Victory and peace

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2. Russia Withdraws In 1917 Russia wentthrough a revolution. Vladimir Lenin, thenew leader wanted toget Russia out of thewar. In March 1918 Leninsigned the treaty ofBrest Litovskwhich ended the warfor Russia, but alsotook a lot of their land. 3. The Final Push After the Treaty of Brest Litovsk the Germans were finally able to focus on the western front. By May 1918 German troops were within 40 miles of Paris and it seemed like they had a chance of victory, however they were considerably weakened. With the help of fresh American troops the Allies were able to hold the Germans back. July 1918 at the second battle of the Marne with 2 million more American troops the Allies were able to push Germany back. 4. Surrender Germanys allies quitand German soldiersrefused to fight, and onNovember 9, 1918Kaiser Wilhelm II wasforced to step down. A representative of thenew Germany met withthe Allies in Paris andsigned an armistice, anagreement to end thefighting at 11:00November 11, 1918. 5. Treaty of Versailles After the war was over the peace still neededto be worked out. Beginning January 18, 1919 a conference tookplace at the palace of Versailles. Theconference lasted for a year, and there wereoften disagreements and debates. Delegates from 32 countries were present, butultimately it was the Allies/the big four whodecided what would happen to post warEurope. 6. Big Four Wilson andClemenceau GeorgesWoodrow Wilson, President ofthe United States. Clemenceau, minister from France. 7. Big Four George and OrlandoDavid Lloyd George, minister Vittorio Orlando, minister fromfrom Great Britain.Italy. 8. Wilsons Fourteen Points1. Open Diplomacy no secret treaties.2. Freedom of Navigation open seas in war and peace.3. Free trade customs barriers and taxes/duties should be removed.4. Multilateral disarmament all countries should reduce their armed forces to the lowest levels possible (limited military power).5. Colonies people in European colonies should have a say in their future.6. Russia should be allowed to have whatever government they want.7. Belgium should be restored to how they were before the war. 9. Wilsons Fourteen Points8.France should get Alsace Lorraine back and any otherland taken during the war.9.Italy their borders should be readjusted according tonationality.10. National self determination the nations in Europeshould be given their own countries wheneverpossible.11. Romania, Montenegro & Serbia should be restored andSerbia should get sea access.12. Turkey people of Turkey should have a say in theirfuture.13. Poland should become independent and have seaaccess.14. League of Nations a group of nations should cometogether to meet and solve conflicts peacefully ratherthan by war. 10. Final Treaty The final treatylooked very little likeWoodrow Wilsonsfourteen points. Germany was nothappy with thetreaty, but they hadno choice but to signit. 11. Final Treaty - Terms League of NationsTerritorial Losses International Peace Germany had toOrganization wasreturn land.formed. It would Germany had toinclude 32 Allied and give up theirneutral nations.colonies. Germany and Anschluss Russia were not Germany was notincluded. allowed to form an The US did not endalliance with Austriaup joining. Hungary. 12. Final Treaty - Terms Military Restrictions War Guilt Limited the size of Sole responsibility forGermanys army.the war is placed on Germany prohibited Germanys shoulders.from importing or Germany must paymaking weapons/war Allies $33 billion inmaterial.reparations over 30 Germany forbidden is or buysubmarines or havean airforce. 13. Other Defeated NationsThe other nations in the Central Powers sufferedsome consequences too, but not as bad asGermany: Hungary lost land and had a limited army.They were also told they had to payreparations, but an amount was never set. Bulgaria lost land and had a limited army.They had to pay $90 million in war reparations. Turkey lost land in Greece and the League ofNations took Turkeys colonies. 14. End ResultsEurope Before WWI Europe After WWI 15. End Results New nations were created such as:Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland. The Ottoman Empire was broken upinto smaller countries, many cameunder British and French control. Russia felt alienated from the Alliesand lost land. 16. Legacy of the War The Treaty of Versailles was known as the peace built onquicksand. The treaty set the world up for a lot of problems laterdown the line. Many countries felt bitter with the outcome. US didnt accomplishits goals. Germany was stuck with the war guilt. Japan and Italyhad both entered the war to gain territory and neither had truly beensuccessful. Even though the League of Nations had been formed the US wasnta member and they were weak. World War I was the first total war on a global scale that made useof new technology. 8.5 million soldiers died, 21 million were wounded and manycivilians died as well. The war had a devastating economic impact on Europe, and itshook European society as never before.