimension and drag

to new position.Text placement — Select a different option from the option menu.Leader side — Select a different option from the option menu.Text height — Key in a new text size in the text entry field.

The name and value of a dimension may also be edited by using theExpressions dialog. As dimensions are edited, the constraints areevaluated and the geometry is modified.

Delay Evaluation

Delay Evaluation prevents geometry changes as one or more dimensions aremodified. This is available as an icon on the Sketcher toolbar or by choosingTools→Delay Sketch Evaluation.

Evaluate Sketch

Evaluate Sketch controls sketch evaluation when Delay Evaluation is on.(Sketches are evaluated automatically when you exit from the Constraintsdialog.) This is available as an icon on the Sketcher toolbar or by choosingTools→Evaluate Sketch

Update Model

Update Model forces the model to update without leaving the sketchfunction. (The model is updated automatically when you exit from the sketchenvironment.) This is available as an icon on the Sketcher toolbar or bychoosing Tools→Update Model.

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Retain Dimensions

When a sketch is deactivated the dimensions are normally hidden.

Retain Dimensions is a toggle in the Sketch Preferences dialog to retaindimension display after the sketch is deactivated.

Retain Dimensions applies only to the active sketch, thus to suit your needsyou may have a mixture of sketches with and without retained dimensions.

Use this setting when you need to display dimensions without an activesketch, for example to reference expression names between sketches, whencreating features, or for plotting.

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Activity — Editing Sketch Dimensions

In this activity, you will edit dimensional constraints and see that they do notsufficiently control the angle bracket from the previous activity.

Step 1: Open angle_adj_2.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Change the layer settings.

Make layer 1 Selectable.

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

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Step 4: Edit a dimension.

Place the cursor over a sketch curve and choose MB3→Edit.

Choose MB3→Orient View to Model.

Double-click on the 45° dimension.

In the dynamic input field, key in 75 and press Enter.

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Step 5: Edit another dimension.

Double-click on the 15° dimension.

In the dynamic input field, key in 25° and press Enter.

Notice how the geometry updates.

Basic geometric assumptions that we make when we look at thisgeometry are not specified to the system, i.e. the bottom line hasno horizontal constraint applied.

If the geometry had been created in the sketch rather than added tothe sketch some of these geometric assumptions would have beenadded to the geometry as constraints during the creation process.

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Step 6: Close the part.

Choose Undo twice. (MB3→Undo)

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Close the part.

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Geometric ConstraintsA geometric constraint establishes a geometric characteristic of a sketchobject (such as defining a line as being horizontal) or the type of relationshipbetween two or more objects (such as requiring that two lines be parallel orperpendicular, or that several arcs have the same radius).

Unlike dimensional constraints, geometric constraints have no editablenumeric values; a constant angle constraint, for instance, simply dictates thatthe line stay at the angle it is at when the constraint is applied.

To create geometric constraints, choose the Constraints icon, select theobjects, and choose the desired constraint from the icon option bar thatappears in the upper left corner of the graphics window. Only icons forconstraints that apply to the selected geometry will be displayed.

You may also choose the constraint from an MB3 pop-up menu after selectingthe geometry.

To assign multiple constraints at one time, press the Ctrl key whileselecting the objects. The icon option bar for the constraints willthen remain in the upper left corner of the graphics window afteryou choose the first constraint. You can use MB2 or the Esc key tocancel creation of constraints.

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Types of Geometric Constraints

Coincident Constrains two or more points as having thesame location.

Collinear Constrains two or more linear objects as lying onor passing through the same theoretical straightline.

Concentric Constrains two or more arcs as having the samecenter.

Constant Angle Constrains a line so as to remain in its currentorientation without input of an angular value.

Constant Length Constrains a line so as to remain at its currentlength without input of a length value.

Equal Length Constrains two or more lines as being the samelength.

Equal Radius Constrains two or more arcs as having the sameradius value.

Fixed Constrains unchangeable characteristics forgeometry, depending on the type of geometryselected. You can apply a Fixed constraint to anindividual sketch point or to an entire object.

Horizontal Constrains a line as being parallel to the FCSX-axis.

Midpoint Constrains the location of a point to beequidistant from both ends of the curve.

Select the curve anywhere other than atits end points.

Parallel Constrains two or more linear objects as beingparallel to each other.

Perpendicular Constrains two linear objects as beingperpendicular to each other.

Point on Curve Constrains the location of a point as lying on thepath or projection of a curve.

Point on String Constrains the location of a point as lying on anextracted string.

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Scale,Non–Uniform

When applied, a spline will scale in the horizontaldirection while keeping the original dimensionsin the vertical direction during modification.

Scale, Uniform A spline will scale proportionally in both thehorizontal and vertical when the horizontallength changes.

Slope of Curve Constrains a spline, selected at a defining point,and another object as being tangent to each otherat the selected point.

Tangent Constrains two objects as being tangent to eachother.

Vertical Constrains a line as being parallel to the FCSY-axis.

Displaying Constraint Symbols

Constraint symbols are displayed when a sketch is active. Symbols forCoincident, Point on Curve, Midpoint, Tangent, and Concentric are alwaysdisplayed.

The Show All Constraints option will display the symbols for all theconstraints in the active sketch.

The various constraint symbols are shown below:

Fixed Constant Angle

Collinear Concentric

Horizontal Tangent

Vertical Equal Radius

Parallel Coincident

Perpendicular Point on Curve

Equal Length Midpoint of Curve

Constant Length Point on String

Mirror Scale, Uniform

Slope of Curve Scale, Non-Uniform

If the sketch curves are relatively small (the view is zoomed out), thesymbols may not be displayed. You may need to zoom in to see them.

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Show/Remove Constraints

Show/Remove Constraints helps you manage constraints. The constraintsmay be listed by object(s) or all of the constraints of the active sketch maybe listed at once.

1 — List all constraintsor by object(s).

2 — Filter for the typeof constraint to list.

3 — Determines if thefiltered constraint typeswill be included or excluded.

4 — Category ofconstraints to list.

5 — Actions to take on thelisted constraints.

Constraint Interrogation

While the Show/Remove dialog is displayed, you can determine whatconstraints are present by passing the selection ball over a sketch object. Ifthe object has an associated constraint, the object will be pre-highlightedalong with any other objects that share the constraint. The constraint symbolwill appear next to the sketch objects. If an object which has no constraintsassociated with it, it will not highlight.

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Constraint Categories

There are two major categories of constraints, Explicit and Inferred.Explicit constraints are constraints that you create by assignment using theconstraints dialog or by virtue of the creation method. Inferred constraintsare Coincident constraints that the system has inferred and createdduring the curve creation process. You have the option to list only Explicitconstraints, only Inferred constraints, or both.

Constraint Listing

The constraints may also be listed in the Show/Remove Constraints dialog byselecting one of the three options at the top of the dialog window.

Selected Object Once an object is selected, the associatedconstraints, depending on the selected constraintcategory, are listed in the dialog. To viewconstraints associated with a different sketchobject, simply select the new object.

Selected Objects Allows the selection of multiple objects; theassociated constraints, depending on the selectedconstraint category, are listed in the dialog. Objectsmay be deselected by holding the shift key downand selecting the object.

All in ActiveSketch

List all the constraints of the active sketch,depending on the selected constraint category.

Listing Box

Any time there are constraints listed in the list box they may be browsed byselecting the constraint to highlight it. When the constraint is highlighted inthe list box, the sketch object(s) that is associated with it is also highlightedin the graphics window. The Step Up the List and Step Down the List buttonsallow easy navigation through the various constraints. The Up and Downarrows on most keyboards will mimic this behavior.

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Information

The Information button located on the Show/Remove Constraints dialog willlist all of the constraints in the active sketch to the information window.This is useful should there be a need to make a hard copy of the constraintsor save them as a text file.

Removing Constraints

Constraints may be deleted by these methods:

• Highlight them in the Show/Remove Constraints dialog List box and selectRemove Highlighted Constraint(s), or just double click them in the list.

• Turn on Select Constraints (on the Selection toolbar), select the constraintsymbol on the graphics window, and then choose the Delete icon.

• Turn on Select Constraints, select the constraint symbol on the graphicswindow, and then use MB3→Delete to delete selected constraint.

Undo

Undo from the Edit pull-down menu, the Undo icon on the Standard toolbar,the MB3 pop-up menu, or the accelerator keys. Undo takes the user actionsback one step at a time.

After an Undo is performed, the Redo option is available in the Editpulldown menu or Standard toolbar.

Dragging Geometry

Under constrained geometry can be dragged only when not in a constraintcreation mode. Simply hold down and drag MB1 while on the selectedcurve(s) or point(s).

Selection

When in the Sketcher Task Environment, the selection toolbar changes. Ithas two icons that are only available in the Sketcher.

Select Sketch Objects allows selection of curves and dimensionsin the sketch.

Select Constraints allows selection of constraint symbols in thegraphics window.

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Constraint Conditions

When either the Dimensions or Constraints option is chosen, the Status linelists the constraint condition for the active sketch. A sketch may be fullyconstrained, under constrained, or over constrained. When the sketch isunder constrained the Status line will indicate the number of constraintsneeded.

Sketch needs 4 constraintsSketch is fully constrainedSketch contains over constrained geometry

A sketch is evaluated each time a constraint is placed upon the sketch. Eachtime a sketch is evaluated, the system attempts to solve the set of constraintsthat describe how the geometric objects are positioned and their relationshipswith each other.

Fully Constrained

In order to completely capture the design intent of a particular profile, it maybe beneficial to fully constrain the sketch. This occurs when the solver is ableto completely define all sketch geometry.

There is no requirement to fully constrain a sketch. The design intent hasbeen captured sufficiently when the constraint set applied to the profilecauses it to update in the intended manner.

Under Constrained

A sketch is under constrained when there is insufficient information tocompletely locate each sketch point. Degree-of-freedom arrows are displayedat each point that can not be solved to identify the direction in which thatpoint remains free to move.

Over Constrained

A sketch is over constrained when too much constraint information issupplied to the solver. For example, if an Equal Length constraint is appliedto two lines and then dimensions are added to each to constrain their length,the sketch would be over constrained.

The geometry and dimensional constraints that are causing the overconstrained condition are highlighted in a different color to help you identifyand resolve the issue. This color is determined by the Overconstrained Curvesand Dimensions setting in the Sketch Preferences.

An unwanted constraint must be removed before the system will change thegeometric configuration. The sketch remains in the last solved condition.

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Conflicting Constraints

Dimensional constraints and geometry that are in conflict in the currentconfiguration with the current constraint set are also highlighted in adifferent color. This indicates that the constraint set that has been supplied isnot solvable with the geometry in its current configuration. Constraints mayneed to be added or removed in order for the sketcher to be able to solve theconstraint set. The highlight color is determined by the Conflicting Curvesand Dimensions setting in the Sketch Preferences.

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Activity — Adding Constraints

In this activity you will add constraints to the angle adjustment bracket tocause the expected update to occur when a dimension is modified.

Step 1: Open angle_adj_3.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Add the required constraints.

Place the cursor over a sketch curve and choose MB3→Edit.

Choose MB3→Orient View to Model.

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

Choose the Constraints icon. (Insert→Constraints)

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Select the line (1) at the bottom of the sketch.

Choose Horizontal in the upper left corner of the graphicswindow. (MB3→Horizontal)

This constraint will keep the line from rotating around whendimensions are modified.

There are six places where the curvature transitions need tomaintain tangency.

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Select the six tangent curve pairs near the six points shownbelow, two adjacent curves at a time, and apply aTangentconstraint to each pair. Be careful to select on the correct halfof the arc.

Lastly, the two arcs at the top of the slot should remainconcentric.

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Select the two upper arcs (1) and apply a Concentric constraint.

The slot should now be constrained such that the angle may beadjusted while the configuration remains as intended.

Choose MB2 to turn the Constraints option off.

Step 4: Edit the dimensions.

Double-click on the 45° dimension and change it to 75°.

The sketch geometry changes in the expected manner.

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Step 5: Apply the change to the solid geometry.

Choose the Update Model icon. (Tools→Update Model)

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 6: Close the part.

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Activity — Constraining a Profile

Constrain the pipe vise sketch to satisfy the stated design intent.

Apply constraints to the curves so that the following may becontrolled:

• The outside envelope of the part.

• The included angle of the angled lines.

• The angled lines must remain centered in the part horizontally.

• The width of the slot at the bottom of the angled lines is controlledby the radius at the bottom of the slot.

Step 1: Open pipevise_1.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Activate the sketch.

Double-click on a sketch curve.

Step 4: View the system applied constraints.

Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon.(Tools→Constraints→Show/Remove Constraints)

Choose All In Active Sketch in the List Constraints For: areaof the dialog.

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Verify the Show Constraints option is set to Explicit.

The system created constraints are now displayed in the listbox. The dialog should look similar to the graphic shown below.

Choose the first constraint in the list.

The object referred to in the list is highlighted in the graphicswindow. There should be one horizontal line highlighted.

Use the UP and DOWN arrow buttons located to the right ofthe list box to browse through the constraint list.

Cancel the Show/Remove Constraints dialog.

Step 5: View the degree of freedom arrows.

Turn on the Constraints icon. (Insert→Constraints)

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Notice that there are degree of freedom arrows at each of thesketch points. Even though most of the objects in the sketch haveconstraints associated with them, the sketch points are free tomove in all directions. This is because the system cannot locateany of the points relative to model space.

Step 6: Constrain the location of a point.

Select the lower endpoint of the left vertical line.

Select the vertical datum axis.

Choose the Point on Curve icon in the upper left cornerof the graphics window.

The geometry now changes to follow the constraint. The pointat the bottom of the left vertical line is now constrained in thehorizontal direction.

Select the left endpoint of the bottom horizontal line.

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Select the horizontal datum axis.

Choose the Point on Curve icon.

The geometry now changes to follow the new constraint. Theshared sketch point at the bottom of the left vertical line is nowconstrained in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Thedegree of freedom arrows go away and, due to the horizontaland vertical constraints on the lines that share the sketchpoint, one of the arrows on the opposite end of those lines hasdisappeared.

Choose MB2 to cancel the Constraints mode.

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

Step 7: Move the datum planes and axes to layer 61.

The datums have served their purpose of locating the sketch. Youwill now move them to ease selection of objects and clean up thescreen display.

Choose Edit→Object Display.

Choose the Class Selection icon in the upper left corner of the

graphics window.

Choose Type.

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Choose Datums and choose OK.

Choose Select All and OK.

Key in 61 for the Layer in the dialog and press Enter.

Step 8: Continue adding constraints to satisfy the stated design intent.

Turn on the Constraints icon. (Insert→Constraints)

Hold the Ctrl key down and select the two horizontal lines (1)at the top of the profile.

Choose Collinear and Equal Length.

Use the Esc key to deselect all the curves.(Edit→Selection→Deselect All).

Select the right side of the arc at the bottom of the slot (1).Select the short right vertical line (2, but not on the end point).

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Choose Tangent.

Create another Tangent constraint on the other side of the slot,selecting the left side of the arc and the left vertical line.

Hold the Ctrl key down and select the bottom horizontal lineand the lower endpoint of the line originating from the arccenter.

Choose Point on Curve.

Choose Midpoint.

Use the Esc key to deselect all the curves.(Edit→Selection→Deselect All).

Select the line (1), shown below, between the midpoint andthe arc center.

Choose Vertical.

Adding dimensional constraints to satisfy the controllingportions of the design intent will allow the profile to be changedby modifying the numerical values.

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon.(Insert→Dimensions→Inferred)

Select the bottom horizontal line. Drag the dimension toposition it and select with MB1 to place it.

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Key in a value of 5 and press Enter.

Notice the curves change color as they become constrained.

Fit the view if necessary.

Select the left vertical line and place the dimension for it.Change the value to 3.75.

Select the top left horizontal line and place the dimension.Change its value to .5.

Fit the view if necessary.

Select the left angled line (1) and the top left horizontal line(2), avoiding the end points. Place the angular dimension andchange its value to 45°.

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Select the right angled line and the top right horizontal line,avoiding the end points. Place this angular dimension andchange its value to the ’p’ number assigned to the other angulardimension.

Select the arc at the bottom of the slot. Place the radiusdimension and change its value to .25.

Select the line connecting the arc center and the midpointand place this vertical dimension. Change its value to 1.5 andchoose Enter.

The Status line now informs you that the sketch is fullyconstrained. Remember that it is not necessarily requiredto fully constrain the profile if it is updating in the mannerdesired.

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Step 9: Change the constraints on the sketch to alter the included angle inthe notch.

Click on the first angular dimensional constraint that wascreated and change it from a 45° to 30°.

Notice that the depth of the notch is unchanged as a result ofthis edit. Should that have not been our intent, we would haveto constrain the sketch in a different manner.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 10: Close the part.

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Activity — Sketching and Constraining a Gasket

In this activity, you will create and constrain a gasket. To efficiently capturethe design intent, constraints and dimensions will be added progressively.

The center hole is the origin of the gasket. The three holes are locatedon a horizontal axis. The lines on the outer boundary of the profileare tangent to the arcs.

Step 1: Open the seedpart_in part and save it as ***_gasket_1 where ***represents your initials.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create the sketch on a Datum CSYS.

Change the Work Layer to 21 so that the part will be compliantwith class standards.

Choose the Sketch icon. (Insert→Sketch)

Click on the sketch name; key in s21_profile and press Enter.

Choose Datum CSYS.

Choose Absolute CSYS.

Choose OK.

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The X-Y plane of the Datum CSYS is highlighted as the defaultsketch plane.

Choose OK to accept the default plane.

Step 4: Set the Infer Constraint Settings.

Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon.(Tools→Constraints→Infer Constraint Settings)

Verify that the following constraints are turned on.

ConcentricCoincidentDimensional Constraints

Choose OK.

Step 5: Create the circles in the center of the gasket.

Choose the Circle icon. (Insert→Circle)

Verify that Control Point is turned on in the Snap Pointtoolbar.

Select the existing point at the origin of the Datum CSYS.

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Drag the cursor to preview circle as shown below. Key in aDiameter value of 2 and press Enter.

The first circle is created.

Key in a Diameter value of 3 for the second circle and pressEnter.

Select the existing point at the origin of the Datum CSYS.

Choose MB2.

The two circles are fully constrained because of the dimensionaland geometric constraints that were inferred as you created them.

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Step 6: Create a circle representing the hole on the left side.

Choose the Circle icon. (Insert→Circle)

Click and drag to create a circle near on left side of the graphicswindow. Key in a Diameter value of 0.5 and press Enter.

Choose the Constraints icon. (Insert→Constraints)

Select the arc center of the circle and the horizontal datum axis.

Choose Point on Curve .

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon.(Insert→Dimensions→Inferred)

Create a perpendicular dimension from the vertical datumaxis to the arc center of the left circle. Change the value ofthe dimension to 2.625.

Step 7: Create a circle for the outer boundary on the left side.

Create another circle in the left side of the graphics windowwith a diameter of 1.

Choose the Constraints icon. (Insert→Constraints)

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Select the two circles on the left side and choose Concentric.

Step 8: Create circles representing the hole and outer boundary on theright side.

Create two circles on the right side of the graphics windowrepresenting the hole and the outer boundary of the gasket. Donot explicitly enter the diameter values. You will constrainthem to be equal to existing circles.

Choose the Constraints icon. (Insert→Constraints)

Select the two new circles on the right and choose Concentric.

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Select the arc center of the circles on the right and the

horizontal datum axis and choose Point on Curve.

Select the smaller circle on the left and the smaller circle on

the right and choose Equal Radius.

Select the larger circle on the left and the larger circle on the

right and choose Equal Radius.

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon.(Insert→Dimensions→Inferred)

Create a horizontal dimension from the arc center of the leftcircles to the arc center of the right circles. Change the value ofthe dimension to 5.25.

Step 9: Set the Infer Constraint Settings before creating the lines.

Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon.(Tools→Constraints→Infer Constraint Settings)

Disable all constraints except Point on Curve and Tangent.

Choose OK.

Step 10: Create the tangent lines on the outer boundary of the gasket.

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Choose the Line icon. (Insert→Line)

In the Snap Point toolbar, disable all options except Point on

Curve.

Create the lines by selecting the circles representing the outerboundary of the gasket. Select the circles by placing the cursornear the expected tangency.

You should see Point on Curve and Tangent constraint symbolson each end of the lines as they are created.

The Quick Trim option could be used to trim the circles.However, when extruding the sketch to create a solidbody, it is possible to define the correct boundary of thegasket without trimming.

Step 11: Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 12: Choose File→Close→Save and Close.

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Convert To/From Reference

At times it is useful to add a dimension to a sketch to see the effect of achange numerically. Adding a dimensional constraint, however, would causethe sketch to become over constrained. It also may be necessary to addsketch curves to aid in the construction and constraining of a profile withoutrepresenting a portion of the swept feature.

To support these needs, curve and dimensional constraints within a sketchmay be converted to and from a Reference status.

• To convert objects, select them in the graphics window and choose ConvertTo/From Reference from the MB3 pop-up menu.

• You may access a dialog by choosing the Convert To/FromReference icon from the Sketch Constraints toolbar(Tools→Constraints→Convert To/From Reference).

• Reference curves are displayed in a phantom line font and are ignoredduring sweep operations.

• Reference curves and dimensions are displayed in colors specifiedby the Reference Curves and Reference Dimensions settings inPreferences→Sketch→Colors.

• Reference dimensional constraints are displayed with only the valueportion of the expression. The values will be updated as the sketch ischanged, but they do control the sketch geometry with which they areassociated.

Dimensions can be made reference as they are created by choosing

Create Reference Dimension in the icon option bar.

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Activity — Constraint Conditions

In this activity, you will constrain and edit a simple sketch to change thedesign intent. This configuration is not one that you would likely sketch, butits simplicity illustrates the concept of an over-constrained condition.

Apply constraints to control the length and width of the sketch. Theshape of the sketch should remain rectangular.

Step 1: Open seedpart_in.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a sketch on Layer 21.

Change the work layer to 21.

Choose the Sketch icon. (Insert→Sketch)

Choose Datum CSYS.

Choose Absolute CSYS.

Choose OK.

The X-Y plane of the Datum CSYS is highlighted as the defaultsketch plane.

Choose OK.

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Step 4: Set the Infer Constraints Settings.

Choose the Infer Constraints Settings icon.(Tools→Constraints→Infer Constraint Settings)

Verify that the following constraints are turned on.

HorizontalVerticalParallelPerpendicularCoincident

Choose OK.

Step 5: Create a rectangle.

Choose the Rectangle icon. (Insert→Rectangle)

Verify that Control Point is turned on in the Snap Pointtoolbar.

Select the existing point at the origin of the Datum CSYS.

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Drag the cursor to preview the rectangle and select a cursorlocation near the upper right corner of the graphics window.

Step 6: Interrogate the constraints that currently exist for this sketch.

Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon.(Tools→Constraints→Show/Remove Constraints)

Choose All In Active Sketch.

Set the Show Constraints to Explicit.

Highlight the first constraint in the list and use the downarrow button to browse the constraints.

Choose Cancel.

Step 7: Apply dimensional constraints to control the length and width ofthe rectangle as per the design intent.

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Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon.(Insert→Dimensions→Inferred)

Select the left vertical line and place the dimension. Changethe value to 2.75.

Select the bottom horizontal line and place the dimension.Change the value to 4.5.

As dimensional constraints are being created, thedegree-of-freedom arrows are eliminated and the curves change tothe fully constrained color. The sketch is fully constrained with onevertical and one horizontal dimensional constraint, along with thegeometric constraints inferred when the lines were constructed.

Design Change — Modify the sketch so that it can becontrolled by the angle and length of a diagonal line.

Step 8: Create a diagonal line in the sketch and convert it to reference.

Choose the Line icon. (Insert→Line)

In the Snap Point toolbar, disable all options except Control

Point.

Select the lower left endpoint and the upper right endpoint ofthe rectangle to define the line.

Step 9: Convert the diagonal line to Reference status.

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Choose MB2 to exit the line creation mode.

Select the diagonal line.

Choose MB3→Convert To/From Reference.

Step 10: Apply an angular dimensional constraint.

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon.(Insert→Dimensions→Inferred)

Select the lower horizontal line (not the endpoint) and thediagonal line (not the endpoint). Indicate a location for theangular dimension and change the value to 35°.

The Status line indicates that sketch is now over constrained.The sketch objects associated with the over constrainedcondition change to the color specified by the OverconstrainedCurves and Dimensions setting in the Sketch Preferences.

To correct the over constrained condition, one or more of theoffending constraints must by removed. The new design intentis to control the sketch with angular and diagonal lengthdimensions.

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Step 11: Apply a parallel dimensional constraint.

Select the diagonal line and place a parallel dimension. Changethe value of the dimension to 6.5.

Notice that the sketch configuration does not change when thevalue is modified. The system leaves the geometry in its lastsolved state until the over constrained condition is resolved.

Step 12: Convert sketch dimensions to reference.

Choose MB2 to exit the dimension creation mode.

Select the horizontal and vertical dimensions.

Choose MB3→Convert To/From Reference.

The sketch is returned to a fully constrained condition. Thereference dimensions reflect the value only. They do not controlthe geometry to which they are attached.

The over constrained condition could also have been resolvedby deleting the horizontal and vertical dimensions.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

Step 13: Close the part.

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SummaryThis lesson introduced the concept of sketch creation.

Sketches may be used to define a base feature, guide paths, and additionalassociative features to the base feature.

A sketch parametrically controls curves. It can also be defined on a sketchplane which is associative to a datum plane/face of a model. Both of thesebenefits allow you to capture and maintain design intent.

Constraints are applied to sketch objects in order to capture the design intent.The level of constraint, partial or full, is determined by the design intentand what is necessary to capture it.

In this lesson you:

• Created sketches on datum planes, solid faces, and a Datum CSYS.

• Created freehand curves in a sketch.

• Created and edited dimensional constraints.

• Created inferred and explicit geometric constraints.

• Converted sketch curves and dimensions to reference status.

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Lesson

14 Swept Features and BooleanOperations

Purpose

This lesson introduces Swept Features and Boolean Operations.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create an extruded feature.

• Create an extruded feature with offsets.

• Create a feature by sweeping a profile along a guide string.

• Create a revolved feature.

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Types of Swept FeaturesSwept features are created by extruding, revolving, or sweeping a sectionstring. The section string may be composed of explicit curves, sketch curves,solid edges, solid faces, and sheet bodies.

An Extruded feature is produced by sweeping the section string (1) in a lineardirection for a specified distance.

A Revolved feature is produced by rotating a section string (1) around aspecified axis (2).

A Sweep Along Guide feature is produced by sweeping a section string (1)along a guide string (2).

The features/bodies that are created will be associated with both the sectionstring and the guide string.

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ExtrudeThe Extrude option (Insert→Design Feature→Extrude) allows a feature to becreated by sweeping planar, section string geometry in a linear direction fora specified distance.

Extruding a Sketch

A sketch can easily be extruded using an object/action approach by placingthe cursor over it in the graphics window and choosing the Extrude option inthe MB3 pop-up menu.

The Start and End extrude distances can then be specified by using the draghandles or by keying in values in the dynamic input boxes. The Start draghandle is represented by a sphere (1) and the End drag handle is representedby a cone (2).

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The Extrude dialog is displayed and provides a single user interface to specifyLimits, Offset, Draft, and Boolean operation for an extrusion.

Selecting Sketches Using Selection Intent

When you use Extrude, the Selection Intent toolbar is available to establishrules for selecting a section string.

You may or may not want to use all of the curves in the sketch as the sectionstring. To select all of the curves in a sketch in one step, set the Curve optionin the Selection Intent toolbar to Any or Feature Curves. The other rules canbe applied to select a single sketch curve or other collections of sketch curves.

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Extruding a partial sketch is a technique that is used when one sketch maydefine multiple features.

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Rules for Extruding Section String Objects

The Body Type option which is found in the Extrude dialog and inPreferences→Modeling, controls whether a solid body or a sheet body iscreated when extruding section string geometry. When set to "Solid" thefollowing rules will apply:

• Extruding a set of closed planar connected curves creates a solid body.

• Extruding a set of closed planar connected curves with another closed setwithin the boundary of the first creates a solid with an interior hole.

• Extruding a curve or set of planar connected curves which are not closedcreates a sheet body unless offsets are used.

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Activity — Starting the Draglink

In this activity, you will start to create a model for a draglink by extruding asketch.

Step 1: Open the swept_draglink_1 part and save it as ***_draglink_1where *** represents your initials.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Extrude the sketch.

Place the cursor over one of the sketch curves and chooseMB3→Extrude.

The default direction for the extrude is normal to the sketchplane in the +ZC direction.

Double-click the direction vector in the graphics window sothat it is pointing in the –ZC direction.

Key in 152.5 for the End value.

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Choose OK (MB2).

Step 4: Save the part.

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Boolean Operations

Boolean operations are used to create a single solid body out of two or moreexisting solid bodies. If a solid already exists in the part, a Boolean operationcan be specified in the Extrude dialog to combine the new feature with theexisting solid body instead of creating it as a separate solid body.

1 — Create

2 — Unite

3 — Subtract

4 — Intersect

Boolean operations may also be created as separate features by choosing theUnite, Subtract, and Intersect options in the Feature Operation toolbar or bychoosing Insert→Combine Bodies. When using these operations, you mustselect a Target solid and at least one Tool solid.

Creating the Boolean operations as separate features allows you toapply additional edits to them such as suppress and unsuppress.

Defining Target and Tool Solids

The Target solid is the solid body on which the operations are executed.

The Tool solid is the solid body that operates upon the target solid.

The target solid passes its attributes on to the Boolean operationresult. Therefore, the resultant solid inherits the Layer, MaterialDensity, etc. of the target solid.

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Unite

This option produces one solid body by defining a target solid (1) and toolsolid (2).

Subtract

This option allows material to be removed from a target solid (1) by usinganother solid as the tool solid (2), leaving empty space where the tool solidexisted.

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Intersect

This option results in a solid occupying the volume common to the selectedtarget solid (1) and tool solid (2).

Boolean Errors

If you attempt to unite a tool solid within a target solid and there is no changein topology, the following message appears.

If you attempt to unite, subtract, or intersect a tool solid with a target solidand the two solids do not touch, the following message appears.

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If you attempt to subtract a tool solid (1) from a target solid and the operationwould produce a zero thickness (2), the following message appears.

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Start and End Limit Options

Options are available to control the Start and End Limits of the extrusion byusing existing geometry as well as keying in values.

Value Key in a numeric value or a formula for the limit.Symmetric Value If the extrusion is symmetric about the section

string, this option can be used so that only one ofthe limit values has to be entered.

Until Next Extend the extrusion to the next body along thedirection path.

Until Selected Extend the extrusion to a selected face, datumplane, or body.

Until Extended Trim the extrusion to a selected face when thesection curves extend beyond its edges.

Through All Extend the extrusion completely through allselectable bodies along the path.

These options are also available in an MB3 pop-up menu in thegraphics window when you highlight the start or end limit draghandle.

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Extrude with Offset

This option is used to apply offsets to an extrusion.

When this option is turned on, the dialog expands to let you specify Start andEnd offset values. Drag handles (1) and a dynamic input boxes are displayedwith the extrusion preview. The Start offset handle is represented by a sphereand the End offset handle is represented by a cone. Turn the Offset option offto remove the offset and handles from the preview.

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Offset Examples

The values of the Start Offset and End Offset may be positive or negative.The positive direction is determined by the direction of the End Offset draghandle (cone).

Start Offset ZeroEnd Offset Positive

Start Offset ZeroEnd Offset Negative

Start Offset NegativeEnd Offset Positive

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Extrude with Draft

When this option is turned on, the dialog is expanded to let you specify adraft angle. A drag handle (1) and a dynamic input field are displayed withthe extrusion preview. Turn the option off to remove the draft and draghandle from the preview.

Rules for Extruding with Draft

• A positive taper angle creates an inward taper (A).

• A negative angle creates an outward taper (B).

• If the section string included interior holes, the holes would be taperedin the opposite direction to the outside objects.

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Activity — Extruding with Offsets

In this activity, extruded features will be added to a part using offset values.

Step 1: Open the swept_extrude_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create a tube by extruding with an offset.

Choose the Extrude icon.(Insert→Design Feature→Extrude)

Select the inside, large circle as the section string.

Change the Boolean option to Unite.

Confirm a value of 0 for the Start (Limit), key in 2.5 for the End(Limit) value, and press Enter.

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Turn the Offset option on.

Key in –.25 for the End (Offset) value and press Enter.

If the Offset drag handle is pointing away from the center ofthe part, use a negative value for the End offset. If the Offsetdrag handle is pointing toward the center of the part, use apositive value.

Choose Apply (Ctrl-MB2).

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit).

The circle is extruded from its origin normal to its creationplane a distance of 2.5 units. The feature is .25 units thickmeasured inside the circle. The thickness was defined bythe End offset value based on the direction of the offset draghandle.

Step 4: Create a flange at the top of the cylinder.

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Verify the Curve option is set to Single Curve in the SelectionIntent toolbar..

Select the top outer edge of the cylindrical extrusion.

Change the Boolean option to Unite.

Make sure the drag handle is pointing down. If it is pointing

up, choose Reverse Direction in the dialog.

Key in .25 for the End (Limit) value and press Enter.

Turn the Offset option on.

Key in .25 for the End (Offset) value and press Enter.

If the Offset drag handle is pointing away from the center ofthe part, use a positive value for the End offset. If the Offsetdrag handle is pointing toward the center of the part, use anegative value.

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Choose Apply (Ctrl-MB2).

The selected edge is extruded from its origin, normal to its creationplane to a distance .25 units. The feature is defined as being .25units thick measured outside the edge. The thickness was definedby the values entered in the End Offset fields relative to directionof the offset drag handle.

Step 5: Subtract an extrusion from the flange.

Select the inside circular edge shown to extrude.

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Change the Boolean option to Subtract.

Make sure the direction vector is pointing down. If it ispointing up, double-click the vector in the graphics window or

choose Reverse Direction in the dialog.

Key in .075 for the End (Limit) value and press Enter.

Turn the Offset option on.

Key in .15 for the Start (Offset) value and .275 for the End(Offset) value and press Enter.

If the Offset drag handle is pointing away from the center ofthe part, use positive values for the offsets. If the Offset draghandle is pointing toward the center of the part, use negativevalues.

Choose OK.

Step 6: Close the part.

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Selection IntentThe Selection Intent toolbar is available to specify curve and edge selectionrules for section strings when creating extruded features. These rules can beapplied to automatically select a collection of curves or edges in a single stepinstead of selecting them individually.

Curve Options

When a feature requires the selection of a profile or individual curves andedges, the Curve options become available for collecting and section building.The pull-down menu displays the curve or edge selection rules that areapplicable to the feature you are creating.

The cursor changes to a Curve Collecting mode, indicating you can collectcurves or edges. Choose the rule from the pull-down menu that best describesthe action for the design intent of your feature.

Any — Lets you use the original default intent method to extend aselection. The default method can vary based on the type of object youselected. For example, with Extrude the default could be All Curves ofFeature if a curve is selected, and Single if the selected object is an edge.The Any method lets the controlling feature derive intent based on thetype of object selected.

Single Curve — Lets you single-select one or more curves or edges. Norule is applied to a collection of singly-selected curves, and it is basicallya simple list of objects without intent. You can enhance a collection ofsingly-selected curves or edges by moving MB3 over one of the selectedobjects and then choosing another rule.

Connected Curves — Lets you select a chain of curves or edges that shareendpoints. No rule is applied if the chained curves are non-associative.The curve intent does not attempt to grow or shrink the chain if curvesare added or no longer form a single chain after an edit to the model.

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Tangent Curves — Lets you select a tangent continuous chain of curvesor edges. No rule is applied if the chained curves are non-associative.The curve intent does not attempt to grow or shrink the chain if curvesare added or no longer form a single chain after an edit to the model.The system does not discard non-associative curves that are no longertangent after an edit.

Face Edges — Collects all edges of the face containing the edge youselect. If you already selected an edge using another rule, you can selectan adjoining face to define a collection with the Add All of Face rule.When you select an edge, the cursor-center location determines whichface is selected.

Sheet Edges — Collects all laminar edges of the sheet body you select.

Feature Curves — Collects all output curves from curve features, such assketches or any other curve features.

Stop at Intersection

Select this option to specify that auto chaining stops not only at endpoints ofthe curve or edge but also on intersections with other curves or edges. Whenyou select a chain, all other curves and edges visible in the selection view arechecked for intersections with the current chain. At each of the intersectionpoints (that is, where two or more objects meet at a point, either interior or atan end point) the system bounds the chain.

Follow Fillet

You can use this option to automatically chain a section onto and off of atangent arc. This option is available only when you are building a section,and only for Connected Curves and Tangent Curves chaining intents. If youselect both Follow Fillet and Stop At Intersections, Follow Fillet overridesStop At Intersections at branches where it applies

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More Selection Intent Options

This option displays a dialog with other special conditions for the selectedrule.

Chain Between — Select this option to determine the number of objectsyou must select for chaining.

When you clear this option, chaining is a single selection operation andyou select a seed object and all objects that meet the current constraints(that is, the Chain or Chain Tangent options) are collected.

When you select this option, chaining is a two selection operation and youmust select the start and end of the chain before the chain is collected.

This option is mutually exclusive of the Stop at Intersection option. Ifyou select one, the other is cleared.

Tangent Angle (Degrees) — Use this option to enter a real number for thehighest possible value you want to specify as tangent degrees.

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Activity — Extruding Using Selection Intent

In this activity, you will use Selection Intent options to extrude a sketch.

Step 1: Open the swept_gasket_1 part.

The part contains a sketch of a gasket profile. The circles definingthe outer boundary of the profile were not trimmed.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Extrude the sketch.

Choose the Extrude icon. (Insert→DesignFeature→Extrude)

Turn the Enable Preview option off.

Set the Curve option to Tangent Curves in the Selection Intenttoolbar.

Turn on the Follow Fillet icon in the Selection Intenttoolbar.

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Select one of the curves in the outer boundary of the gasket.

The outer boundary of the gasket is highlighted.

Select the three interior circles that define the holes.

Change the work view to the Trimetric orientation.(MB3→Orient View→Trimetric).

Turn the Enable Preview option on.

Key in the following values for the extrusion:

Start (Limit) = 0End (Limit) = .125

Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 4: Close the part.

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Sweep Along GuideThe Sweep along Guide option (Insert→Sweep→Sweep along Guide) allows afeature to be created by sweeping a section string along a guide string.

Rules for Sweeping Section String Objects Along a Guide

• Solid or sheet bodies are created based on the current ModelingPreferences Body Type setting and the closure condition of the curves(i.e. open string or closed string).

Open String Closed String

• An open section string swept along a guide path that forms an enclosedloop will automatically cap the end faces, providing the ModelingPreferences Body Type is set to Solid.

• Open section strings will always be swept into a solid body when usingthe sweep with offset option.

• Only one Section String and only one Guide String may be selected.

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Guide Strings Containing Sharp Corners

When using Sweep along Guide where the guide string contains sharpcorners, it is recommended that the section string be placed away from asharp corner. The section string also needs to be located on an end point ofone of the guide string objects.

1 — Guide String.2 — Section String that is at sharp corner, a location that should

be avoided.3 — Section String that is located away from a sharp corner and

located on an end point.4 — Two separate line objects that provide the endpoint for the

section string.

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Activity — Sweeping Along an Open Guide String

In this activity you will continue to develop the draglink part by sweeping asection string along a guide.

Step 1: Make ***_draglink_1 the work part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create the swept feature.

Make layer 22 the work layer and all other layers invisible.

Make layer 23 selectable.

Choose the Sweep along Guide icon.(Insert→Sweep→Sweep along Guide)

Set the Curve option to Feature Curves in the Selection Intenttoolbar.

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Select one of the I-beam sketch curves as the section string (1).

The I-beam is a sketch feature so all of the curves in the I-beamare selected except the reference line.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Verify that the Curve option to Feature Curves in the SelectionIntent toolbar.

Select one of the curves from the sketch on layer 23 as theguide string (2).

Choose OK. (MB2)

Verify that the First Offset and Second Offset are both setto 0 (zero).

Choose OK. (MB2)

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Choose Create.

Cancel the Sweep along Guide dialog.

Step 4: Unite the new swept solid with the existing solid.

Make layer 1 the work layer.

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

Choose the Unite icon. (Insert→Combine Bodies→Unite)

Select the first solid body created as the target body.

Select the swept I-beam body as the tool body.

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Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 5: Save the part.

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Activity — Sweeping Along a Closed Guide String

In this activity, you will sweep an open section string along a closed guidestring to create a solid body.

Step 1: Open the swept_guide_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create the swept feature.

Choose the Sweep along Guide icon.(Insert→Sweep→Sweep along Guide)

Verify the Curve option is set to Feature Curves in theSelection Intent toolbar.

Select the sketch of the open profile (1) as the section string.

Choose OK. (MB2)

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Select the sketch of the closed profile (2) as the guide string.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Choose OK to accept the direction. (MB2)

Verify that the First Offset and Second Offset are set to 0(zero).

Choose OK. (MB2)

The open section string was swept along the full length of theguide string and the system automatically caps the open endsto produce a solid body.

The Sweep along Guide function may be used to sweep anysection string along a guide string.

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Step 4: Optional Challenge — Undo the creation of the solid and createit again specifying a .25 single offset toward the outside of thecurves. The part should resemble the figure shown below.

Step 5: Close the part.

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RevolveThe Revolve option (Insert→Design Feature→Revolve) allows you to create afeature by rotating a section string about an axis through specified angles.

The Revolve feature requires a section (1), a location and direction for therotation axis (2), and Start and End angles (3,4). The angles can be specifiedby using drag handles, keying in values in the dynamic input boxes, or ina dialog.

You can also revolve a sketch by placing the cursor over it in thegraphics window and choosing the Revolve option in the MB3 pop-upmenu.

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The Revolve dialog is displayed and provides a single user interface to specifyAngular Limits, Offset, and a Boolean operation.

Rules for Revolving Section String Objects

• As with extruded sections, a solid or sheet body is created based on theclosure condition of the curves and Body Type setting. The Body Typesetting is found under Preferences→Modeling but can also be set in theRevolve dialog (after choosing the More Options icon).

• When revolving an open section string a full 360°, the end faces will beautomatically capped to produce a solid body if the Body Type option isset to Solid.

• The Right Hand rule determines the direction of the sweep. You canreverse the direction by double-clicking on the axis vector in the graphicswindow or by choosing the Reverse Direction icon in the dialog.

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Activity — Creating Revolved Features

In this activity, you will create revolved features.

Step 1: Open the swept_revolve_1 part.

The part contains a sketch to be used as the section string and adatum axis to be used as the axis of revolution.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Revolve an open section string.

Place the cursor over the sketch and choose MB3→Revolve.

Key in the following values for the Angular Limits:

Start = 0End = 360

Choose MB2.

Select the Datum Axis in the graphics window.

Choose OK (MB2).

A solid revolved body is created from the open section string.If you wanted to create a solid body with a sweep of less than360°, the section string must be closed or offsets must bespecified.

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Step 4: Revolve an open section string with an offset.

Now, you will use the same section string to create a new revolvedbody using an offset to form a shell.

Choose Undo. (MB3→Undo or Ctrl-Z)

Place the cursor over the sketch again and chooseMB3→Revolve.

Turn the Offset option on in the Revolve dialog.

Key in the following values:

Start (Limit) = 0End (Limit) = 180Start (Offset) = 0End (Offset) = .25

Choose MB2.

Select the Datum Axis in the graphics window.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Notice that the revolution starts at the plane of the curves andrevolves in a counterclockwise direction with respect to thepositive axis of rotation (the Datum Axis). The Right HandRule for Positive Rotation applies.

Step 5: Revolve a solid face.

Now, you will close one end of the solid by revolving the edges of anexisting face.

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Choose the Revolve icon.(Insert→Design Feature→Revolve)

Set the Curve option to Face Edges in the Selection Intenttoolbar.

Select the solid face (1) as shown.

Key in the following values:

Start Angle = 0End Angle = –90

Choose MB2.

Select the short edge, as shown below, as the inferred rotationaxis vector.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 6: Unite the new revolved solid body with the existing solid body.

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Choose the Unite icon. (Insert→Combine Bodies→Unite)

Select the target (1) and tool solid (2) as shown below.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 7: Optional Challenge — This shell is one of two molded parts thatmust fit together. Add a lip to the outside edge of the part byextending the outside edges of the top planar face with an offsetvalue and height value equal to half the shell thickness.

Step 8: Close the part and do not save.

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Activity — Adding a Revolved Feature to the Draglink

In this activity you will continue to develop the draglink part by adding arevolved feature.

Step 1: Make ***_draglink_1 the work part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Revolve a section string (1) to create a feature (2).

Make layer 24 selectable to view the section string (1) and makeall other layers invisible. Layer 1 will remain the work layer.

Choose the Revolve icon.(Insert→Design Feature→Revolve)

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Verify the Curve option is set to either Any or Feature Curvesin the Selection Intent toolbar.

Select the sketch (1) shown below as the section string.

Choose MB2.

Select the vertical line shown (2) to define the vector for theaxis of revolution.

Key in the following values:

Start Angle = 0End Angle = 360

Choose OK. (MB2)

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Step 4: Unite the new revolved solid body with the existing solid body.

Choose the Unite icon. (Insert→Combine Bodies→Unite)

Select the existing solid body as the target body.

Select the new revolved solid body as the tool body.

Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 5: Save the part.

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Activity — Extruding to a Face

In this activity you will complete the development of the draglink part.

Step 1: Make sure ***_draglink_1 is the work part.

Step 2: Extrude a section string to a face.

Make layer 25 selectable and all other layers invisible. Layer 1should still be the work layer.

The section string geometry (1) is now visible.

Choose the Extrude icon.(Insert→Design Feature→Extrude)

Verify the Curve option is set to Any or Feature Curves in theSelection Intent toolbar.

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Select the sketch (1) as the section string.

Change the Boolean option to Subtract.

Choose Reverse Direction so that the drag handle pointsdown into the existing solid.

Verify the Start (Limit) value is set to 0.

Change the End (Limit) option to Until Next.

The length of the extrusion is determined by the first face itintersects which is the bottom face of the part.

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Choose OK. (MB2)

Step 3: Save and close the part.

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SummarySwept features are created by extruding, revolving, or sweeping a sectionstring. The section string may be composed of sketch curves, explicit curves,solid edges, solid faces, and sheet bodies.

Boolean operations are used to create a single solid body out of two or moreexisting solid bodies.

In this lesson you:

• Created extruded features.

• Created an extruded feature with offsets.

• Created a feature by sweeping a section string along a guide.

• Created a revolved feature.

• Applied boolean operations.

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Lesson

15 Editing the Model

Purpose

To modify solid body features by editing their defining criteria.

Objectives

In this lesson, you will:

• Edit feature parameters and positioning dimensions.

• Delete features.

• Reorder features in the Model History.

• Reattach a feature to a different face.

• Move features.

• Rename a feature.

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Accessing the Options to Edit FeaturesThere are several different ways to access options to edit features in NX.

• Part Navigator — Many feature editing options are available in the PartNavigator. You may also use it to review the Model History and featuredependencies.

• Feature MB3 Pop-up Menu — Some common feature editing optionsare available in the MB3 pop-up menu when you select a feature in thegraphics window. The options available in this menu will depend on thetype of feature and the method used to create it.

• Edit Pull-Down Menu — Choosing Edit→Feature from the menu barprovides many options related to editing features. If you choose an editingoptions from this menu without first selecting a feature, a dialog will bedisplayed so that you can select features from a list.

• Edit Feature Toolbar — Many of the options in the Edit→Featurepull-down menu are also available in the Edit Feature toolbar. Thistoolbar can be turned on and customized to display the icons of frequentlyused editing options.

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Part Navigator

The Part Navigator allows various actions to be performed on features.Holding down MB3 on a feature node in the Part Navigator displays a featurespecific pop-up menu offering pertinent editing options.

To access the Part Navigator, choose the icon on the resource bar on the rightside of the NX window.

The options available in the pop-up menu will vary depending on thetype of feature selected. Many of the options are not available if theModeling application is not active.

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Display Dimensions

Choosing Display Dimensions causes the feature’s parameter values to bedisplayed (just as they are with Edit Parameters). The temporary displayremains until a Refresh is performed.

Show/Hide

Allows the body or parents for the selected feature to be hidden or displayed.This function blanks/unblanks the object(s) and their display can be broughtback by using the Show/Hide options or the options under Edit→Blank.

The Hide Body option "blanks" the solid body that the feature is applied to.

The Hide Parents option is more applicable to swept features. If the HideParents option is used on a swept feature, the system will hide (blank) theparent curves which generated the swept feature. If the swept feature isderived by a solid edge(s) then the Hide Parents option will hide (blank) theparent solid body. This option is not effective in showing or hiding "resultingcurves," which are produced directly from a curve feature operation, suchas with Offset Curve.

Make Current Feature

Provides a quick and easy method for inserting features into a part. Thisoption may be used to make an existing feature the current feature of thesolid body, and then add more features at that point in the model history. Ifthis option is used on a feature whose time stamp positions it in the middle ofthe model history, making it the current feature, all of the features after itbecome inactive. As new features are created they are inserted into the buildhierarchy before the inactive features.

Filter

Lets you apply a system filter to the Part Navigator display tree based on thefeatures currently selected. These filters let you simplify the display tree byhiding features by type or timestamp order.

To turn off a filter, place the cursor in the Part Navigator away from afeature node, click MB3, and turn off the Apply Filter option in thepop-up menu.

Edit Parameters

Lets you edit the feature’s parameters (same as Edit→Feature→Parameters).

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Edit with Rollback

This option first rolls the model back to its state just prior to the feature beingcreated, before reopening the feature’s creation dialog to edit parameters.This is shown in bold in the pop-up menu which indicates it is the defaultaction when you double-click on a feature name in the Part Navigator.

Edit Positioning

Lets you edit the feature’s positioning dimensions (same asEdit→Feature→Edit Positioning)

Suppress and Unsuppress

Suppress temporarily removes the feature from the body and display. Thiscan also be accomplished by clearing the checkbox associated with the featurenode in the Part Navigator. The option changes to Unsuppress while a featureis suppressed. Unsuppress returns the suppressed feature back to the bodyand the display.

Reorder Before/After

Allows the construction order of the features in the model to be altered bypositioning the selected feature before or after other features in the buildhierarchy. Choose the feature that the selected node is to be reorderedrelative to from the Reorder Before or Reorder After cascade menus.

Nodes may also be dragged and dropped in the Part Navigator window toperform a feature reorder. Multiple features may be selected by holding theCtrl key down during selection.

Group

Same as Format→Group Features. This option lets you group features intoa special collection called a Feature Set. Members of a Feature Set can becontrolled together during suppress, delete and move feature operations.Choosing Group causes the Sets of Features dialog to appear. The featuresincluded in the Feature Set can also be hidden so they do not show in the PartNavigator and can only be accessed under the Feature Set Name.

If you delete a Feature Set, all of its member features are also deleted.To delete a Feature Set without deleting its members, first removethe members from the set.

Replace

This allows a feature’s definition to be replaced or "redefined" by anotherfeature. For example, a surface that is used as a trim face could be replacedfor a different surface without having to delete or redefine several otherfeatures. For more information on replace see the technical documentation.

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Rename

This option allows you to append a user-defined name to the feature. The userdefined name will appear in addition to the system defined name in the PartNavigator (i.e. Simple Hole(6) “Alignment Hole”).

Delete

Deletes the selected feature (same as Edit→Delete).

Object Dependency Browser

The Object Dependency Browser allows the parent and child relationships ofa feature to be interrogated.

Information

Provides information about the selected feature in the Information window.

Properties

This option provides access to General and Attribute information for thefeature selected. General properties include the feature name, which can beedited similarly to the Rename function. Attributes can be added to anyfeature to include information which could be called out in a specified columnof the Part Navigator. For more information on feature attributes and PartNavigator columns see the technical documentation.

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Deleting FeaturesYou can delete features by selecting the feature and choosing Delete from theMB3 pop-up menu. The feature can be selected in the graphics window orPart Navigator.

If you choose the Delete icon from the Standard toolbar (or Edit→Delete), anicon options bar is displayed in upper left corner of the graphics window.Choosing the Features icon allows you to select features to delete

• When a feature is deleted from a body, the space it occupied or voided isfilled in exactly as it was before the feature was created.

• If a feature is mistakenly deleted, Undo (Edit→Undo List or Ctrl-Z) maybe used immediately after the deletion to restore the feature.

• Any features whose placement, not position, is dependent on the deletedfeature will also be deleted. For example, if a hole was created using adatum plane for its placement face, and the datum plane is deleted, thehole will also be deleted.

A Notification dialog will be displayed to warn you that other featureswill be affected. Choosing the Information button will list the dependentfeatures.

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Update FailuresWhen an edit is made to a feature, the model is updated (or rebuilt) toincorporate this change. Sometimes the edit may cause a failure in a featurethat occurs later in the model history. The Edit During Update dialog willappear if an update failure occurs and allow you to resolve the problem.

In the example below, an edit was made to a Shell feature that results in theremoval of an edge that is later blended. After the edit is made, the blendfails during the model update and the Edit During Update dialog appears.

The options that allow you to advance forward through the model history(Step, Step To, and Continue) are disabled until the failure is resolved and thefeature successfully updates. You may delete, suppress, or edit the currentfeature or step back and edit an earlier feature.

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Additional Edit During Update Options

Some of the options in the Edit During Update dialog apply specifically toupdate failures.

Accept — used to acknowledge a single warning message about a failedfeature (but not an error message) to allow the update to continue. Thefeature that fails is marked "out of date" in the Part Navigator.

The status of features may also be viewed by choosing Information→Feature.The features that are “out of date” are listed with a (!) in the Feature Browser.

Accept Remaining — acknowledges the update failures of the currentfeature as well as all subsequent features so that each warning message doesnot have to be accepted individually.

Show Failure Area — temporarily displays failed geometry. This option isavailable only if an object involved in the failure, such as a tool body, isavailable for display.

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Show Current Model — displays the part of the model that has beensuccessfully rebuilt.

For performance reasons, the display does not change during updatewhen an update method other than Show Current Model is used.After the model update has finished, the display is updated.

Post Recovery Update Status — specifies what should happen after an editis made during an update failure.

• Continue — restarts the automatic update process from where it left off.

• Pause — stops at the next feature after an edit is made and lets youchoose other Edit during Update options, rather than automaticallyresuming the update.

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Activity — Edit and Delete FeaturesIn this activity, you will edit the parameters of a feature, capture designintent by associating a positioning dimension to another feature, and delete afeature.

Step 1: Open the edit_feature_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Review the model.

Choose the Part Navigator icon from the resource bar.

Choose the push pin icon in the upper right corner topermanently display the Part Navigator.

Select some of the features in the Part Navigator and viewwhat highlights in the graphics window.

Step 4: Edit the width of the part.

Double-click the Extrude(4) feature in the Part Navigator.(Edit→Feature→Edit with Rollback)

The model “rolls back” to the state it was in when the Extrudefeature was created. The Extrude dialog is also displayed.

Change the End value to 2.75.

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Choose OK. (MB2)

After the update, the pad on the bottom is no longer centered.The design intent is that the pad should always remain in thecenter of the part.

This situation will be remedied in the next step.

Step 5: Edit a positioning dimension of the pad by selecting it in thegraphics window.

In the graphics window, place the cursor over the rectangularpad shown in the above figure (Rectangular Pad(7)) and chooseMB3→Edit Positioning.

Choose Edit Dimension Value.

In the graphics window, select the p29=1.560 expression.

To see the pad feature and expressions better, the view mayneed to be rotated.

Since the pad should always stay in the center of the part,keying in a simple equation will capture this aspect of thedesign intent.

Key in p11/2.

The expression p11 is the End value of the Extrude feature andcontrols the width of the part.

Choose MB2 three times.

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Step 6: Edit the width of the part.

In the graphics window, place the cursor over the Extrudefeature at the location as shown below.

Place the cursor over the Extrude feature at the location asshown below and choose MB3→Edit Parameters.

If you have difficulty selecting the feature, wait untilthe QuickPick indicator appears, click MB1 and selectExtrude(4) in the QuickPick dialog.

Change the End value to 5.00 and choose OK. (MB2)

Fit the view. (MB3→Fit)

The pad feature remains in the center of the block.

Step 7: Delete a feature.

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Place the cursor over the T Slot feature and chooseMB3→Delete.

A Notification dialog appears informing you that other featureswill be affected.

Choose Information from the dialog to list the other featuresthat will be deleted.

The three holes will be deleted because faces of the slot wereused as their placement face or thru face.

Close the Information window.

Choose OK.

The T Slot and the dependent hole features are removed.

Step 8: Close the part.

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Activity — Using the Update ToolIn this activity, you will make an edit to a feature which causes an updatefailure. You will resolve the problem using the Edit during Update dialog.

Step 1: Open the edit_feature_2 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Edit the width of the part.

Double-click the Extrude(4) feature in the Part Navigator.(Edit→Feature→Edit with Rollback)

Change the End value to 1.75.

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Choose OK (MB2).

The Edit during Update dialog appears.

The feature that has caused the failure to occur is shown in thegraphics window.

Choose Show Current Model.

The model appears in the graphics window relative to the new1.75 width value.

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Choose Show Failure Area.

The reason for the failure is now evident. The hole is positionedoutside the solid body.

Choose Edit in the Edit During Update dialog.

Choose Edit Position.

Choose Edit Dimension Value.

Select the p63=2.125 dimension from the graphics window.

Key in p11-.5 and choose OK (MB2) four times.

The hole is now located within the solid model and resolves theproblem. The update completes successfully.

Step 4: Close the part.

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Activity — Reordering Features with the Part NavigatorIn this activity, you will reorder features to see how this impacts the designof the part.

Step 1: Open the edit_reorder_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Review the model.

Choose the Part Navigator icon from the resource bar.

Choose the push pin icon in the upper right corner topermanently display the Part Navigator.

Select some of the features in the Part Navigator and viewwhat highlights in the graphics window.

Step 4: Reorder the Shell feature.

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Place the cursor over Shell(3) feature in the Part Navigator,press and hold down MB1, drag the feature just below Unite(5).

The hollow feature is reordered after the other extrudedfeature is united.

Press and hold down MB1 on Shell(5) and drag the featurejust below Blend(6).

Notice the sharp corners on the inside of the part.

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Press and hold down MB1 on Shell(6) and drag the featurejust below Blend(7).

Now there is a radius on the inside edges.

Step 5: Rename a Feature.

Select the Blend(5) feature in the Part Navigator and chooseMB3→Rename.

Key in Throat Blend and press Enter.

The new name is appended to the system-defined name in thePart Navigator. This can make the feature easier to identifywhen reordering or reviewing the model.

Step 6: Close the part.

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Editing the Model

Delaying Model Updates

Delayed Update After Edit

As more features are added to a model, the model will take longer to update.If you are making several minor edits to a complex model with many features,it may be beneficial to control when the model is updated. Instead of waitingfor the model to update after each edit, you can delay the updates until afterall edits are specified.

To delay model updates, choose Tools→Update→Delayed after Edit. If thisis an option that will be used often, you can add the Delayed Update afterEdit icon to the Edit Feature toolbar.

• If Delayed Update after Edit is off, the part is updated after thecompletion of each edit operation. This is the default setting.

• If Delayed Update after Edit is on, feature updates are delayed whileedits are made. For example, the positioning dimension of a feature maybe changed followed by an edit to the parameters of another featurewithout updating the model.

This option may not be used to delay a Delete, Suppress, or Unsuppressfeature operation.

Update Model

Once Delayed Update after Edit is enabled and edits are made, the UpdateModel option becomes available so that you can update the model when it isconvenient.

This option is accessed by choosing Tools→Update→Update Model. If thisis an option that will be used often you can add the Update icon to the EditFeature toolbar.

The model will be updated automatically when the part is saved.

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Move FeatureThe Move Feature option (Edit→Feature→Move) allows you to move a featurethat is not associatively positioned to a new location.

• This option excludes all swept features, relative datum features, andinstance arrays as well as features whose location has been constrainedusing positioning dimensions.

• Features whose position is determined by associative positioningdimensions must be moved by editing the positioning dimensions.

• Move Feature can be used to move a primitive that is used as the basefeature for the model.

DXC, DYC, DZC Moves the feature by specifying a rectangularcoordinates, based upon the Work CoordinateSystem. (Delta XC, Delta YC, and Delta ZC)

To a Point Moves the feature from a reference point to adestination point. The Point Constructor willbecome available during the operation to assistin the move.

Rotate Between TwoAxes

Rotate the feature from a reference axisorientation to a destination axis orientation abouta specified pivot point.

CSYS to CSYS Repositions the feature from a ReferenceCoordinate System to a Destination CoordinateSystem. The coordinate systems are defined byusing the CSYS Constructor.

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Reattaching a FeatureOne of the options available for editing under Edit Parameters is Reattach.Reattach allows the feature references of the feature to be redefined.

A feature reference may be an attachment face, a thru face, a target edge forpositioning, etc. Objects that may have their references redefined includemost form features (holes, pockets, grooves, pads, slots, and bosses), andlinear instance sets of these features, trim faces of extruded and revolvedfeatures, and user-defined features (UDFs).

In the example below, a pad feature and associated holes are reattached fromthe original placement face to a new face.

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Using the Reattach Dialog

The Reattach dialog only enables the options that pertain to the selectedfeature. For example, a feature must include a thru face for the SpecifyThru Face option to be enabled and must include one or more positioningdimensions for the Redefine Positioning Dimensions option to be enabled.

When an option is chosen, the existing references of the type in question arehighlighted. For example, if a thru slot is selected and the Specify First ThruFace icon is chosen, the current thru face for the slot is highlighted.

1 — Current positioning dimensions

2 — Reference direction type

3 — Change reference direction

4 — Change the normal direction

5 — Specify location of feature

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Reattach Options

The following options are available to redefine feature references:

Specify Target Placement Face — allows a new attachment face forthe feature being edited to be specified.

Specify Reference Direction — allows a new horizontal reference tobe specified for the feature being edited.

Redefine Positioning Dimensions — allows new positioningdimensions to be specified for the feature being edited.

Specify First Thru Face — allows the first through/trim face of thefeature being edited to be redefined.

Specify Second Thru face — allows the second through/trim face ofthe feature being edited to be redefined.

Specify Tool Placement Face — allows the tool face of a User DefinedFeature (UDF) to be redefined.

In addition, while using any of these redefine feature references options, thefollowing options on the Reattach dialog are available:

Filter — allows filtering of selectable object types including faces, datumplanes, edges, and datum axes. The default is All Types. The list of filteroptions available is dependent on the specific Reattach option icon chosen.

Positioning Dimensions — A list window displays the types of positioningdimensions currently on the selected feature. If MB1 is used to select adimension in this list, its available references are highlighted in the graphicswindow. Double-clicking with MB1 on a dimension in the list allows it tobe redefined.

Direction Reference — allows the definition of a new Horizontal or Verticalfeature reference. The default is always set for the existing reference type.

Reverse Direction — allows the feature’s reference direction to be reversed.

Reverse Side — allows the feature’s normal direction to be reversed whenreattaching that feature to a datum plane.

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Specify Origin — allows quick relocation of the reattached feature by movingit to a specified origin. This option is useful when reattaching features todatum planes. Since features are initially placed at the center of a plane, theupdate may fail since the plane’s center may not be near the feature’s actualposition. This option may be used with all features.

Delete Positioning Dimension — allows deletion of a selected positioningdimension. If a feature does not have any positioning dimensions, this optionis grayed out.

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Activity — Reattaching and Moving Features

In this activity, you will reattach a feature to a new placement face. You willalso move fixed datum features to change the orientation of an associatedbody.

Step 1: Open the edit_reattach_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Reattach the pad feature.

In the graphics window, place the cursor over the pad (Statusline should read Rectangular Pad(6)) and choose MB3→EditParameters.

Choose Reattach in the Edit Parameters dialog.

The Reattach dialog displays icons for the selection steps andother options for reattaching the feature. The icon for SpecifyTarget Placement Face is active.

The current placement face for the Rectangular Pad feature ishighlighted in the graphics window and the Cue line promptsyou to select a new target face.

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Select the right face of the solid (1).

The second icon, Specify Reference Direction, is active. Thecurrent horizontal reference is highlighted in the graphicswindow and the Cue line prompts you to select a newHorizontal Reference.

Select the lower edge of the face (2) as the horizontal reference.

The third icon, Redefine Positioning Dimensions, is active andthe Cue line prompts you to select a Dimension to Redefine.

Select the vertical positioning dimension from the graphicswindow (20.0).

Select the lower front edge (1) of the solid as the target object.

Select the bottom outside edge of the pad (2) feature as thetool edge.

Select the horizontal positioning dimension from the graphicswindow (30.0).

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Select the right vertical edge (1) of the solid as the TargetObject.

Select the right outside edge (2) of the pad feature as the tooledge.

Choose MB2 twice to complete the reattachment of the feature.

The holes also move with the pad because they are childfeatures of the pad. They were placed on a face of the pad andwere positioned relative to the edges of the pad.

The model was created by extruding a sketch. The XC-YCPlane option was chosen when the sketch was created soit is attached to a fixed datum plane and constrained tofixed datum axes.

Now, you have been informed that the sketch should be inthe YC-ZC plane so that part orientation is consistent witha standard product orientation used at your company. Thiscan be accomplished by moving the fixed datum features.The sketch and all of the other dependent features willmove with them.

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Step 4: Move the fixed datum features.

Make layer 21 selectable.

Choose Edit→Feature→Move.

Select the three fixed datum features in the Move Featuredialog. (Click and drag MB1 over all three features orCtrl-Select each feature.)

Choose OK. (MB2)

Choose Rotate Between Two Axes.

Choose Reset and OK to define the pivot point at 0,0,0.

Choose XC Axis as the reference axis.

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Choose ZC Axis as the reference axis.

The datum features and dependent features are rotated.

Step 5: Close the part.

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SummaryThe editing options provide robust capabilities to change design, form, fit, andfunction. Because parametric values can be accessed and edited, investmentof parametric design time is not wasted when the need for design changesoccur.

In this lesson you:

• Edited features to satisfy design intent.

• Deleted features.

• Used the Edit During Update dialog to resolve an update failure.

• Reordered features using the Part Navigator.

• Reattached a feature to a different placement face.

• Moved datum features

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Lesson

16 Instance Arrays

Purpose

This lesson is an introduction to Instance Arrays.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Create a Rectangular Array.

• Create a Circular Array.

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Instance Arrays

Instance FeatureYou can use the Instance Feature option to duplicate existing features andeliminate repetitive tasks when creating models. This option can be accessedby choosing the Instance Feature icon from the Feature Operation toolbar orby choosing Insert→Associative Copy→Instance from the menu bar.

An Instance is a shape linked feature, similar to a copy. The Instance not onlyduplicates the feature but preserves the parameters of the feature.

Since all instances of a feature are associated, the parameters of the originalfeature may be edited and the changes are reflected in every instance of thefeature. The instance itself is also a parametric feature so parameters suchas the number of instances and spacing may be edited.

The following Instance Types are available:

• Rectangular Array

• Circular Array

• Mirror Body (Not covered in this lesson)

• Mirror Feature (Not covered in this lesson)

• Pattern Face (Not covered in this lesson)

There are three Methods available for creating Rectangular and CircularInstance arrays:

• General

• Simple

• Identical

In most cases, the General method is sufficient. However, system performancemay be affected in complex models. Using the Simple method may increaseperformance and, in a worst case scenario, the Identical method may berequired.

Most Feature operations (such as Edge Blend, Chamfer, Shell, etc.)may not be instanced.

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Rectangular Instance Array

This option is used to create a linear array of instances from selectedfeature(s).

All rectangular arrays will be created in a plane parallel to the XC-YC plane.The position of the rectangular array will remain relative to the location ofthe feature that the array is based on. If the position of the original featurechanges, the position of the array will also change.

After selecting the feature(s) to be instanced, the following parameters mustbe specified:

• Number Along XC — The total number of instances in the XCdirection, including the original feature.

• XC Offset — The spacing between adjacent instances in the XCdirection.

• Number Along YC — The total number of instances in the YCdirection, including the original feature.

• YC Offset — The spacing between adjacent instances in the YCdirection.

The offset values can be either positive or negative.

The number of instances for both the XC and YC directions must be a wholenumber greater than zero.

1 — Hole selected for instance.

Number Along XC = 3

XC Offset = .75

Number Along YC = 4

YC Offset = 1

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Circular Instance Array

This option is used to create a circular array of instances from selectedfeature(s).

After selecting the feature(s) to be instanced, the following parameters mustbe specified:

• Number — The total number of instances in the circular array,including the existing feature.

• Angle — The angle between adjacent instances, measured about areference point.

Once the feature and parameters are specified, a rotation axis must bedefined. The circular instance array will be created in a plane normal to thisrotation axis. There are two ways to define a rotation axis:

• Datum Axis — An existing datum axis is selected. Associativity to thedatum axis is maintained. If the datum axis is later moved, the instancearray will move with it.

• Point & Direction — The Vector Constructor dialog is used to specify adirection and the Point Constructor dialog is used to specify a referencepoint. The selected features will be rotated about the reference point in aplane normal to the vector direction.

1 — Hole selected for instance.

2 — Reference Point (Arc Center)

3 — Vector Direction (+ZC)

Number = 8

Angle = 45

When using the Point & Direction option, positional associativityis not maintained. If geometry is used to define the referencepoint and vector direction and the geometry is later moved, thecircular array will not move with it.

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Activity — Rectangular Instance Array

In this activity, you will create a rectangular instance array of a hole feature.

There will be a total of six holes in the instance array. Two holes inthe XC direction and three holes in the YC direction.

Step 1: Open the instance_array_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Orient the WCS so that the XC-YC plane is parallel to the plane ofthe array.

Choose Format→WCS→Orient.

Choose X-Axis, Y-Axis.

Select the X–Axis (1) and Y–Axis (2) as shown.

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The proper WCS orientation is shown below.

Choose OK.

Step 4: Create a rectangular array of the hole feature.

Choose the Instance Feature icon.(Insert→Associative Copy→Instance)

Choose Rectangular Array.

Select Simple Hole(15). The feature may be selected from thegraphics window or from the Instance dialog.

Choose OK.

Key in the following parameters:

Method = GeneralNumber Along XC = 2XC Offset = 1.25Number Along YC = 3YC Offset = .687

Choose OK.

A preview of the instance array appears in the graphicswindow. Choosing Yes will create the instance as it is shown.Choosing No will return to the Enter Parameters dialog.

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Choose Yes.

Step 5: Close the part.

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Activity — Circular Instance Array

In this activity, you will create a circular instance array of multiple features.

The finished part will have four legs that are identical and are tobe equally spaced about center of the cylinder. The figure belowillustrates the “Before and After” model.

Step 1: Open the instance_array_2 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Create the Instance Feature.

Choose the Instance Feature icon.(Insert→Associative Copy→Instance)

Choose Circular Array.

Select the following five features from the Instance dialog:

Extrude(5)Boss(6)Boss(7)Extrude(9)Simple Hole(12)

Multiple features may be selected by pressing MB1,dragging over their names in the Instance dialog, andreleasing MB1.

Choose OK to confirm the selections.

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Key in the following parameters:

Method = GeneralNumber = 3Angle = 120

Choose OK.

The axis of rotation must be selected. Using a Datum Axismaintains positional associativity.

Choose Datum Axis.

Make layer 61 selectable.

Select the Datum Axis (1).

A preview of the instance array appears in the graphicswindow. For better performance, only the first feature selectedis previewed.

Choose Yes if the temporary display looks correct.

Step 4: Add a chamfer to an instanced hole feature.

Choose the Chamfer icon.(Insert→Detail Feature→Chamfer)

Key in the following parameters:

Input Option = Symmetric OffsetsOffset = 1.5Chamfer All Instances = ON

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Select the circular edge of any one of the instanced holes.Confirm the selection if necessary and choose OK.

Step 5: Edit the Instance array parameters.

Place the cursor over any of the instanced features and chooseMB3→Edit Parameters.

All options available for editing the selected feature aredisplayed. The options may vary depending on which featureis selected.

Choose Instance Array Dialog.

Key in the following parameters:

Method = GeneralNumber = 4Angle = 90

The Radius value is inferred by the distance from thearc center of the feature to the Datum Axis that wasselected as the Rotation Axis for the Circular Array.

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Choose OK three times to complete the edit (or MB2).

The part should now have four legs.

Step 6: Close the part.

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Activity (Optional) — Associativity of the Rotation Axis

In this activity, you will compare the positional associativity when the PointDirection and Datum Axis options are used to define the rotation axis of acircular instance array.

Step 1: Open the instance_array_3 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Investigate the model.

Choose the Part Navigator icon from the resource bar.

Choose the push pin icon in the upper right corner topermanently display the Part Navigator.

Choose the Layer Settings icon (Format→Layer Settings)and make the display of ALL layers Selectable.

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The model contains two identical hole patterns. The center holein each pattern is positioned associatively to the relative datumplanes in the part. The hole pattern on the left was created byspecifying a point in space and a vector as the rotation axis. Thepattern on the right was created by selecting a datum axis as therotation axis.

Step 4: Edit the model.

In the Part Navigator, double-click the Block(0) feature.

Choose Feature Dialog.

Key in the following parameters:

X Length = 5Y Length = 10Z Length = 1

Choose OK twice to update the model. (or MB2)

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The model updates to reflect the change. Notice that the holepattern on the left does not move with the datum planes andcenter hole but maintains the same position in absolute space.This is because the hole pattern was created with a non-associativereference point and direction vector.

The hole pattern on the right is associative to the datum axis thatwas used to define the rotation axis and updated accordingly.

Step 5: Close the part.

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Instance Arrays

SummaryThe Instance functionality duplicates existing features, eliminating repetitiveefforts in the creation of models.

In this lesson you:

• Created a Rectangular Instance Array.

• Created a Circular Instance Array.

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Lesson

17 The Master Model

Purpose

This lesson introduces the Master Model concept.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Review an existing Master Model.

• Edit a Master Model and update an associated non-master part.

• Create a new Master Model.

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The Master Model

The Assembly ModelerAn assembly is a part containing stored links to other part that are piecesof the assembly. The geometry that defines the piece parts of the assemblyresides in the original part only, there is no duplication in the assembly part.

A link in the assembly part is referred to as a component object. A componentobject stores information about the piece part such as its location, attributes,origin, orientation, permissions, degree of display, and its relationship toother parts.

The Master Model Concept

The Master Model Concept may be applied by simply creating an assemblyconsisting of one component part. It is valuable as a means of promotingconcurrent engineering. The person responsible for the design of a partmay not be the same person responsible for the downstream applicationsperformed on the part such as drafting, manufacturing, analysis, etc.

The Master Model Concept is also valuable in protecting the design intent ofthe part from inadvertent corruption by a downstream user. The downstreamuser will have write privileges to the assembly part, but only read privilegesto the model. The solid model is referenced for the application work, but thedownstream user will not have the ability to change it.

Because the application information in the assembly or non-master part isreferencing the original master model part, edits to the master model willbe updated in the non-master part.

Implementing the Master Model concept allows diverse yet dependent designprocesses to access the same master geometry during development. Theentire part creation process becomes more efficient, allowing many disciplinesto work at the same time and allowing master model edits to be automaticallyupdated in non-master parts.

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The Master Model

The power of implementing a Master Model is that the independent designprocesses are dependent on the same master geometry during development.

Drafting Assembly

Master Model

Analysis N/C

Each application uses a separate assembly part. When the Master Model isrevised, the other applications will automatically update with minimal orno associativity loss.

The design intent of the various design applications can be maintainedthrough protection of the Master Model.

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Master Model Example

Manufacturing engineers have the need to design fixture devices, definemachining operations, and designate cutter tools and save this data in theirmodels.

By creating a manufacturing "assembly" and adding a component to it, theycan then generate their application specific geometry or data in a separatepart which references the master geometry:

• This avoids duplication of model geometry

• Different users can work in separate parts simultaneously

abcd1234_mfg.prt

Non-master part owned bymanufacturing engineer. Containsmanufacturing data and a componentobject which references the master modelpart.

abcd1234.prt

Owned by designer. Containsmaster model geometry.

The manufacturing engineer owns the assembly part but does not necessarilyhave write access to the master model which is owned by the designer.

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Activity — Exploring a Master Model Assembly

In this activity, you will identify the advantages of using a master model.

Step 1: Open the mm_tapedisp_dwg part.

Choose the Open icon. (File→Open)

Choose Options.

Verify the Load Method is set to From Directory in the LoadOptions dialog and choose OK.

Choose the mm_tapedisp_dwg part and OK.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application. (Start→Drafting)

Step 3: Inspect the drawing for dimensional values.

Zoom in on section view A-A and note the slot width of .88 (1)and the corner radius of .13 (2). Both dimensions have beenrounded from the model dimensions to two decimal places.

Fit the view and note the drawing name, SH1, at the lowerleft corner. (MB3→Fit)

Step 4: Investigate the model.

Start the Modeling application. (Start→Modeling)

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Choose Information→Feature and note that there are nofeatures.

Choose Tools→Expression and note that there are noexpressions.

Cancel the Expressions dialog.

Choose Assemblies→Reports→List Components.

The Information window appears showing the assemblystructure for mm_tapedisp_dwg and indicates that there isone component named mm_tapedisp. This part contains theMaster Model definition.

Component Report

Components of C:\parts\mm_tapedisp_dwg.prt

Part Name Ref Set Name Component Namemm_tapedisp SOLID MM_TAPE_DISP

Close the Information window.

Step 5: Examine the display.

Choose Information→Object.

Place the cursor over the solid body. When the cursor changesto a QuickPick indicator, choose MB1.

The QuickPick window lists each selectable object and the partin which it resides.

Choose Solid Body in MM_TAPE_DISP in the QuickPick list.

Choose OK. (MB2)

The Information window appears with information regardingthe solid, its owning part, and confirmation that it is acomponent.

Information on object # 1

Owning part C:\parts\mm_tapedisp_dwg.prtComp member in part C:\parts\mm_tapedisp.prtLayer 1, inherited from component

Close the Information window.

Step 6: Open the Master Model part.

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Choose the Open icon. (File→Open)

Choose the mm_tapedisp part and OK.

Step 7: Edit the expression for Roll_width.

Choose Tools→Expression.

Changed the Listed Expressions option to Named.

Select the Roll_width expression.

Change the .875 Formula to .75 and choose OK.

The opening for the tape roll changes in width to accommodatethe modified dimension.

Step 8: Edit the blend on the inside of the spool cavity.

Activate the Part Navigator from the resource bar.

Double-click the Blend(21) feature.

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Key in a new value of .06 for the radius (Set1 R).

Choose OK. (or MB2 twice)

Step 9: Change the Displayed Part to mm_tapedisp_dwg.

Choose Window→mm_tapedisp_dwg to change the DisplayedPart.

Start the Drafting application. (Start→Drafting)

Notice the drawing name now shows (OUT-OF-DATE) toremind you the views are not updated.

Step 10: Update the drawing.

Choose the Update Views icon in the Drawing Layouttoolbar. (Edit→View→Update Views)

Choose All in the Update Views dialog and choose OK.

Step 11: Zoom in on section A-A again to see the changes to the mastermodel reflected on the drawing

Step 12: Close all parts. (File→Close→All Parts)

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The Master Model

Activity — Creating a Non-Master Part

In this activity, you will create a new non-master part which references anexisting master model.

Step 1: Open the mm_master_1 part.

Step 2: Start the Modeling application.

Step 3: Verify the Assemblies application is turned on.(Choose Start→Assemblies if it is not already on).

Step 4: Create the non-master part.

Choose the Create New Parent icon.(Assemblies→Components→Create New Parent)

Key in ***_master_1_dwg where *** represents your initials.

Choose OK.

Step 5: Open the Assembly Navigator and verify the assembly structure.

Step 6: Close all parts. (File→Close→All Parts)

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SummaryThis Master Model approach offers many benefits. Master model parts maybe write-protected and owned by one user or group yet the data can be sharedwith other users or groups. Downstream users can access the latest data andincorporate updates as the part is being developed.

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Lesson

18 Introduction to Drafting

Purpose

This lesson will introduce the Drafting application.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Open, Create, and Delete drawings.

• Add, Edit, and Remove Views on Drawings.

• Modify Preferences.

• Create Utility Symbols.

• Create Dimensions.

• Create Annotations.

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Working with DrawingsYou can use the Drafting application to quickly create drawings of 3D parts.Drawings are populated with views that do not need to be defined beforethe views are placed on the drawing.

Some of the benefits of the Drafting application are:

• You can add views to the drawing just by indicating their location withthe cursor.

• When you add orthographic views, they will automatically be aligned withthe parent view as you create them.

• Every view is fully associated with the solid. If the solid is updated, theviews will also be updated.

• Drafting annotation is placed directly on the drawing.

• Drafting annotation (dimensions, labels, and symbols with leaders) isfully associative to the geometry you select, and will update automaticallyif there are changes in the solid model.

• Fully associative view boundaries are automatically calculated when thedrawing is updated.

• Section views are fully associative to the solid model.

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Creating New Drawing Sheets

Upon entering the Drafting application, you will either see an existingdrawing, or—if there are no drawing sheets in the part yet—you will be giventhe Insert Sheet dialog so that you can specify the parameters for a newdrawing sheet.

To create a new drawing sheet, define the drawing parameters: drawing sheetname, size, scale, units of measure and projection angle. Once the desiredparameters have been set, choosing OK replaces the current display with aview of the new drawing of the specified size.

There are a few different ways to create a new drawing sheet in a part thatalready contains drawing sheets.

• Choose the New Sheet icon in the Drawing Layout toolbar.

• Choose Insert→Sheet from the menu bar.

• Use MB3 over the drawing node in the Part Navigator and chooseInsert Sheet from the pop-up menu.

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Opening a Drawing

There are a few ways to open a drawing:

• In the Part Navigator, double click the sheet name or, use MB3 over thedrawing sheet node and choose Open from the pop-up menu.

• Choose the Open Sheet icon and select the sheet name from a list.

• Choose Format→Open Sheet and select the sheet name from a list.

To open a drawing, select from a list of previously created drawings. Youcan either select the desired drawing name from the list or enter a specificdrawing name in the Drawing Sheet Name text field.

If there are multiple drawings in the part, you can filter the list to include aspecific series of drawings.

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Editing a Drawing

In NX, the term "drawing" is used to define a collection of views. Think ofeach drawing as a separate page in the part. One part can contain manypages, in other words, many drawings.

To edit a drawing, you can:

• Choose the Sheet icon in the Drafting Edit toolbar.

• Choose Edit→Sheet.

• Use MB3 in the Part Navigator to highlight the drawing sheet and chooseEdit Sheet from the pop-up menu.

• Select the dashed-line border of a drawing sheet with MB3 to access thepop-up menu and choose Edit Sheet.

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The current state of the displayed drawing affects the options that areavailable. You should be aware of the following:

• The projection angle can only be changed if no projected views exist onthe current drawing being modified.

• You can edit the drawing to a larger or smaller size. You can even edit thedrawing to a size small enough so that a portion of a view falls outsidethe boundary of the drawing. However, if you edit the drawing to a sizeso small that a member view falls entirely outside the boundary of thedrawing, you will get an error message.

• If you need to edit the drawing to a smaller size, but cannot due to thecurrent position of the views, you will first have to move the views closerto the drawing’s origin at the lower left corner of the drawing.

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Deleting a Drawing

There are a few different ways to delete a drawing sheet:

• Choose Edit→Delete Sheet.

A Delete Sheet dialog lists of drawings eligible for deletion. The name ofthe current drawing sheet will not be in the list and cannot be deletedusing the dialog.

• Select the dashed-line border of the drawing sheet with MB3 then chooseDelete from the pop-up menu. This will delete the current drawing sheet.

• In the Part Navigator, select the drawing node with MB3 and chooseDelete.

• Choose the Delete Sheet icon from the Drawing Layout toolbar.

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Activity — Creating New Drawing Sheets

In this activity, you will create new drawing sheets in an existing part thathas no drawing sheets.

Step 1: Open the drafting_arm_1_dwg part.

This is a non-master part. The master model part (drafting_arm_1)was added as a component.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application and create a new drawing sheet.

Start the Drafting application. (Start→Drafting)

Because there are no existing drawing sheets in this part, theInsert Sheet dialog appears.

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Verify the following settings in the Insert Sheet dialog.

• Default drawing name is set to SH1.

• Inches option is on.

• Default drawing size is set to E - 34 X 44.

• Scale is set to 1:1 (1 over 1).

• Projection is set to 3rd Angle Projection.

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Choose OK.

In the graphics window, the dashed lines define the border ofthe new E size drawing sheet. The name of the drawing sheetappears in the lower left hand corner.

Step 3: Add another drawing sheet.

Choose the New Sheet icon from the Drawing Layouttoolbar. (Insert→Sheet)

Verify that the default drawing name is set to SH2.

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Choose OK to accept the defaults.

The name in the lower left corner of the graphics windowshows that you have created a second drawing sheet. The PartNavigator will also list the existing drawing sheets in the part.

Step 4: Close all parts.

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Activity — Opening and Editing Drawing Sheets

In this activity, you will open and edit existing drawing sheets.

Step 1: Open the drafting_edit_1_dwg part.

This is a non-master part. The master model part (drafting_edit_1)was added as a component.

The drawing sheet 93A12345–3 is displayed.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application. (Start→Drafting)

Step 3: Change the current drawing size.

In the graphics window, place the cursor over the dashedborder of the drawing sheet and choose MB3→Edit Sheet.

Choose the standard drawing size of A1 - 594 x 841.

Choose Apply.

The drawing changes to display the new size.

Step 4: Change the current drawing scale.

The drawing scale establishes the default scale of all drawingviews on the sheet. It is represented in a fractional format withtwo text fields arranged as a numerator and denominator.

The drawing is currently displaying the views at 1/2 full size (1 inthe top scale field and 2 in the bottom scale field).

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In this case you want every view on this drawing sheet to displaythe part full size.

Leave the upper Scale field set to 1. Change the lower Scalefield to 1, then choose OK.

All the views that are present on the drawing assume the newscale. The positions of the drawing views do not change withthe scale.

Step 5: Open the SH1 drawing sheet.

Open the Part Navigator .

Double-click the Sheet “SH1” node in the Part Navigator(MB3→Open).

Drawing sheet SH1 is displayed in the graphics window.

Step 6: Rename the current drawing.

In the Part Navigator, place the cursor over the drawing sheetSheet “SH1” and choose MB3→Rename.

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Key in Trimetric and press Enter.

You can also rename the current drawing sheet byplacing the cursor over the drawing border, choosingMB3→Properties, and keying in a new name.

Step 7: Close all parts.

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Drawing Monochrome Display

Monochrome displays a drawing in a single color. You may specify the lineand background colors.

You can use the Monochrome Display option by:

• Choosing Preferences→Visualization and then choose the Color Settingstab.

Then turn the Monochrome Display option on in the Drawing PartSettings section.

The four color selections become active.

The default colors for the foreground and background are black and graybut any color may be selected.

The Show Widths option displays line widths.

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• In the Part Navigator, place the cursor over the drawing sheet node anduse MB3 to select Monochrome from the pop-up menu.

The Monochrome Display will take on the color selections alreadydefined through the Visualization Preferences dialog.

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View PreferencesThe display of views is controlled by choosing the View Preferences icon orPreferences→View.

You can then use the View Preferences dialog to define the display of hiddenlines, silhouettes, smooth edges, as well as section view background lines, etc.

The Centerlines option automatically creates linear, cylindrical, andbolt circle centerlines for views where the axis of the cylindrical face isperpendicular or parallel to the plane of the drawing sheet.

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Hidden Lines

If you turn the Hidden Line option off, Hidden Line is not performed and allhidden lines in the view will appear as solid lines.

If you turn the Hidden Line option on, the color, font, and width of the hiddenlines are determined by the settings in the Color/Font/Width menus.

The color option is not applicable in Monochrome mode.Widths are displayed only if Show Widths is turned on in thePreferences→Visualization dialog.

Edges Hidden By Edges

The Edges Hidden By Edges option controls the display of edges which arehidden by other overlapping edges. If this option is turned off, edges hiddenby other edges are erased from the view.

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Smooth Edges

Smooth edges are those whose adjacent faces have the same surface tangentat the edge where they meet.

If you turn the Smooth Edges option on, you can use the Color/Font/Widthsettings to specify their appearance. You can also use the End Gaps option tovary the edge intersection appearance.

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Virtual Intersections

The Virtual Intersections option allows you to display imaginary intersectioncurves as required by the JIS standard (section 6.13) and the ISO 128-1982standard (section 5.2.2). The Virtual Intersections option is used when youwant to display the curves in a member view that show where blended facestheoretically intersect. The color, font, and width of virtual intersections canbe controlled when the Virtual Intersections option is turned on.

The virtual intersection curves only display if the original surfacesjoined or intersected before they were blended.

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Adding a Base ViewThe first view to add to a drawing is the Base View. Other views will beprojected from the base view. A drawing can have more than one base view.

There are several ways to add a base view.

• In the graphics window, place the cursor over the dashed line thatrepresents the drawing border and choose Add Base View from the MB3pop-up menu.

Add Base View is the default option (bold) in the pop-up menu.So, the base view can be added simply by double-clicking on thedrawing border.

• In the Part Navigator, select a drawing sheet node and choose Add BaseView from the MB3 pop-up menu.

• Choose the Add Base View icon in the Drawing Layout toolbar.

• Choose Insert→View→Base View.

When using any of these methods, click in the graphics window to place thebase view on the drawing.

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View Creation Options Bar

After choosing Add Base View option, the View Creations Option Bar appearsin the upper left corner of the graphics window.

1 Style — Provides the same set of parameters as the View Preferencesoption. However, when these options are set from this toolbar they arespecific to the view that is being placed on the drawing.

2 View— Determines the orientation of the base view. A pull-down menulist the canned views and any custom views that have been created.

3 Scale— Provides a means to set the scale of the base view. A pull-downmenu list several preset scales as well as the options to enter a customscale or define the scale by an expression.

4 Orient View Tool — Provides a means to orient a view to a orientationthat is not listed in the View pull-down menu.

5 Move View — This option only appears on the toolbar if there isalready a view on the drawing. This option allows you to move existingviews during the operation of adding a new view.

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Orient View Tool

When the Orient View Tool is selected a preview screen is presented alongwith several options to orient the model as desired.

1 – Rotation Tool 4 – Associative Orientation2 – View Plane Tool 5 – Reset3 – Horizontal Direction 6 – Reverse Direction

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Adding Projected ViewsImmediately after placing a base view on the drawing, you may create aprojected view from the base view by moving the cursor off the base view.

A projected view may also be created from a view that has been previouslyplaced on the drawing. This is accomplished by placing the cursor over aview’s border, when it highlights click MB3, from the pop-up menu chooseAdd Projected View.

Projection Lines

Once the cursor is moved off the base view the system displays projectionlines. The view may be projected at any angle from the base view however,the system will snap at 45° increments.

Preview

As you move the cursor around on the drawing the new view may bepreviewed as a view border, wireframe, Hidden Wireframe, or shaded image.To select a preview option click MB3 and choose Preview Style.

1 — Projection lines

2 — Border preview of new projected view.

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View Creation Options Bar

During the creation of a projected view the View Creation Options Bar isdisplayed in the upper left corner of the graphics screen with several differentoptions. Displayed below the bar is the Offset dynamic input box.

1 Style — Provides the same set of parameters as the View Preferencesoption. If this option is not used the new view will inherit the style ofits parent view.

2 Base View — Allow you to choose a different base view then originallyselected.

3 Hinge Line — Used to define and associative projection. The projectedview is 90° to the defined hinge line.

4 Vector Constructor — Pull-down becomes active if Hinge Line hasbeen selected.

5 Reverse Direction — Changes the projection direction from the hingeline.

6 Move View — Allows you to move existing views during the operationof adding a new view.

7 Offset — Value is used to space the projected view fromthe parent view. The value is applied from the center ofthe views. The input box is made active by choosingMB3→Cursor Tracking while adding a projected view.

To apply a value: Key in the value and press Enter.

To Reset: Press Backspace and then Enter.

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Editing Existing Views

Editing Style

The style of an existing view may be changed by:

• Double-clicking on the view border or choosing MB3→Style on the viewborder.

• Double-clicking or choosing MB3→Style on the drawing view node inthe Part Navigator.

• Choose Edit→Style.

Moving Views

A view may be dragged around the drawing by placing the cursor over the

border of the view, when the cursor changes to drag mode, hold MB1down and move the view as required. As you move the view in proximity toanother view, alignment lines will appear to aid in the positioning of theview. The alignment lines will appear relative to the top, bottom, left, right,or center of the view.

If you select more than one view, they can all be moved simultaneously.

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Removing Views From a DrawingTo remove views from a drawing, you can:

• Select the view border with MB3; choose Delete from the pop-up menu.

• Use MB3 in the Part Navigator to highlight the view to be removed, andselect Delete from the pop-up menu.

• Choose the Delete icon and select the view.

• Choose Edit→Delete and select the view.

Once a view is removed from a drawing, all drafting objects or viewmodifications associated to that view are deleted.

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Activity — Adding Views to a DrawingIn this activity, you will adding a base view and projected views to a drawing.

Step 1: Open the drafting_bearing_mount_dwg part.

This is a non-master part. The master model part(drafting_bearing_mount) was added as a component.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application.

Step 3: Add a Base View.

Place the cursor over the edge of the drawing border anddouble-click.

The View Creations Option Bar appears and the top view isselected by default. You will use this view for the base view.

Click MB3 and choose Preview Style→Wireframe.

Choose the Style icon in the View Creations Option Bar.

Choose the General tab.

Verify that Centerlines is checked and key in a scale of .5.

Choose the Hidden Lines tab.

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Verify that Hidden Line is checked and the font is set toInvisible.

Choose OK.

Locate the view in the upper left corner of the drawing byclicking MB1.

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Step 4: Project a Front view.

Move the cursor straight below the base view so that thealignment line is vertical.

Locate the view in the bottom left corner of the drawing byclicking MB1.

Press MB2 to exit the Add Projected View function.

Step 5: Project a Right view off the Front view.

Place the cursor over the Front view’s border; it becomeshighlighted.

Click MB3 and choose Add Projected View.

Move the cursor to the right of the Front view so that thealignment line is horizontal.

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Locate the view in the bottom right corner of the drawing byclicking MB1.

Press MB2.

Step 6: Project an auxiliary view.

Place the cursor over the Right view’s border.

Click MB3 and choose Add Projected View.

Move the cursor around the Right view from the 12:00 to the9:00 position.

Notice that at approximately the 10:00 position, a face in theTop and Front views highlight as well as the correspondingedge in the Right view. If you select a location with these faceshighlighted you will create a true auxiliary view of that face.

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Select a location as shown below.

Press MB2 to exit.

In some cases, you may have to explicitly define a hingeline for an auxiliary view. You can do this by choosing theHinge Line option from the View Creation Options Barand selecting an edge of the part.

Step 7: Close all parts.

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Utility SymbolsThe Utility Symbols option creates various centerlines, offset center points,target points, and intersection symbols.

When you choose the Utility Symbol icon (or Insert→Symbol→UtilitySymbol), the Utility Symbols dialog displays. This dialog allows you tospecify settings that control the utility symbol as you create it. You can alsouse this dialog to modify existing symbols.

The Utility Symbols dialog consistsof four areas:

1 — Symbol Icons

2 — Point Position Options

3 — Symbol Display Parameters

4 — Preference Options

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Point Position Options

You can determine a symbol’s placement by selecting an object (or objects)from which to create the utility symbol. When you select an object, the systemevaluates the desired location relative to that object based upon the settingof the position option.

1 — Control Point

2 — Intersection Point

3 — Arc Center

4 — Cylindrical Face

5 — Screen Position

You can select up to 100 points to define a linear centerline, circularcenterline or bolt circle.

The Cylindrical Face option allows you to place cylindrical or symmetricalcenterlines by choosing the desired cylindrical or conical face, even if it ishidden inside the solid.

Multiple Centerlines

This option, when turned on, allows you to create multiple linear orcylindrical centerline symbols without having to choose Apply after eachobject is selected.

You can only apply multiple cylindrical centerlines when the point positionoption is set to Cylindrical Face. That’s because the system assumes thecylindrical objects are all oriented in the same manner and are of the samelength.

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Using the Inherit Option

You can set the symbol preferences by choosing the Inherit option. Thisallows you to select an existing symbol from which to inherit preferences.When the symbol is selected, the preferences matching those of the selectedsymbol will be set in the dialog and will be used to create a new symbol.

Inherit can also be used to edit the display of an existing symbol. To do this,you would select the symbol you intend to edit, choose Inherit, then selectthe symbol whose preferences you wish to see reflected in the first. The newsettings will be displayed in the dialog. Choose Apply to perform the edit.

Using the Default Option

The Default option resets the preferences to the customer default settings.You can use this option to set the preferences before creating a new symbol orto edit an existing symbol.

To edit an existing symbol, select the symbol and choose Default. The defaultsettings will be displayed in the dialog. Choose Apply to update the symbol.

Associativity of Utility Symbols

A utility symbol’s placement is controlled by a position on an object. Thesystem will automatically size the symbol components to the objects selectedto create it, based upon the local preference settings.

Deleting Utility Symbols

You can delete a utility symbol by selecting the symbol from the graphicswindow and choose the Delete icon. (Edit→Delete)

The symbols can be selected at any position. When you delete a utilitysymbol, any associated objects such as dimensions are also deleted unless theRetain Annotation option in Preferences→Drafting is turned on.

Adding Automatic Centerlines

Automatic center lines may be added to a view after its creation. The hole orpin axis must be either perpendicular or parallel to the plane of the drawingview

To apply automatic center lines:

• Choose Insert→Symbol→Utility Symbol.

• Choose Automatic Centerline.

• Select the view and choose Apply.

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Creating a Linear Centerline

A linear centerline is a straight line that passes through selected points orarcs, with a perpendicular line through each position. A linear centerline thatpasses through a single point or arc is called a simple centerline.

To create a linear centerline, select the Linear Centerline icon, set the pointposition option if needed, select relative objects, and select Apply or OK.

The following associativity rules apply to linear centerlines:

• If the linear centerline contains two associated points, repositioning ordeleting one of those points results in an automatic resize and update ofthe linear centerline.

• If the linear centerline contains three or more associated points and apoint is removed from the centerline, that point is disassociated fromthe centerline.

• If the linear centerline contains three or more associated points and allthe associated points are moved, the centerline is automatically resizedand updated. If all of the points are deleted, the centerline is also deleted,depending on the Retained Annotation status.

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Activity — Creating a Linear Centerline

In this activity, you will create a linear centerline.

Step 1: Open the drafting_sym1_dwg part.

This is a non-master part. The master model part (drafting_sym1)was added as a component.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application. (Start→Drafting)

Step 3: Verify that the work layer is 101. (Format→Layer Settings)

Step 4: Create a simple centerline.

Choose the Utility Symbol icon.(Insert→Symbol→Utility Symbol)

Choose the Linear Centerline icon.

Set the Point Position option to Arc Center.

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Select the single hole at the right end of the bar.

If you select the wrong point for the symbol position,choose the icon again to deselect the object and startover.

Choose Apply to create the centerline (Ctrl-MB2).

Step 5: Create a linear centerline through multiple points.

A linear centerline is created if you select multiple collinear holes.

Verify Multiple Centerlines is turned off.

Select both of the outer circles of the counterbored holes.

The size of the symbol components is determined by the objectsselected. The linear centerline would display with a different sizeif the inner circles had been selected.

Choose Apply (Ctrl-MB2).

Any holes selected that are not collinear will not be added to thesymbol.

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If a point is selected that is not collinear, the following errormessage will appear.

Step 6: Close all parts.

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Manually Creating a Cylindrical Centerline

You can create a cylindrical centerline that conforms to ANSI Y14.2 standardsthrough points, arcs or cylindrical faces. The objects used to create cylindricalcenterlines are defined by the Position Option.

1 — Control Point

2 — Intersection Point

3 — Arc Center

4 — Cylindrical Face

5 — Screen Position

The Cylindrical Face position option allows you to choose a cylindrical orconical face of a feature for placement.

Point position options allow you to create a centerline associated to objectsother than cylinders.

The following associativity rules apply to cylindrical centerlines:

• A cylindrical centerline must be associated to two point positions.

• A cylindrical centerline is updated when the data to which it is associatedis moved or resized.

• If one of the objects to which a cylindrical centerline is associated isdeleted, the centerline will also be deleted.

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Activity — Creating a Cylindrical Centerline

In this activity, you will create cylindrical centerlines using both the ArcCenter and Cylindrical Face options.

Step 1: Open the drafting_sym4_dwg part.

This is a non-master part. The master model part (drafting_sym4)was added as a component.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application. (Start→Drafting)

Step 3: Change the work layer to 101. (Format→Layer Settings)

Step 4: Create a Cylindrical Centerline symbol.

Choose the Utility Symbol icon.(Insert→Symbol→Utility Symbol)

Select the Cylindrical Centerline icon.

Set the Point Position option to Arc Center.

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Select two arc center locations for each of the three centerlineplacements shown below:

1 — Select this pair of edges.

2 — Select this pair of edges.

3 — Select this pair of edges, confirming your selections ifneeded.

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The resulting cylindrical centerlines are shown.

When creating cylindrical centerlines, you may not always beable to use the Arc Center point position option. The larger holedepicted in the section view is partially hidden. Since you cannotsee the left edge of the hole in this view, you would not be ableto select it.

In the orthographic view, you will find it impossible to select theright hand edge of a small hole without picking the center of thelarger outside edge of the part instead.

In this case, the Cylindrical Face option can be used to select acylindrical or conical face of a feature for placement of a centerlinesymbol.

Step 5: Create a centerline symbol using the Cylindrical Face option.

Continue using the Cylindrical Centerline icon.

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Change the Point Position option to Cylindrical Face.

Place your cursor over the cylindrical face as shown and selectthe face using MB1.

Indicate end points 1 and 2 of the cylindrical centerline, usingcursor locations as shown. The indicated end points areprojected to the axis of the cylindrical face, and two draftingpoints are created that are associated to the selected face.

When creating centerlines using the CylindricalFace option, the local display parameter valuesthat determine the symbol past part distances aredisregarded.

Step 6: Close all parts.

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DimensionsThe various dimensions types may be accessed two different ways.

• Choose Insert→Dimension and then choose the desired dimension type.

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• Use the Dimensions toolbar. This toolbar offers a menu of the availabledimension types.

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Annotation Preferences

Dimensions may be displayed in many different ways. Some of the settingsare for appearance, i.e. extension line and arrowhead. Other settings conveythe value of the dimension, i.e. the number of decimal places used to definetolerance. In general most of the dimensions will share the same appearance.The Annotation Preferences dialog is used to capture those global settings.

The Annotation Preferences dialog is activated by choosingPreferences→Annotation or by choosing the Annotations Preferences icon.

The following tabs apply to dimensions:

• Dimensions — Controls the display of extension lines and arrows,orientation of text, precision and tolerance, chamfer dimensions, andnarrow dimensions.

• Line/Arrow— Controls the style and size of leaders, arrows, and extensionlines for both dimensions and other annotations. A preview area providesa rendition of the symbol with leaders and dimensions.

• Lettering — Controls the alignment, justification, size, and font of text.

• Units — Controls the desired unit of measure for dimensions and whetherdimensions are created in single or dual dimension format.

• Radial — Controls the settings that are unique to diameter and radiusdimensions.

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Dimension Preferences and Placement

Once a dimension type is selected, a Dimension icon option bar will appearin the upper left corner of the graphics window.

This option bar accesses many of the same settings found in the AnnotationPreferences dialog that apply to dimensions. However, when changes aremade with this option bar, they only affect the dimensions being created inthe current operation and do not change the global preference settings. Thesettings will return to the global condition when you exit dimension creationor choose Reset (5).

1 – Style 4 – Annotation2 – Precision (decimal places) 5 – Reset3 – Tolerance Type

Annotation Placement Toolbar

The Annotation Placement toolbar also appears when creating dimensions tohelp control the placement of the dimension.

1 – Leader Type2 – Leader Placement3 – Opens the Create Leader dialog4 – Associate Origin with Helper Lines5 – Alignment Position6 – Opens the Origin Tool dialog7 – Annotation Plane

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The Snap Point Toolbar

The Snap Point toolbar will be available when creating dimensions.

This toolbar acts as a filter for selecting points on parts. You can turn icons on(highlighted) or off in order to limit your selection to specific types of points.

The Two Pick Intersection icon (at the right end of the toolbar) will let youselect any two edges whose intersection you cannot get within the select ball.(When you turn it on, all of the other icons will be grayed out.)

The Escape Key

You can press the Escape key at any time to release all selected objects. It isoften quicker than using Shift+Select.

Placement Cues for Dimensions

As you create dimensions it is now very simple to align the dimension with anexisting dimension. To help you do this, the system will provide graphicalcues whenever the origins of the dimensions line up.

As you begin to locate the dimension, pass the cursor over the existingdimension that you want to align to. Whenever the placement image ofthe new dimension is aligned horizontally or vertically with the existingdimension (or other annotation), you will get a dashed help line.

If you want the new dimension associated with the existing dimension, make

sure the Associate Origin with Helper Lines icon is turned on (It is onby default).

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Appended Text

Text may be appended to a dimension while you are creating it.

If you want only one line of appended text, you can select the object(s) todimension and, prior to locating the dimension, choose one of the AppendedText options in the MB3 pop-up menu.

You may also use the right (after), left (before), up (above), or down(below) arrow key on the keyboard instead of the MB3 pop-up options.

If the text is more complex, you will need to use the Annotation Editor dialog.You can access the Annotation Editor from the interactive toolbar at anytime, or you can access it after selection of objects (and before locating thedimension) by using MB3.

To add appended text to a previously created dimension that does not alreadyhave appended text, you can:

• Double-click on the dimension, and then use the Annotation Editor iconin the interactive toolbar.

• Double-click on the dimension and then use the right (after), left (before),up (above), or down (below) arrow key on the keyboard to get the appendedtext location you desire. Key in the text and press Enter.

• Double-click on the dimension, and then use MB3 to choose eitherAppended Text (for a single line of text), or Annotation Editor (for morecomplex text).

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To edit existing appended text, you can:

• Double-click on the appended text.

• Double-click on the dimension and then use the right (after), left (before),up (above), or down (below) arrow key on the keyboard to get the appendedtext location you desire.

• Select the dimension, and then use MB3 on the appended text. You getthe following menu:

the Edit Appended Text option will access the Annotation Editor dialog.

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Tolerances

There are several ways to add or edit tolerances.

Prior to creating a dimension (after choosing a dimension icon), you canchoose the Tolerance icon on the interactive toolbar, and set the desiredtolerance type. The Tolerance Values icon is then added to the toolbar. Chooseit and enter the desired values.

While creating a dimension (after selecting the object to dimension), you can:

• Set the tolerance type by choosing either MB3→Tolerance Type or theTolerance Type icon.

• Set the desired tolerance values by choosing either MB3→Tolerance orthe Tolerance Values icon.

Tolerance Type

Tolerance Values

To add a tolerance later, you can select the dimension and use the methodsshown above.

To edit a tolerance later, you can use one of the following three methods:

• Select the tolerance with MB3→Edit.

• Double-click on the tolerance.

• Double-click on the dimension to access the dimension bar (in the upperleft corner of the graphics screen).

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Text Orientation and Text Arrow Placement

To set the Text Arrow Placement or the Text Orientation while creating adimension, use MB3 before locating the text. You get the following menu:

Horizontal

Aligned

Text Over Dim. Line

Perpendicular

Text at Angle

Automatic

Arrows Out

Arrows In

To change Text Orientation or Text Arrow Placement of an existingdimension, double–click on the dimension, and then use MB3. You will getthe same menu as shown above.

Moving a Dimension

To change the origin of an existing dimension, simply drag it with MB1,without any function active.

The cursor will change to when you are in the move mode.

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Editing an Existing Dimension

There are two possible pop-up menus that can be displayed when workingwith an existing dimension.

• One pop-up menu appears when selecting a dimension (outside ofdimension creation) with MB3.

• The other pop–up menu appears when you double-click with MB1 onan existing dimension (while in or outside of the dimension function)and then click MB3.

When you access this pop–up menu, the dimension bar also appears inthe upper left hand corner.

The cursor will change to indicate that you are in the editing mode.

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If you again double-click (with MB1) on the selected dimension, you willaccess the Dimension Style dialog.

Changing the Precision of a Dimension

There are a few ways to change the precision of an existing dimension. Afterdouble-clicking on the dimension:

• Choose MB3→Nominal Precision.

• Choose the precision from the icon option bar.

• Press the number on the keyboard.

Inheriting Preferences from an Existing Dimension

After a dimension has been created, to edit its preference setting to that ofanother existing dimension:

• Double-click (with MB1) on the dimension that is to change.

• Click MB3 on the dimension and choose Inherit.

• Select the dimension that has the desired preference settings.

Deleting Dimensions

You can use the dimension pop-up menu to delete a dimension or you canselect the dimension(s) to delete, and use the Delete icon.

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Activity — Creating Dimensions

In this activity, you will create several dimensions using various settings.

Step 1: Open the drafting_fitting_dwg part.

This is a non-master part. The master model part (drafting_fitting)was added as a component.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application.

Step 3: Verify that the work layer is 101. (Format→Layer Settings)

Step 4: Create a Horizontal dimension.

Choose the Inferred Dimension icon in the Dimensiontoolbar. (Insert→Dimension→Inferred)

Select near the end points of the solid edges.

If you select the wrong object, press the Escape key onthe keyboard to deselect, and select again.

Place the dimension by clicking MB1 at the desired location.

If you need to change the style of an existing dimension,double-click it (to select it), then double-click it againto display the Dimension Style dialog.

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Step 5: Create a Vertical dimension.

The dimension you are about to create is based upon the selectionof a linear centerline, not the arc centers. This allows the gap tobe displayed between the centerline symbol and the dimensionextension lines.

Select the centerline symbol.

Choose Equal Bilateral Tolerance in the Dimension bar in theupper left corner of the graphics window.

Choose 1 decimal place for the Tolerance Precision in theDimension bar.

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Choose Tolerance Values.

Key in .1 for the Tolerance and press Enter.

Place the dimension.

Click MB2 to cancel vertical dimension creation.

The Tolerance Type, Precision, and Value can also bechanged using the MB3 pop-up menu after selecting theobject(s) to dimension.

Step 6: Create a Cylindrical dimension for the diameter of the boss.

This dimension requires that you append text in front of thediameter symbol.

Choose the Cylindrical icon in the Dimensions toolbar.(Insert→Dimension→Cylindrical)

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Select the two edges of the boss (in any order).

Before placing the dimension, chooseMB3→Appended Text→Before.

In the dynamic input field, key in 2X and press the Enter key.

You also need to adjust the placement before you establish thedimension. You can do this with the MB3 pop-up menu.

Choose MB3→Placement→Arrows In.

Place the dimension as shown.

Step 7: Align a dimension with an existing dimension.

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Select the two edges as shown below.

Choose Reset. The appended text is no longer needed.

Pass the cursor over the dimension.

Locate the dimension so that the alignment line indicates thatit is aligned with the dimension above it.

Click MB2 to exit the dimension function.

Step 8: Close all parts and do not save.

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Text CreationThe Annotation Editor is used to create notes, labels, and GD&T symbols.

You can access the Annotation Editor interface by:

• Choosing the Annotation Editor icon from the Drafting Annotationtoolbar.

• Choosing Insert→Annotation.

The Annotation icon option bar and the edit window will be displayed in thegraphics window. However, the small edit window can be enlarged and moved.

1 — Annotation Bar2 — Edit Window3 — Annotation Placement Toolbar

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Creating Notes

The Annotation bar is stationary. It will always remain in the upper lefthand corner.

You can use it to:

1 — Access the full Annotation Editor dialog2 — Change the Style for the annotation being created.3 — Insert a special symbol.4 — Insert a GD&T symbol.5 — Insert a datum symbol.

The above options are also available while locating an annotation, by usingMB3 on the graphics window.

The Edit Window, found in the upper left hand corner of the graphics windowis also called the "Dynamic Mini-Text Box" because it lets you enter text andsymbols for your notes and labels. The Edit window contains some defaulttext (which is highlighted).

Because this is a window, you can drag any side or corner to change its size ordrag the entire window to a different location. Also, you’ll see horizontal andvertical scroll bars appear whenever they are required.

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The Annotation Placement toolbar works the same as it does for dimensions.

Entering Text

To enter text, begin typing over the highlighted text in the Edit window.

You can use CTRL-i, CTRL-b, and CTRL-u to for italics, bold, andunderlined text as you compose the note.

It also appears on the cursor as a placement image.

After you locate the text, it remains in the edit window for you to use again oredit for the next annotation.

You can also create a note on a drawing by dragging a .txt file froman operating system window to the drawing.

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Creating Leaders on Notes and Labels

To create a leader, do the following:

• Key in the desired text.

• Locate the cursor on the curve/edge/face where you want the arrowheadlocated (with the cursor displayed as shown below).

If you want the leader to point to empty space instead of an objectuse the same procedure. The only difference is that the cursor willnot display in a “ leader” mode if an object is not selected.

• Press (and hold down) MB1 and drag the cursor away from the selectionpoint. A temporary display of the leader will be shown on the screen.

• Click MB1 at the location for the text.

If you want a second leader, repeat the second and third steps before defininga text location with MB1.

You can quickly change a leader location by clicking MB3 over theleader, choosing Edit Associativity, and specifying the new location.

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Activity — Creating Notes and Labels

In this activity, you will create notes and labels on a drawing.

Step 1: Open the drafting_fitting_dwg part.

This is a non-master part. The master model part (drafting_fitting)was added as a component.

Step 2: Start the Drafting application.

Step 3: Verify your current work layer is set to 101.(Format→Layer Settings)

Step 4: Create a note.

Choose the Annotation Editor icon. (Insert→Annotation)

The Annotation Bar, Edit window, and Annotation PlacementToolbar will be displayed.

Press Backspace to remove the text from the Edit window.

Key in your name into the Edit Window. It will be placed inthe title block.

There are no limits on the number of characters per line,or the total number of characters that can be entered.

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Step 5: Place the note on the drawing.

Zoom in on the Title block.

Drag the note to the desired location on the drawing,and indicate the placement by clicking MB1.

Because you are currently using the system defaults for theLettering preferences, the text alignment position is located at themid-center of the note.

Notice that the text remains behind the cursor in thegraphics window. The text will continue to follow thecursor until the Edit window is closed.

Step 6: Create a label.

In capital letters, key in the following text in the Edit window.

OMIT PAINT FORELECTRICAL BONDING

Click and hold down MB1 on the phantom circle in the frontview and drag the text until you see a leader; release MB1.

Click MB1 once again to place the label as shown below.

Click MB2 to close the editor.

Step 7: Do not close the part, it will be used in the next activity.

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The Annotation Editor

The Annotation Editor creates notes or labels consisting of text and draftingsymbols. You can include the following in a note or label:

• Drafting symbols

• Fractions and two-line text

• GD&T symbols

• User-Defined symbols

• Expression values

• Part and Object Attributes

You can access the Annotation Editor dialog by choosing the Annotation

Editor icon from the Drafting Annotation icon option bar.

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The Annotation Editor dialog will be displayed.

1 — Toolbar

2 — Text Entry Window

3 — Preview Window (Show Preview icon must be selected)

4 — Symbol Display and Text Preference Options

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As you enter text and symbols, the text and control characters appear withinthe Text Entry Window. In this window you may use the formatting optionsavailable on the Toolbar to customize the appearance of your text.

For example, you may want your name to appear as italic, underlinedletters. As you type, the text will appear in the graphics window and in theannotation editor preview window (if turned on) as shown.

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Annotation Editor Tools

The Annotation Editor dialog contains several options for text formatting.Some of the more common options are described below.

1 — Clears the display in the text entry and preview area.

2 — Opens (or closes) the preview area.

3 — Text font.

4 — Text scale factor.

5 — Options to add text attributes (bold, italicized, underlined, superscript,subscript)

6 — Deletes text attributes.

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Editing Notes

You can edit text in a previously created note or label by selecting it from thedrawing and using the MB3 pop-up menu.

You get the following menu:

You can also edit annotation objects by double-clicking (with MB1) on the noteor label. You can also use MB1 to select multiple objects (but this will reducethe options available on the MB3 pop-up menu).

Helper Lines

Helper lines act as a guide that allows you to line up notes, labels, dimensions,symbols, and views to other drawing objects on the drawing. Helper linesappear as a dashed line.

To use helper lines, move the cursor over the object towhich you want to align as you are placing the newannotation. The note highlights and helper lines appear.

Press and release MB1 to place the annotation at the desired location.

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Activity — Creating More Notes

In this activity, you will creating more notes on a drawing.

Step 1: Continue using drafting_fitting_dwg.

Step 2: Create a note.

Choose the Annotation Editor icon. (Insert→Annotation)

In capital letters, key in the note shown below.

NOTE: 1) DIMENSIONS ANDTOLERANCING PER ASME Y14.5M-1994.2) BREAK ALL SHARP EDGES.

Place the text in the lower left corner of the drawing as shownbelow by clicking MB1 at that location.

Step 3: Create another note using the Annotation Editor dialog.

Choose the Annotation Editor icon from the icon option bar inthe upper left corner of the graphics window.

Choose the Clear icon in the dialog to clear any text inthe editor.

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Verify the Font is set to blockfont and the change the CharacterScale Factor to 1.75.

In capital letters, enter the text for the drawing number05-FIT-2475.

Locate the drawing number in the title block as shown below.

Step 4: Complete the title block.

Choose Clear on the Annotation Editor dialog.

Key in: 1/1

Place the text in the Scale area of the title block.

Key in 2DAY.

Pass the cursor over 1/1 so that a dashed alignment help lineis shown.

Place the text in the “Date” area of the title block.

Complete the Title Block by adding the sheet numbers.

Close the Editor and click MB2 to exit.

Step 5: Change the date on the drawing to today’s date.

Click MB3 on the date 2DAY in the title block.

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Choose Edit Text from the pop-up menu.

Highlight 2DAY in the Edit Window and type in today’s date(MM-DD-YY).

Click MB2 to close the Edit Window.

Step 6: Reposition the date.

Using MB1, drag the date so that the right end fits inside thebox.

Notice how it maintains alignment with the scale note.

If required, drag the 1/1 note down so that the date does notlay on top of the word “DATE”.

Step 7: Close all parts.

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Master Model Drawing Guidelines1. Open the master model part. (File→Open)

2. Start the Assemblies application (Start→Assemblies)

3. Create a new parent part(Assemblies→Components→Create New Parent,xxxxx_dwg)

As an alternative, you could create a ’drawing’ file using aseed part and then add the master model as a component(Assemblies→Components→Add Existing).

4. Start the Drafting application (Start→Drafting)

5. Adjust the sheet; name, units, size, projection angle (Edit→Sheet)

6. Add the drawing formats; title block, border, revision block, standardnotes (Site dependent)

7. Set View Display Preferences; hidden line removal, section backgrounds,threads (Preferences→View)

8. Add the base view, typically top or front (Insert→View→Base View andchoose the view to add)

9. Add more views; projected, detail, section, isometric, exploded(Insert→View)

10. Adjust the view display; size, orientation, etc. (Edit→Style or Edit→View)

11. Clean up individual views with view dependent edits; erase object, editentire object, edit object segment (Edit→View→View Dependent Edit)

12. Add the Utility Symbols; centerlines, target symbols, intersection symbols(Insert→Symbol→Utility Symbol)

13. Add the dimensions (Insert→Dimension)

14. Add the notes, labels, and GD&T symbols (Insert→Annotation)

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SummaryThe Drafting Application provides for the creation of drawings. Views anddimensions that are placed on a drawing are associative to the solid modeland update when changes are made to the model.

The Annotation Editor interface makes it easy to create, edit and delete notesand labels. The annotation bar and edit window allows you to work withnotes and labels without opening the Annotation Editor dialog.

In this lesson you:

• Modified a drawing.

• Added views to a drawing.

• Created Utility Symbols.

• Created Dimensions.

• Added annotation to a drawing.

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Appendix

A Additional Projects

This appendix contains Additional Projects for you to work on.

©UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Practical Applications of NX A-1

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Project 1

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Project 2

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Project 4

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Project 5

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Project 6

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Project 7

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Project 8

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Project 9

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B

Appendix

B Expression Operators

OverviewThe following information lists the various operators that may be used inexpressions.

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Expression Operators

OperatorsThere are several types of operators that you may use in the expressionlanguage.

Arithmetic Operators Example+ Addition p2=p5+p3- Subtraction and Negative Sign p2=p5–p3* Multiplication p2=p5*p3/ Division p2=p5/p3% Modulus p2=p5%p3^ Exponential p2=p5^2= Assignment p2=p5

Relational and Boolean Operators> Greater Than< Less Than>= Greater Than or Equal<= Less Than or Equal== Equal!= Not Equal! Negate& or && Logical AND| or || Logical OR

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Expression Operators

Precedence and AssociativityIn the table below, operators in the same row have equal precedence whileoperators in the following rows have less precedence.

Precedence and AssociativityOperators Associativity

^ Right to Left– (change sign)* / % Left to Right+ –> < >= <=== !=&&||= Right to Left

When using operators with the same precedence in an equation withoutparameters, use left-to-right or the right-to-left rule from the table. Forexample:

X = 90 – 10 + 30 = 110 (not 50)

X = 90 – (10 + 30) = 50

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Legacy Unit ConversionAlthough when dimensionality is specified and units are assigned thesystem handles conversions, legacy parts may have used functions for unitconversion. For legacy compatibility these functions are supported.

Functions for Unit Conversioncm cm(x) converts x from centimeters to the default units of the partft ft(x) converts x from feet to the default units of the partgrd grd(x) converts x from gradients to degreesin in(x) converts x from inches to the default units of the partkm km(x) converts x from kilometers to the default units of the partmc mc(x) converts x from microns to the default units of the partmin min(x) converts x from minutes to degrees.ml ml(x) converts x from mils to the default units of the partmm mm(x) converts x from millimeters to the default units of the partmtr mtr(x) converts x from meters to the default units of the partsec sec(x) converts x from seconds to degreesyd yd(x) converts x from yards to the default units of the part

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Expression Operators

Built-in FunctionsBuilt-in functions include math, string, and engineering functions.

Scientific Notation

You may optionally enter numbers in scientific notation. The value you entermust contain a positive or negative sign. For example, you can enter:

2e+5 which is the same as the value 200000

2e-5 which is the same as the value .00002

Built-in Functionsabs Returns the absolute value of a given numberarccos Returns the inverse cosine of a given number in degreesarcsin Returns the inverse sine of a given number in degreesarctan Returns the inverse tangent of a given number in degrees

from –90 to +90arctan2 Returns the inverse tangent of a given delta x divided by a

given delta y in degrees from –180 to +180ASCII Returns the ASCII code of the first character in a given

string or zero if the string is emptyceiling Returns the smallest integer that is bigger than a given

numberChar Returns the ASCII character for a given integer in the

range 1 to 255charReplace Returns a new string from a given source string, character

to replace and the corresponding replacement characters.compareString Case sensitive compare of two stringscos Returns the cosine of a given number in degreesdateTimeString Returns the system date and time in the format “Fri Nov

21 09:56:12 2005\n”floor Returns the largest integer less than or equal to a given

numberformat Returns a formatted string, using C-style formatting

specificationgetenv Returns the string value of a given environment variable

stringhypcos Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a given numberhypsin Returns the hyperbolic sine of a given numberhyptan Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a given number

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Expression Operators

Built-in Functionslog Returns the natural logarithm of a given numberlog10 Returns the logarithm base 10 of a given numberMakeNumber Returns the number or integer of a given numerical stringmax Returns the largest number from a given number and

additional numbersmin Returns the smallest number from a given number and

additional numbersmod Returns the remainder (modulus) when a given numerator

is divided by a given denominator (by integer division)NormalizeAngle Normalizes a given angle (degrees) to be between 0 and

360 degreespi() Returns piRadians Converts an angle in degrees into radiansreplaceString Replaces all occurrences of str1 with str2round Returns the integer nearest to a given number, returns the

even integer if the given number ends in .5sin Returns the sine of a given number in degreessqrt Returns the inverse square root of a given positive numberStringLower Returns a lowercase string from a given stringStringUpper Returns an uppercase string from a given stringStringValue Returns a string containing a textual representation of a

given valuesubString Returns a new string containing a subset of the elements

from the original listtan Returns the sine of a given numberug_ functions see the documentation for descriptions of dozens more

specialized math and engineering functions

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CAppendix

C Point Constructor Options

OverviewThis appendix describes the various Point Constructor methods that maybe used.

The Point Constructor dialog provides a standard way to specify points. Itallows the creation of point objects as well as the determination of locationsin three-dimensional space.

Points may be specified in one of two ways: either choose one of the provided,icons at the top of the dialog, or directly enter the X-Y-Z coordinates in thefields provided.

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Point Constructor Options

Methods to Specify a PointThe top of the Point Constructor dialog displays icons representing variousmethods for specifying a point. As the cursor is passed over these icons, theicon block displays the name of the method.

The icon methods are described below.

Inferred Point

Depending on where you select when using this option, one of the followingsingle selection options will be used: cursor location, existing point, endpoint, mid point or arc center. This option does not require a selection of theparticular point type for each selection.

Cursor Location

Use this option to construct points anywhere on the screen by positioning thecross hairs and indicating a location. The location defined lies on the WCSWork plane.

To locate points quickly and precisely, use a grid (see Preferences→WorkPlane →Show Grid). When Snap to Grid is on, points snap to the nearestgrid position. The grid spacing may be set as desired. The spacing in theX-direction does not need to be the same as the spacing in the Y-direction.

For example, if the smallest increment on the part is in eighths of an inch(.125), then the grid spacing would be set to .125. A point at exactly one inchin X and two inches in Y could be created by counting over eight grid points inX and up sixteen in Y and indicating a screen position.

Existing Point

Use this option to specify a location by selecting an existing point.

Remember that the point constructor allows locations in model space tobe specified. In the instance where an existing point is being selected it isgenerally a case of using that point to aid in the construction of another objectsuch as a the endpoint of a line, or the location of an object, such as placementof a drawing border.

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Point Constructor Options

End Point

Use this option to specify locations at the end points of existing lines (1),arcs (2), conics (3), and splines (4).

When selecting geometry, place the selection ball near the end point (1) youwish to select. The point is located at the end of the curve nearest to where itwas selected (see below). Closed curves, such as complete circles, have onlyone endpoint because the two ends are at the same coordinate location.

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Point Constructor Options

Control Point

Use this option to locate points at the control points of geometric objects. Thecontrol points, which vary for each object type, include: Existing points, Endpoints of conics, End points and Mid points of open arcs, Center points ofcircles or arcs, Mid points and End points of lines, and End points or Knotpoints of splines.

Use the cursor to select objects. Since some objects have more than onecontrol point, place the cross hairs near the control point desired. The systemlocates the control point nearest the position where the curve is selected.

The illustration below shows the various locations of control points onexisting lines (1), arcs (2), conics (3), and splines (4).

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Point Constructor Options

Intersection Point

Use this option to locate a position at the intersection of two curves or at theintersection of a curve and a surface or plane. If the curves intersect morethan once, the system creates the point nearest to where the second curvewas selected.

When two selected curves are not coplanar with the XC-YC plane the systemcreates the point on the first curve (1) selected. By projecting the secondcurve (2) parallel to the ZC axis an apparent intersection is calculated andthe point (3) is defined on the first object selected (see below). Projectionsare always done along the ZC-axis.

ZC

YC

XC

Positions may be indicated at the intersection of any two non-parallel curves.Implied intersections may be located even if the objects do not actually touch(see below).

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Point Constructor Options

Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center

Use this option to specify a position at the center of an arc or ellipse byselecting the arc along its circumference.

In the example below, selecting with the circumference (1) of the large circlewithin the selection ball defines the center point (2) of the large circle.

Selecting near the center of the large circle (1) will not select the center ofthe large circle since the selection ball touches the circumference of thesmall circle.

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Point Constructor Options

Angle on Arc/Ellipse

Use this option to locate a position (1) at an angular location on an arc oran ellipse.

The angle value is entered in degrees. The angle is referenced from thepositive XC axis and is measured counterclockwise in the WCS. The angularposition on the arc or ellipse may also be defined on the unconstructed portion(2) of an arc or ellipse.

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Point Constructor Options

Quadrant Point

Use this option to locate positions at the quarter points of an arc or an ellipse.

Points may be located at the starting point of the arc or ellipse and thenat quarter-distance intervals along the object. The point located (1) is thequadrant point nearest to the position selected (2). The quadrant positionmay also be defined on the unconstructed portion (3) of an arc.

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Point Constructor Options

Point on Curve/Edge

Use this option to locate positions on a curve or edge by specifying a UParameter.

After choosing this option and selecting a curve or edge, the Point Constructordialog will display an entry field for a U Parameter.

The U Parameter can be a value between 0 and 1 where a value of 0 would bethe start and a value of 1 would be the end of the curve or edge.

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Point Constructor Options

Point on Surface

Use this option to locate positions on a surface (face) by specifying a UParemeter and a V Parameter.

After choosing this option and selecting a face, the Point Constructor dialogwill display entry fields for the U and V Parameters.

The U and V Parameters can have values between 0 and 1 to define thelocation on the face.

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Point Constructor Options

WCS and Absolute CoordinatesChoose WCS or Absolute to specify the coordinate system to reference whenentering values in the Base Point fields. The WCS (Work Coordinate System)is the default. The WCS may be moved to any location and placed in anyorientation. The absolute coordinate system is a fixed coordinate system.

Reset

The Reset button sets the values X, Y, and Z coordinates of the Base Point to0 and sets the Offset method to None.

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Point Constructor Options

Offset

This option allows you to specify a position in model space offset from areference position. The offset may be specified in several different methods.

Once an offset method has been specified, it remains in effect until anotherone is chosen. The default is None (no offset).

Rectangular Offset

This option allows a position to be offset by keying in values that representthe X, Y, and Z directions relative to the coordinate system specified from areference point (see below).

The location of the offset point (1) relative to the reference point (2) isdetermined by the coordinate system (3) selected and the orientation of thatcoordinate system.

The origin of the coordinate system has no effect on the offset.

Y

Z

X

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Point Constructor Options

Cylindrical Offset

This option allows an offset point (1) to be specified by keying in cylindricalcoordinates.

The offset values for Radius (2), Angle (3), and Delta-ZC (4) are definedrelative to the specified coordinate system and applied as illustrated below.The radius and the angle always lie in the X-Y plane of the coordinate systemspecified.

A cylindrical offset may reference either the absolute coordinate system orthe work coordinate system.

ZC

YC

XC

Spherical Offset

This option allows specification of an offset position using sphericalcoordinates, two angles and a radius (see below).

Angle 1 always lies in the X-Y plane, and Angle 2 defines the elevation of theoffset point from the X-Y plane. The radius defines the distance between thebase point and the offset point. A spherical offset may reference either thework coordinate system or the absolute coordinate system.

ZY

X

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Point Constructor Options

Vector Offset

This option allows specification of an offset point (1) by indicating a directionand distance (2). A vector (3) is defined by selecting a line (4). The direction ofthat vector is determined by which end of the line is selected.

Z

Y

X

Offset Along Curve

This option allows an offset point (1) to be defined along a curve by a specifiedarc length distance or a percentage of the total curve path length.

The direction of the offset is determined by the where the curve is selectedrelative to reference point. In the example below, the reference point (1) isin the middle of the curve. Selecting the curve at position (2) to producedirection (3) and selecting at position (4) to produces direction (5).

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D

Appendix

D Customer Defaults

OverviewThere are utilities and customization files which affect the default interfaceand behavior of NX. This appendix covers these topics which would normallybe the responsibility of a system administrator.

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Customer Defaults

Customer DefaultsCustomer defaults are accessed by choosingFile→Utilities→Customer Defaults.

When NX is first started (out-of-the-box) the defaults are set to User and avariable points to a user file which may or may not exist. This is an extractfrom the log file for a user named “nxuser” after logging in and starting NXfor the first time:

Processing customer default values fileC:/Documents and Settings/nxuser/Local Settings/Application Data/Unigraphics Solutions/NX4/nx4_user.dpv

User customizations fileC:/Documents and Settings/nxuser

/Local Settings/Application Data/Unigraphics Solutions/NX4/nx4_user.dpv does not exist

The fact that the file does not exist is of no concern because the path iswritable for the person logged in.

NX will create the file nx4_user.dpv when and if the user makes a change tothe defaults.

If the administrator wishes to prevent the user from changing the defaults,i.e., set them as User (Read Only), there are various ways to accomplish it:

• Create the file and customize it as you wish, and then make it read only.

• Define the file in a path to which the user cannot write. The file and thepath need not exist.

• Lock one or more defaults at a higher level, i.e. group or site level.

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Customer Defaults

Customer Defaults Levels

There are three levels of defaults that your system administrator can set.These are site, group, and user. Any of all of these levels may be read-write,although it is customary to set the site and group levels to read only.

At the Site and Group levels the dialog displays padlocks beside each default,enabling the administrator to lock out a particular default for lower levels.

When a lock is active not only is the text de-emphasized but value changeis prohibited. Even if the site (or a lower) DPV file is writable the value ofa locked default can not be changed until the lock icon has been toggled offfor the given default).

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Customer Defaults

For example, to lock out the ability to create promotions, the administratorclicks the lock beside promotions at the site or group level. The icon changescolor and the text is de-emphasized.

At the user level, that default is de-emphasized an a padlock is displayedbeside it.

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Customer Defaults

The system administrator can use the Default Lock Status to set the globallocked status for all of the customer defaults on all defaults pages. Thisallows strategies like All are locked except..." or All are unlocked except...instead of requiring the assertion of 5000+ individual locks.

Locks at the group level change color and the text is de-emphasized.

The user then sees all options for Site Standards de-emphasized andpadlocked. No Site Standards may now may be changed at the user level.

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Customer Defaults

Setting Customer Defaults

Customer defaults have as-shipped default settings that are hard-coded.When you change defaults at any level (assuming you have write permissionand the levels are defined) a file is created to save the settings. By default thefile is called nx4_user.dpv, nx4_group.dpv, or nx4_site.dpv.

Only the defaults that are changed from the hard–coded settings are saved,thus the DPV files can be very small in size.

Customer defaults files are defined by environment settings. These aretypically set in ugii_env.dat on Windows systems or .ugii_env on UNIX;however, the administrator may prevent a user from spoofing these settingsby creating a file named ugii_env.master in the UGII directory where NXis installed to define these particular environment settings. When this fileexists any attempt to redefine the environment variables will be ignored.

When you change defaults the changes are NOT effective immediately.They will be in effect the next time NX is started.

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Customer Defaults

There are two possible settings for the user level and one each for the groupand site levels:

VariableDefaults File Heading

Description

UGII_LOCAL_USER_DEFAULTSMISCELLANEOUS

This variable is a fully qualified filespecification: it can be any file namein any location.

The recommended file extension is.dpv

The file need not exist. The filewill be created when the initialcustomizations are saved.

The directory path must exist and bewriteable to create the file.

UGII_USER_DIRUGALLIANCE Variables

This directory pointed to must havethe startup directory defined instructure outlined below. The filenx4_user.dpv will be created when theinitial customizations are saved (if itdoes not already exist) in the startupfolder.

Define this ONLYif UGII_LOCAL_USER_DEFAULTS is NOTdefined.

UGII_GROUP_DIRNot defined

The file nx4_group.dpv will be createdwhen the initial customizations aresaved (if it does not already exist) inthe startup folder under the directorypointed to.

UGII_SITE_DIRUGALLIANCE Variables

The file nx4_site.dpv will be createdwhen the initial customizations aresaved (if it does not already exist) inthe startup folder under the directorypointed to.

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Customer Defaults

USER, GROUP, and SITE directories

There is a standard structure for customer site installation of menu files andshared libraries. This directory structure defines three subdirectories. Forthe purpose of this discussion only the startup folder need exist; however, youmight encounter the others if you have site customization.

startup Contains site-specific menu files, defaults files, and sharedlibraries of menu actions to be loaded automatically at NXstartup to customize Gateway.

application Contains site-specific files defining menus and sharedlibraries of menu actions for customizing NX or third-partyapplications, such as NX Open programs. Loading of eachshared library is deferred until you enter the application thatnames the library on the LIBRARIES statement in the menufile definition for the Application Button for the application.User Tool Definition files, GRIP programs, User Functionprograms that are referenced by menu file actions.

udo Contains the shared libraries defining methods forsite-specific User Defined Objects (another NX Open topic.)

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Customer Defaults

Managing Your Changes

The DPV files contain only the defaults that are changed from the hard–codedsettings.

You may review your changes at any time:

• Set the Defaults Level to the level you want to examine, Site, Group,or User.

• Choose Manage Current Settings on the Customer Defaults dialog.

Here is an example of standard classroom defaults at the group level:

Here is an example of defaults additionally set for Design Applications usingNX.

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Customer Defaults

Updating to a New Release of NX

To update to a new release, you need only define the DPV files you want touse at whatever levels your organization uses.

When you receive the new software use Import Defaults to validate your

previous settings against the new release.

Importing Customer Defaults values file: <full path specification of DPV

file.>

Total settings and locks imported: 10

Total settings rejected due to values not valid in this release: 0

Total settings rejected due to values being locked at the higher level: 0

Total settings already set to the same value and lock status: 0

Total settings not recognized in this release: 0

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Index

AAbsolute Coordinate System . . . . . . 3-3Alignment Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22Analysis

Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11Mass Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12

Annotationpreferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-47

Annotation Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-67Applications

Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3Assemblies

Selecting Components . . . . . . . . 10-15Assemblies Application . . . . . . . . . 11-4Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2

Add Components . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7Assembly Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2Assembly Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10

Pop-Up Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21

BBlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9

Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11Boss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7Bottom-Up Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2

CChamfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10Change Displayed Part . . . . . . . . . . 1-9Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

Absolute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3WCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

CSYS Constructor dialog . . . . . . . . . 3-4Cue line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4Customer Defaults

Directory Structures . . . . . . . . . . . D-8

DPV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3, D-6Setting Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3

Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7

DDatum Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37

Deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-43Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-43Intersection of 2 Faces . . . . . . . 12-42Through Cylindrical Face Axis . . 12-41Through Edge or Curve . . . . . . 12-40Through Two Points . . . . . . . . . 12-39

Datum CSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-51Datum Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3

Angle to Face Thru Edge . . . . . . 12-10Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8Deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-21Offset at a Distance . . . . . . . . . . 12-7Point and Direction . . . . . . . . . . 12-15Relative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3Tangent to Cylindrical

Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11–12-12Through a Point on Curve . . . . . 12-14Through Cylindrical Axis . . . . . . 12-9Through Three Points . . . . . . . . 12-13

Delay Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57Delayed Update after Edit . . . . . . 15-21Delete Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12Design in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17Dimensions

creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-45Displayed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17Distance between objects . . . . . . . . 9-11DOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-46Drafting Application . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2

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Drawingsadding a base view . . . . . . . . . . 18-21adding projected views . . . . . . . 18-24creating new sheets . . . . . . . . . . 18-3deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7deleting views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-27editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5editing views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-26opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-4view preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17

E

Edge Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3Edit

Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-38with Rollback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37

Editing Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2Evaluate Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57Exit NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16Expressions

Dialog with less options . . . . . . . . 6-3Dialog with more options . . . . . . . 6-4Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5List Referencers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6List References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2precedence and associativity . . . . . B-3

Extrude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-14

F

Feature Coordinate System . . . . . . . 5-3Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2

G

Gateway Application . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

H

Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5

I

Infer Constraint Settings . . . . . . . 13-21Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9

Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-48Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2

Circular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4Rectangular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3

Intersect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10

L

Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3Moving Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7

Load Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4Load Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7Load Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5Load States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6

M

Make Current Feature . . . . . . . . . . 15-4Mass Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2Mating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12

Align . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20Mate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16Perpendicular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17Tangent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21Vary Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23

Mouse Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14Mouse Pop-Up Menu . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15

Display Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Orient View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Rotate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Set Rotate Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16

Move Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-22

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NNotes and Labels

annotation editor . . . . . . . . . . . 18-67

OOpening Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9

PPad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24Parameter Entry Options . . . . . . . . 5-28

Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6Part

Change Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9Close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14Create . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10Save As . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12

Part Navigator . . . . . . . . . 5-42, 9-8, 15-3Placement Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23Point Constructor dialog . . . . . . . . . 3-7Positioning

EditAdd Dimension . . . . . . . . . . 5-39Delete Dimension . . . . . . . . . 5-40

Edit Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-40Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3

Positioning MethodsAngular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27Horizontal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9Line onto Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11Parallel at a Distance . . . . . . . . . 5-25Perpendicular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10Point onto Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10Point onto Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11Vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9

PreferencesAnnotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-47view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17

Preview Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21

QQuick Extend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-36

Quick Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-34QuickPick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21

R

Reattach a Feature . . . . . . . . . . . 15-23Reference Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2Reference Features . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2

Datum CSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-51Referencing Existing Parameters . . 5-28Reposition Component . . . . . . . . . 11-30Revolve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-36

S

SelectionPreview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21QuickPick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21

Selection Intentcurve/edge rules . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-22Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4Follow Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23selecting sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4Stop at Intersection . . . . . . . . . 14-23

Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2Show/Remove Constraints . . . . . . 13-66Sketch

Constraining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-63Convert To/From Reference . . . . 13-92Creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8, 13-13Curve Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21

Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-33Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23

Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-57Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-51

Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2Reference Direction . . . . . . . . . 13-10Show/Remove Constraints . . . . 13-66Text Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-50

Sketch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-46

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Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22

Snap Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22Snap Point toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6Starting NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2Status Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4Subassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2Subtract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10Sweep Along Guide . . . . . . . . . . . 14-27Symbols

utility symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-33linear centerline . . . . . . . . . 18-36

TToolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6Customizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19, 10-16Snap Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

Top-Down Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2

UUnite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10

Update Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8Update Model . . . . . . . . . . 13-57, 15-21Utility Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-33

cylindrical centerline . . . . . . . . 18-40linear centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-36

VVectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8View Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-17

Edges Hidden by Edges . . . . . . 18-18Hidden Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18Smooth Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19Virtual Intersections . . . . . . . . . 18-20

WWCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5

Work Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19

Index-4 Practical Applications of NX ©UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved mt10050_g NX 4

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LEARNING

ADVANTAGE

UGS Education Services offers a blend of training solutions for all of our product lifecycle management products. Our Online Store “Learning Advantage” was developed to provide our customers with “just in time”training for the latest in application developments. Here are some of the Learning Advantages: • Customers have direct access • Self-paced course layout • Online Assessments • Just in time training for the latest release

To learn more about the “Learning Advantage” visit our website http://training.ugs.com or email us at training @ugs.com

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