Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater resource .Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater resource

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  • C. Wisniewski Montpellier University, France

    UMR QualiSud

    Facult des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques

    Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater resource recovery facilities ?

  • OUTLINES Current state of Wastewater Treatment (WWT) Climate Change's Relation to Wastewater Treatment A new Paradigm for Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP)

    Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Wastewater Treatment adaptation according to Climate Change

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    WASTEWATER

    WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    DISCHARGED IN WATER BODIES

    Urban and agricultural runoff

    Municipal sewage effluent Industrial effluent

    Parameter mg/L

    TSS 250 to 600

    COD 500 to 1200

    BOD 230 to 560

    N total 30 to 100

    P total 6 to 25

    Level of treatment required before discharge imposed by European Directives

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC1)

    Protection of the aquatic environment from the adverse effects (such as eutrophication) of urban (and industrial) wastewater

    Phosphorus and Nitrogen

    Sensitive areas

    Collection and treatment of wastewater in all agglomerations with a population equivalent larger than 2000

    Parameter mg/L % reduction

    COD 125 75

    BOD 25 70 - 90

    N total 10 - 15 80

    P total 1 - 2

    Objective

    Implementation and Improvement of many WWTPs the last few years

    SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC2000)

    Protection and restoration of clean water across Europe

    Identification of priority substances that have to be reduced in water bodies

    Achieve good status by 2015 and to prevent deterioration to water bodies

    Objective

    Implementation of additional treatment steps in many WWTPs

    Micro-pollutant

    Emerging contaminants

  • Primary treatment

    Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Secondary treatment

    Pre-treatment Tertiary treatment

    CONVENTIONNAL WASTEWATER PLANT TODAY

    DISCHARGE

    Removal of suspended solids

    (settling)

    Removal of organic matter and of some nutrients

    (aerobic or anaerobic processes)

    Improvement of the effluent quality before

    its discharge (effluent polishing)

  • Primary treatment

    Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Secondary treatment

    Pre-treatment Tertiary treatment

    Sludge treatment DISCHARGE

    CONVENTIONNAL WASTEWATER PLANT TODAY

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    A SIMPLE WASTE TREATMENT UNIT REQUIRING ENERGY PRODUCING SLUDGE

    ENERGY SLUDGE

    CLIMATE CHANGE

    What is the future of WASTEWATER TREATMENT plants?

    CONVENTIONNAL WASTEWATER PLANT TODAY

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Climate Change Impact on WWT

    WWT Impact on Climate Change

    CLIMATE CHANGE

    What is the future of WASTEWATER TREATMENT plants?

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    More intensive rainfall events

    Extreme weather events

    Higher climate variability

    Very few references on the assessment of climate change

    impacts on WWT

    Increased evaporation rates

    Changes in frequency and timing of precipitation events

    Earlier snowmelt

    Temperature elevation

    Climate Change Impact on WWT

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Changes in frequency and timing of precipitation events

    Temperature elevation

    Increase of sewage influent

    PEAK FLOW RATES Large majority of existing

    sewers in most EU countries

    Combined sewers

    Modifications of SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION

    Modification of BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL RATES

    Conventional Process models unable of describing and predicting

    the effects of SHOCK-LOADING EVENTS

    Water Sci Technol. 2009, 60(2):533-540

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS on the overall environmental performance

    GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS

    ENERGY SLUDGE

    WWT Impact on Climate Change

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007 .

    Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Source (USA)

    GHG emissions from

    wastewater represent 0,6 %

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    GHG emissions

    CO2 CH4

    N2O

    N2O

    CH4 Sludge thickening and disposal

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4)

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    CO2 CH4

    N2O

    N20

    CH4 Sludge thickening and disposal

    Nitrous oxide from nitrification/denitrification processes

    Carbon dioxide from aerobic process

    Methane from anaerobic processes

    Managing Water Resources under Climate Uncertainty, Part of the series Springer Water. 2001 : 197-220

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    REMOVE ORGANIC MATTER NITROGEN PHOSPHOROUS Micropollutant

    GENERATE SOLID WASTE GHG

    CONSUME ENERGY

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    FACTORY Resources recovering and recycling

    Treatment and disposal ENERGY SLUDGE

    GHG

    A NEW PARADIGM FOR WWTP IS NOW NECESSARY

    WHAT CAN WE GET FROM WASTEWATER?

    Extracting resources from wastewater is not new but becomes crucial

  • WHAT CAN WE GET FROM WASTEWATER?

    Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Water (for reuse)

    Energy

    Nutrient

    Other value-added materials

    http://www.biocycle.net/2014/08/14/power-positive-resource-recovery/

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Energy

    http://www.biocycle.net/2014/08/14/power-positive-resource-recovery/

    There is more energy in wastewater than is required to treat it

    There are different types of energy in wastewater

    Heat Energy

    Biological/chemical Energy

    0.05 kW

    1 m3/d

    0.26 kW assuming that a 12 change in

    temperature could be extracted

    Energy demands

    0.02 kW

    15 times higher than the energy required for

    treatment

    In the ORGANIC MATTER

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    http://www.biocycle.net/2014/08/14/power-positive-resource-recovery/

    Heat Energy

    Biological/chemical Energy

    0.05 kW

    0.26 kW assuming that a 12 change in

    temperature could be extracted

    Low-grade heat Low energy quality

    Any significant amount of power produced

    In the ORGANIC MATTER

    40% of this energy can be converted into electrical power

    0.02 kW

    Power Positive Wastewater Treatment power production equivalent to the power demand

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Energy

    http://www.ajol.info/index.php/wsa/article/view/115257/104844 http://www.biocycle.net/2014/08/14/power-positive-resource-recovery/

    Aerobic treatment requires air and demands more power than anaerobic treatment that produces biogas that can be used to fuel power production.

    LARGE DEVELOPMENT OF ANAEROBIC PROCESSES FOR ORGANIC MATTER REMOVAL

    Research about conversion of digester gas (methane) into methanol

    Anaerobic digestion might be coupled with other process to produce methanol, ammonia, or other products from digester gas.

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    Nutrient Recovery

    Abundant in the atmosphere BUT

    takes a considerable energy input to capture it and convert

    it into a fertilizer product

    Volatility of the natural gas market

    NITROGEN PHOSPHOROUS

    Non-renewable resource for which there is no substitute

    Rise in P prices due to

    increasing fertilizer demand

    MOTIVATIONS

    Wastewater contains nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    PHOSPHOROUS

    http://inside.bluetechresearch.com/streams/themes/nutrient-recovery-energy-and-resource-recovery/

    Approximately 18% of the EUs total phosphorus goes into sludge and could be recycled

    Many countries are starting to promote measures to recover phosphorus from wastewater

    Sweden Switzerland

    UK and Germany

  • Wastewater treatment plants : wastewater

    resource recovery facilities ?

    PHOSPHOROUS

    Water Pollution . 2015, 1 (3) : 155-166

    Ion exchange and adsorption

    Bio-electrochemical sys