Woodsmith - 027

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Woodsmith Magazine - 027

Text of Woodsmith - 027





    by etltung lhmugh 11'''''''' o(,;crap oak.That'. "hen It hRppen.-d I didn't realizeSt.\Ihad I.ft the t rt'tId "Anu'gnp-bladeon the """ ,\. I trimmed olTthc end rotheoak scrap, I noticed something wasdltrtr~nl.The nil 1lish"'9

    ~y All RlghlaReserved.SublCrlptlon. Ono yoar (6 ossues) $10. Twoyoar. (12"'u ) S18 Single copy price. 52.50(canada ond Foreign. add $2 pe< year.)Chlngo Of Add,... : Please be sure to IOOOOeboth your old end new edd,... lor change 0'address lola" to,WOOdsmlth.1912 Grand Avo ..0e5 Moines, low. 50309.Second cia.. poouogo pold at Des Moines.Iowa__ ; Send Change of eddrBss 00IJC8.Form 3579. 10WoodanIIh Pub6shIng Co. 1912Grand Avo. Ooa MoInes Iowa 50309.


    A list 01 the oon*,ta 01 .. bad< oSSI _ _,.on the _ 01 hi ouue ij the _ IS""'"""0. you '*' .....,lor a _ desCiilliilgthe oontenlaand pnc:es of .. back 1S$U8$


    IIyouhay ,_ who would1000eto see a copy01WOOd.mlth. Just send the name andaddr ....and WI'. send a eample (at no COSI).

    May June, 1983Num_27

  • Sue KortumCuster. So"III Dakota


    Next. I made two labels that are at-tached to the dovetail jig for identifyingboth the proper sides, and their locationsfor routing each or lhe four joints. Eachlabel consists or two separate two-lettercombinations. Each set of letters is posi-tioned with one letter over the other,representing the two sides needed to rormeach corner joint. The top letter repre-sents the piece placed in the top oflbejig,and the bottom letter represents the pieceplaced in the front or the jig.Example: The dovetail formed between

    sides B and A is cut using the left side ofthe jig (two of the joints are cut wring tbelet\ side of the jig, and lhe remaining twojoints use the right side of the jig). Thelabel shows side B over side A, so piece Bis inserted in lhe top of the jig, and piece AftGUI.

    is inserted in the front of the jig. Note: 1-':":':"';';'':':'''-''';';'''';';'''';';''''_':':''''''_-------1Always keep the labeled face ofthe drawersides facing out, away from the jig, and 1----------------1the labeled edge against the guide pins inthe jig.Using this system, [ can tell at a glance

    which two sides are joined together, andwhere to locate each individual piece.Even at\er 56 joints.


    Recently I constructed 8 few drawers (14to be exact) using a dovetail fixture to routhalfblind dovetails on all four comers. Thisinvolved a total of56 individual joints, andabout 10 million possible combinations.About the time I was half done. the

    problem started. All of a sudden Irealizedthat 1 have become confused about whereto position the proper pieces for each joint.(Repetition doesn't sharpen my mind. itdulls it)So to eliminate the chance of mounting

    the pieces into the dovetail jig in the"TOng position, 1 came up with a ~implelabeling system for both the drawer sides,and the jig.

    Pm:y F. Ha1!$e7IWalhaUa. N"rtll Dakota

    Then I applied two orthree rows of tape tothe outside race to hold the individualstaves together. Finally. the whole assem-bly is turned overand rolled into. cylinder10 cheek the fit between the staves.II everything fits okay, the next step is

    10 flatten the assembly out and brush glueon the edges of each stave. Then the entireassembly is rolled up, and clamped withweb clamps,IIthe fit between the staves needs ad-

    justing, I don't apply glue to two of thejoint.~(cpposite each other). This producestwo half cylinders after the assembly hasbeen clamped. \Vhen everything is dry, Itrim the two halves until they mate per-fectly. Then finally, the two half cylindersare glued together.

    APflY GlUt10 JOINtS


    When it came time to "glue up" the stavesused for the turned canisters (TI'oodsmililNo. 25). I came up with an easy way tokeep everything under control. Ijust usedtape (masking, fiberglass. or whatever) tosecure all the individual pieces untilthey're glued together.The .fin;t step is to lay out all the staves

    ed~ to edge ..zith the outside r.ce upward.

    __ T_ip-s& Technigu_e_s __



    The table top is constructed foUo\\'ingthesame basic theme of lhe entire outdoorfurniture set: a redwood Cramewith cedarslats. Only in the ease of the table top, theframe is modified sllghtly to accommodateIWOextra divider rails. see rig. 1.These extra rails serve two purpose s.

    First, they shorten the span of the cedarslats (thus providing additional support forthe slats). And second. they provide aplace for attaching the legs on th~ under-side of the table.CLT 1'0 SIZE. All of the pieces for the

    table top are ripped tAl a standard width of21'1'. J started with the six pieces for theframe. ripping them out of 2.6 redwood.see Cutting Diagram.

    5HOI' NOTf:, Since 2)(6:; usually haverounded edges, Iripped these pieces to gettwo clean (square) edges. It should be

    easy, I thought. .0 get two 2y,,'-\\~depieces Out of a 2x6 (which is actually 5'1!:-wide). But it didn't work that way on thematerial Iwas using because some of theboards were narrower than they weresupposed to be.

    \\'haL I wound up doing was ripping tl\.2,,6:; down the center first. Then I set thefence for 211, and ripped oITas much of lheoutside (rounded) edge as Icould.Finally, I cut the two long rails (A) to

    length or64", and the end rails (B) and thedivider rails (C) to a length of ll5y,,'.


    Aft.cr all six pieces are cut to size, they'rejoined with half Is", to formthe frame. 1eut the half laps on both end. oCthe dividerraiJs (C) and the end rails (B) first. (All fourpieces are cut with the same setting on thesaw to make sure the shoulder-to-shoulderdistance between the half laps is exactlythe same on these four pieees.)Next, I cut the jOints on the two long

    mils (A) - a half lap at both ends. andcross laps if' from each end. see Fig. 2.

    (:R()()'.;S. Alter the joints were eat, Ieut grooves on the edges of the two endrail. (B) and the two diviner (C) rails tohouse the slats. Here. r wanted to makesure the face of the slats would be flush\\;th the face of the frame members.Todo this, hold the face side ofone of the

    slats on the edge of one of the rails. andmark the position of the wld" .ideof theslaton the edge of the rail. Then set up th('saw to cut a 'Y!" x 31", groove so the bottomedge of the groove is on the line .

    As shown in Figure 2. the two end rails(B) have groove. on the inside edge only.The two divider rails (e) have grooves onboth edges.

    LAG SCREWS. To ,,(!-engthen each of thehalf laps I added lag screws at each joint.But before drilling for the lag screws, lin>tI dry -elamped all six members of the frame(clamping the lbng raiJs against the sheul-ders of the half laps on the end rails anddivider rails). Then just to be sure. Idouble-cheeked the frame for square.

    Finally. I marked the center of eachjoint and drilled v. eournerberes %' deep, followed by '." pilot holes. (I foundthe easiest way to drill all these holeswas to use a drill mounted in a Portalignattachment, 1

    \Vhen J set out to build a picnic table, I hadtwo thi,*, in mind. First, 1 bad visions ofbarbecued steaks, corn on the eob. potatosalad, and cold watermelon - all nicelylaid out on a picnic table in my back yard.B11Imy second thought was, "\Vhat am (

    goingto do with the table when the gloomyweather of winter !'OIL, around and ( wantto store it away?"To solve this "inter-time storage prob-

    lem. ( needed a fairly light-weight tablethat could be moved without the use of atow truck. AI$O to make moving it aroundand storing it easier, Iwanted to make thelegs uf the Lable collapsible so it wouldn'ttake up much spaee.Before J even sat down at the drawing

    board. Irealized that this table is one oithefew projects I've designed for when itwas,,'t going to be used. The method Jtame up with to accomplish this goal was touse hinged-leg arrangement that's nOIonly easy to set up. but it's alsoquick and easy to tear down.The next problem Wl1!; to de-

    sign the table top so the samestyle could be used on a set ofchairs (page 8) and a bench(page 12) - creating. coordi-nated outdoor furniture set. Tocoordinate these three com-ponents, I used 3 simpleconst ruction technique thatinvolves making frames out ofH~"-~hiek redwood and theninserting "".-thick cedar slats,(These thinner slats also helpto reduce the overall weight of the tabletop).




    ......tOUNlfaIOAE ,liOt HOU$CENTERED ON s~rs

    SC:RlW SlAYS 1'0 SUrtOR'T ItACI(T

    SUPrOItUAcm ~


    ..,.....(HAMRa 80THfOOts SUG""trfI(-,-.__


    Finally. a 5Upport bracket is mounted tothe underside of the table, see Fig. 5. Thisbracket supports the slats at the center ofthe [able, and is also used to mount thehinged braces for the legs.Cut the bracket (D) to length so it over-

    laps the outside rails 1W on both ends, seeFig. 6. Then cut half lap on each end sothe shoulder. of the half lap lit tightagainst the inside edges of the long rails.AMr it's cut to length, drill pilot holes

    and apply glue to the half lap (but nOtonany part that touches the slats), and screwit in plate.S&CURESI....TS. Finally, I eounterbored

    pilot holes in the bracket, so each hole wascentered on a slat (see ~lg.5)and securedthe slats to the bracket with #8 - IY,"woodscrews,

    c~o VIew Of DlVIOE. tAlL!

    I~ '",-\' . .T ,_J. '-., [ AU GRQOVlS

    J.__ t., WIOEaY 1, OlE'L_ ,',


    G\.UE AND.sc~wTO flAME



    .oUT l..CORNU ftOUNO


    . ,



    'While the frame is dry-clamped together .measure the distance between the groovesto determine the length to cut the slats.Then all of the slats are cut 2Y," "ide. andto length (to fit between the grooves).After cutting the slats to size, 1 CU~

    rabbets on each cnn to leave a ~" x Yo"tongue to lit the grooves. see Fig. 3.And linally. to reduce the chance of

    splintering. [ also chamfered both topedges of each slat.


    Now the table top i. ready to be as-sembled. Slide the slats into the groovesand apply adhesive to all the half laps. (Iused resorcinol glue. It'~ waterproof andsuitable for outdoor projects.) Then drivethe lag screws home.\Vben the glue is drv, cut 8 IV." radius on

    the four corners ofthis frame with a sob>..saw, and round over all edges with a 01.1'eorner-reund bit, see ~"'ig.4.

    ALIGN SL'\1S. Position the slats evenlyacross the width of tbe table, and drivea-penny finish nails through the center ofeach slat (from [he bottom side of thetable).


    AGURE 4AGURi 3


    UFOIl MOUNTlNGfNO boll


    ON 10TH ENDS._..

    FlGUIE 1 r- .. 0"~,.~"1 1-1 -a'~. ,. -p.,...I : : ; 't : : : I~ f- 1- 31' 8---;.. I i 6a, ~ I F3 21.... a

    S1~~ I U I c c ( I '. SflACi BETWEENSlAJ$ 1'" 2'~3." B( I B.t., i H

    4 1-8'" ~ l- .... -l "--S' . -;



    After the table top is built, the only thing left to do is to add the legs. Initially, Jdesigned this table with a trestle leg sys-tern, But this style doesn't allow the legs toecltapse for easy storage.Al\er a little more time at the drawing

    board, Icame up with a hinged leg systemthat's sturdy, yet can be disassembled forstorage. And one of the nicest things aboutthis system is that it only requires buildingtwo simple frames . . . using half laps,naturally.LEGM3SE"Ht.lES. Both leg frames con-

    sist of two legs (G), and two stretchers (Hand I). The first step is to rip all of thepieces for the frame to 2~'wide. Then Jcut the legs to a length of2S". and the tWOstretchers 3Oy;,long.After all the pieces for the leg assem-

    blies are cut to size, the next step is to cuthalf laps on both ends of lhe legs, and onboth ends of the stretchers, see Fig. 7.Al this point. I cut two additional

    notches in tbe top stretchers (H) on bothleg assemblies, These notches house thebraces (J) so they lie flat against the tabletop (when the table is broken down forstorage), refer to Fig. 1I. These notchesare 2\l," wide, '1'," deep and are cut 7Y,"from each end of the stretcher.The last step before assembly is to drill

    two or. holes Cor the bolts used to attachthe legs to the table top. These holes are5" from esob end of the top stretcher, seeFig. 7.

    Ai:lSt:MBLY. Now the leg frames areready for assembly. Dry-clamp the fourpieces for each frame, and cheek the fit ofthe joints and the square of the frame.Then mark the center of each joinland drill. eounterbores. '1'," deep. Follow theseeounterbores with the W' pilot holes forthe leg screws. Finally, apply glue to eachjoint and lag screw the leg framestogether.


    On" of the tricks to this leg system is theway it folds down for storage. To be effec-tive. the legs have to be easy to remove.Yet. when the table is assembled, the legframes have to be mounted so that they'resturdy.To accomplish both objeeti ves, Imoun-

    ted the frames to the bottom of the tablewith rosan inserts and hex head bolts.SHOP).'OTE,Rosan inserts (also

  • 7I I I III E:IS


    ((OAR If. 'I( S'fI . 96f r I


    CtOA. ~. 11 "I, . ".1.1 I I. I_EJ

    I fI , if HE- j I g 31I 8 I~

    For the Tobie Top flame:A long Roil. (2) llh II2'), 64B End Roil. (2) 11,1,Jt 2Y. - 351,4C Divid., !toil, (2) 11,t" )I l'n - 3Slh0 CAnter Brodt (1) 1v.. IIC 2Y). 331/,E Short Sioh (22) '" IIC 21,N 8Y'.F long SI." (III . ,.2~380/.Fot th. Let Ftom .s.:G I.g, (0) 1Yt )I 2~ 28H lop S..... e..... (2) l!4 x 2~30'/,I Bottom Slt.'ch." (2) llA )I 2'h . 30'hJ 8to~'"(4) . x 2~. 26

    HDWOOD 1.... " .s'''' 12I I I E 3




    FOt.O DOWN



    {AilE TO,. fACt! OOWN


    flOURt 12


    lIG fR.utI 'IN roLOfO IOSITION

    AGURf 11


    possible stains to use.

    threaded on the inside to accept a '1'''- hexhead boll. And the hole needed to screwthem in place should be Ye' in diameter.

    DRILl. HOLES. To mount the rosan in-serts, the first step is to mark the positionof two holes on the divider rail (C). Thesetwo holes must tine up with the two holes inthe top stretcher of the leg frame.To mark their position, I put hex head

    bolts in the holes of the stretcher and cen-tered the stretcher on the divider rail.When it's centered, I just gave the bolts asharp tap to mark where the holes shouldbe drilled.Drill Ye- holes at these points, and screw

    tbe 'Ya' rosan inserts in place. And finally.mount the legs with Vo' x3" hex head bolts.


    The leg frames are supported with twobraces (J)going from the bottom stretcherof each frame to the center bracket, seeFig. 9. To get the final length of thesebraces, first mount the legs to the bottomof the table. Then measure from the insidecomer of the stretcher m to the insidecorner of the bracket CD)and subtract y,"from this measurement to allow room forthe hinges.


  • WOODS~nTH8

    inside edges. between the arm and thestretcher, remain square-edged.)

    1'1\'01' OOI\'EL. Finally, a '1'. hole. IY.deep is drilled in the center of the fourthjoint (where the arm meets the back leg.)Then glue a 2"-!ong pivot dowel into thishole. see Fig. 2.


    After the side frames are completed, theother two frames are built (one frameforms the seal and the other one forms theback). Both of these frames consist of 3redwood fmme with cedar slats. And ODe"again. nil pieces are 2\4' wide,

    THE FlUMES. To make both lhe seat (Dand E) and back (F and G) frames, cut halflaps on the ends of each piece, see Fig. 4.Then before the frames are assembled, CUta'" x '1',' groove on the four 19"longpieces (D and F) 10 house the slats.This groove must be positioned so the

    slats are flush with Ihe top face of theframe. To mark the correct position for the

    bores are drilled. drill V.r-diameter pilotholes for the lag screws. see Detail B.Note: The fourth joint (where the arm

    meets the back leg) has a hole for It pivotdowel that's used to attach the chair'sback. see Detail A. This hole is drilled lateron (a!\.er the frame is llS... embled),

    GLCF.uP. Af\cr the three counterbcresand pilot holes are drilled, remove the barclamps and round-over the bottom end ofeach leg with a -" comer-round bit (on 8router table). see Fig. 2.Now, glue is applied lo all four joints of

    both frames. (1used resorcinol glue for thisproject. It'. waterproof and suitable foroutdoor applications.) Then drive I' lagscrews in lhree of the joints. The fourthjoint (for the pivot dowel) is held togetherwith a C-elamp until the glue dries.

    ROl'SO OVER. To soften tbe edges of thechair, cut a 10/,- radius on the top comersof tbe frames (where the legs and armsmeet). Then round-ever all of the edges onthe ol,t.ide of the frame, see Fig. 3. (The

    SUf'v1MERTIMESITIIN'Building a chair for outdoor use (especiallyone that's built entirely of wood) has twoessential requirements. First, it must ad-here to the mailman's creed: resisting thera\'age~ of "mud. rain, sleet, hail, andsnow." And second. it. can't. have an)'splinters.To meet the first requirement, the chair

    shown here is built with redwood andcedar. Both of these woods are weatherresistant, However. they're also prone tosplintering. So all edges are rounded everand sanded smooth to prevent any hang-ups.

    As for the construction of this chair, it'sdesigned to be built using only one basicwoodworlring joint - a half lap (with thehelp of a few lag screws). Also. to makeeverything go a little easier, all of thepieces used to build this chair are cut to astandard width of 2~.

    TOSTAJIT. To start things off, I ripped allof the redwood to a width of 211,,".(Allpieces are CUIout of2x6 stock, as shown inthe Cutting Diagram.) Then the 16 piecesfor the side. seat, and back frames are CUtto length as shown in the Materials List(!tems A through G).


    Once "U orthe pieces were cut to width andlength, I started to work on the two sideframes. Both of these frames consist oftwo legs (A}. one arm (B). and one middlestretcher (C).

    JOISERY. ThefU'>ltstep is to cut a half lapon both ends of the arms and stretchers,and on the top end of each leg. Thenanother half lap (which in this case is calleda eros. lap), is cut near the bottom of eachleg. The only thing that sets this jointapart from all the others is that it's cut 3~from the bottom of each leg. rather thannush with the ends, see Fig. J.sno I'SOT:, Although 1started eenstrue-

    tion with the two side frames, in actualpractice it's best to cut all of the half lapsfor all four frames at the same lime. Thisensures consistency for all of the joints.

    COC:'>o'TERBOREFOR .... C SCREWS. Aftercutting the half laps for the side frames, Idry-clamped the frame members togetherwith pipe clamps (clamping across the legsto hold them against the shoulders of thearm and stretcher), Cheek all the joints tomake sure they fit properly.Then 1 used a drill mounted in 3 Port-

    align attachment to ccunterbore a "". hole.v,,' deep in the center of three joints: bothjoints on the stretcher lind the front jointon the arm. see Fig. I. After the counter-

    Patio' Chairs

  • lonOM VllW COtl::z:NEIJOINT DEtAlL

    I' LAG ScaEW_..,-AND WASHta ~~'--~_ J~. COUNTU6OAt.~~,,~~~

    , ~./1 AI, ~l'Ir--~CKAMF. fOGES






    _to JbOlUS

    t. CO.HE.IOUNO

    " ,,"-/AINSIDE. EDGf.5_SQUARE



    ....,plyglue to the half laps (noglue in the gt'OO"1lSor 011 the slats), antiscrew the frames together.

    ''OSIT'OS SLATS. After the glue is dry.tap the slats into position so they're evenlyspaced in the frame. Then nail them inplace (from the back side) with 3-pennyfinish nails.COR~'En ROt''III. Pinally. the foul' cor-

    ners of each Frameare eut ie a j.y, radius,and then the outside edges are roundedover with a''',,'' corner-round bit.


    .. , -


    -flGUIE'a.IU " "tor HOI.f



    I SIllI'"11 "

    , \H

    t.oown HCUM

    -."flGUUOlOPWW CtosS SKnOH"""",

    , LAGsaEW......DwASHO;

    H,I~. oowt\


    - , -

    INs'or 'ACl o3


    1 '

    , t.'. COUNlll&Olf.'. Dfl'~"r--1.- ~_-=~=:;:.W::.l~'.Hv, PlIO'HOU,-~-...__....__ -.~ }_;ONT lOGE1f1"t....:_--,:-.-::===--,="" :;:--:=;=~ ,...J..J.

    ~. COUNTtl:lOll. Dft' wrTM _' ._.mOl HOlf aKff:IfD ON rttICkN'ISS

    ,~~--~---- --------)~'---------,\'IONt 10Gl """4 0 4 0


    ,-". M fl.

    1H11-N;.ut( S SlAT SUP'ORT SYSTlM

    At lhl' point the four buic fracM, for thechairare complele .s.,I, I added. 'flip-port ') stem to p....md" a ..,lid ba.se for theseat frame, and also to UlCJ1'a.", the overall.tability of the chall'. The seat supportconsistsof IWod~at' I H. "ith a crossstretcher U) between them, see Fig. 6.

    THI ellATS

    To make the c1ral> for this support S)'S'tem, ril) l1AO J)itc(>" or redwood 2~-wideand to a rough lenJrth of Ih". Then miterboth end, al 6", IlUIkin~sure the cuts areparallel to each other,see ~tcp 1in Fig. 5.The fin.ll"ngth of eachcleat should be 17"I"",,",ured from long pomt to ,,},ort pointon one M~),"-"-'['IBL\HOII' .st. m hole., are

    drilled ineathdeal, wh hoi""""""'1Sofa%" counroo,... \\11h ~ ," "nO! hole drilledall the "11)' Ih",u~h,The fi",t two hol~ arc used to join the

    c1eattoth"erossllnlclK'r, They're drilled"" thecounlOrbol'e$ an> on theo.I~,d'f(Up2 In f'ig, S.Thenexl two holt,S an' u"",'11to join the

    cleat 10 the ""I. frame, They're drilledwith th. ceumerbores on the j"$id~far~ ofth( clem, H'" Sh'JI :1in t'ij!. 5.And Onally,Ih,' rt'mllining two holes are

    used 10mount tlu- ""aI,They're drilled onth.. bottom ,.111" of each cit-at, as shown inStep 4 III fig. 5.


    To add ,-ublllty(thall', to prevent raek-inlll a ero.'>' ot,,ter II)

    must be equal W the \\rolh of the _tframe (" hieh should be 191 minu:> thethickn

  • \VOODS~tlTH I I

    I MOUNT SUPPORT STSTEM AGUll '0Now the ~eal .upporl lL"t'mbly can be )'

    I ~unted to the .idc fromes, ThiMHmbly IrNSIOf ,.CI Of SlOE fRAMI ,I:;mounted at an anlt"le10make Ih,' .blllr - 'rfo ~.more comfortable. After a f," -It -1.11,"1decided on an anJd~ of 6". Th", &nl(l. 111"1.'$ 0 0 -IIIw f~linl( of .iltlOg 'in" lh, chair rather

    uoc [0Gt IS 11 TI . I lOW'll TKAH Uthan ju.1 "on" u, AONllOG( ,To mount th, ,upporl 'y"tem. (ir>1 fo..

    10 POOOUCI I~.... MNI'OrnetyJ'l'

    of protective stain on this chair. A I'Cvie" V1- ... sv,' ,'-

    of the possibililies is givcn on page 11. t ~~t:~T!"-1 ~I13

  • \VOOOSM1TH12


    bottom oillus 1(1'0(1\ .., on Ih. Inside edge lor Iwitb t .... d..\\el-. TIll>mean, Ihe back wIDthe long frame mt'ml~'T>) be a\ a otl angle (:t won't pivot], and th""THESl..\TSTh~I'\'llre Ih ~lal. It and lit It f linl., sturdier.

    E\'('r)o'c)n~ ha......8 favorite \\"8.:" to rvlax ~orm, It', .,tungon a bench and "atchllllllif"110by. Aft, r building thL' beneh, I l'ull.. 1It 0\"" to 8 large walnu: tl'e>' .n my hackyard, And there. in the root .11....1lep is to drill two~" hull" an the ,idefram~s, Th. first hole b ""nler.~1 an thvjoint wht're the ann meets the t.1forethe back fran ... ran be ......"'mbled. rworked on the mounttnj( .~.. tem t"join tbehack frame to Ih. ,"le fnunl~. Here. inHead of drilling a ,ingh: bole for a pivotingdowel ("" wa:; don,' On the chair). 1 anchored the back framl' 10 lh ide frames


    Garden Bench----------- ----------------------------SIDE BY SIDE SITIIN'----------------------------

  • "_._-- _ ..._._-"----_._---------------------13WOODSMITI!

    potential for greater racking pressure), I AGUlf J ~" lAP AT AU FOUR CO.NIRSput two stretchers between the cleats (in- fU,ME rot ....CI( , _\. x~.. GlOOYEswad of just one as on the chair), I ~.. J 11 R'~ - . -rue CLEATS. Once again cut the two ]~Dorn:DOOOODDJDcleats (Hl to a rough length ofl8'" and miterboth encl. at 60 Then drill the six counter- 12 ~ - ,.bores and pilotholes in the cleats (as-shown - I-in fig. ;,on page 10). I [ , i ......

    .j> .. ] ITilE Sl'Rf;T('II!:RS, After the cleats ate f '--C\lt and drilled. mark off the length of the stAC' ill""SLAHsupport siretehers (1) t> the total "idth or , . HAtf LA' ATAU FOUl CQRN{ISthe support assembly is equal to the width APAIJ FIAMf fO. SlAT I .. ),. a A" GROOVEof the bench seat. AI.o drill the 0/." holes at I [ .' . I I .-reach end of the stretchers for the V'- I

    ,l- I i-

    dowels, Then the cleats are lag screwed tothe stretehe rs the same way as was doneon the chair, see Fig. ~. 7'~t' I'....,. v, i' ~ '1'.h,~fINAL ASSEMIl Y I~ -To begin lhe final assembly of this bench, it. I blW' lJ t-the support assembly Is mounted to the ! r _ . . _ ... 1< 1 I ......"ide frame, al a S" angte, To mount this 0-s ..assembly, first locate the position of lhe 54" pilot hole on tbe front leg. 9-Y, down fromthe boucm of the arm and 0/.- in from the ftGUU 1 ftGUtf 3ill*ide edge of the leg. 1J1)~oowa. - /~/'"To locate the pilot hole on the back leg. ),.mark a line UV." down from the bottom 'IM J_


    outdoor finishing products contain otherchemicals that work just as well and aremuch safer for use around plants, animalsand people.One other tip: when applying these

    preservativesrstains. be sure to follow themanufacturers specific instructions forpreparation, application. coverage, andsafety.STAINS.All wood discolors (turns grey or

    black) when exposed to the doublewhammy of the sun's ultraviolet l'a)!:; andwater (which leaches the color produdngexiraetives frem the wood). Some peoplelike this natural look. and there nrc evensome wood preservative/stains designedto speed up this "aging" process.But to defeat the elements and retain

    the lookoffresh cut Redwood or Cedar, it'sneeessary to add color to the wood \lith astain.Semi-transparent stains contain fe\\'er

    pigments and come closest to approximat-ing the natural look of freshly cut wood.Solid stains, on the other hand, contain a

    higher concemration of pigment which canrub off on clothing. shocs- and you. Solidstain. are not recommended for outdoorfurniture or decks.

    WATERREPELLESCY: The oil base of pre-servatlverstains aCI$ as a water repellent,but some manufacturers add parafin waxas additional protection from water.

    INS!l(."'l'PROTECTION: The extractives in

    or brownish cast. but ["U deal with thatlater.In spite of the advantages ofusinlt press-

    ure treated wood, I still like the idea oftraditional Redwood or Cedar for outdoorprojects, and since combining the twowoods creates a nice visual effert- r de-cided to use them both.


    Ir I lived in a place where the SWI nevershone and it was dry and there were noinsects, I wouldn't have had to think anymore about. proteeting my outdoor furni-ture. However, most of us don't (thankgoodness) live in places like that so we'refaced with the task of fooling MotherNature.Because the sun fades all woods (includ-

    ing those with natural resistance to wea-ther) I wanted to add some color back tothe wood - which meant using a stain.Then I wanted to keep the water away(rom the wood - that called for a waterrepellent. To preserve the wood. a preser-vative: and finally a mildewcide to arrestthe growth of milde-.I found out that the oil-based semi-

    transparent or solid stains sold today comewith or without additional preservative s,fungicides and water repellents.Note: Avoid the really heavy-duty pre-

    servative compounds which contain Pen-tacltlorophtlwl which is highly toxic. 1I1any

    The outdoor furniture in this issue got melO thinking about the irony or trees - theyspend their entire lives outdoors. plantedin the dirt, and under constant. attack fromthe weather and all sorts of bugs. As longas the tree is alive it manages - for themost part - to f.nd off "II comers.But the minute you turn 8 tree into

    lumber, Mother Nature's protection dis-appe

  • (l~pnr~(.I.:-.1-;r.ll1'R.\~1$PARESTSTAIS J\SI)\\'()(lD I)RF.:O:ER'ATI\ t;, \'ATl;.K ("LEA.X t-.,

    Nc" rthe fumitu", out.lidt' was to give it alibernlcoating of clear furnitun. wax - nothinll:like a little "xtra" proWi:tion.WHERE TO BUY PRESERVATIVE STAINS

    lhat'~ mlly need.. 1because of the durabll-It); of the \\OO(J~, S(rni*lra.Jl:.parenl stains"ork "ell on treall'oelyafT""t lh" ""lor of the wood.

    .Voll'; \\'ith pre"ure treated wood, if.l"'ll


    On"" you\'~ decided to take the plunC(eandbu)' a carbi(."Onlact~I)m{'11""rt'~ionals: (~arl0\'end-iuo. f:,,",,utiH' Vice Pm-idenl of Freud.O"h Pimllll' of Fnrrc"t.M3nufacluring Co,Iboth carbide-tipPNI w blade manu-facturel.,.). I'llul Naylor. Preoident of KeoSa.. (II ,,!"Of...-Ional ,harpenin!?; sef\1ee).and t\\'o m"18lurltl"(.o T figured if anyoneroulrl ("II m(' hOI-tween the two i8 that carbide-tippedblad.. ha., .mall p,ece> of luogblen car-bide bl'llU'Clto the 'teel botly to form thecutting crill"', The err...,t thi, has on per-(orma.rtee i~(Jratn3tic.RV-T"'I)\(; \" t:.)(;I: Retaining an edge

    longer than a ste.1 blade (usuaUy al least10 timeR long,'r) I. one of the biggest ad


  • 17\VOODSMITli

    fL"E Shinny. mirror-like fini.. or square comers.These sharp POlO'" can actually cause theblade to crack I:-;"'eTalking Shop. lI"ood-~t~tltltxe. 2fi). b)' concentraring stressat a ","gil' pomt. And on top of tbat. theyalso inhibit (hIp, from being projectedrom the bu.rl,. which causes tbe blade toclof! ea.lly.nil: n 'C;'TI;' r 'ROIDE,And finallywe

    gel to the "hole point of the saw blade IO\fI>i. Grinb"nd. and .idt ... of th(, c-..rbide lips for a shiny,

    of bruing (hif(h temperature soldering) Saturally,temperalUn> can be mono ae- mirror-like smeothn ess, IV.ing a smallthe tipo 10 the otl'l'l is one of the more eurately controlled "ith automarie rna- hand lell> can be hig help in .ceing themtiea! ..,,,,"l"l. m the construction of. chinery than with a hand ton:h. This is diffenonee,)

    rarbide.tip""d blade. Two methods are supported by Ihe ract tbat lhe only pin- If the lIPO .ho" any sign., of grindingcommonly u.'Ied to braze tungsten carbide hole~we found WI''''' on a blac1.which was marluo, it m.ans the manufacturer hasn'tto -teel: machine induction brazing, and b.,..U'd by hand. But as long as the tips takenthelimelou.

  • 18



    COMBINATIONThis multipurpose grind com-bine. the flat top. and the ATBprofiles for ripping and cross-cu\tin~ hardwoods.

    TRIPLE CHIPThe triple chip profile ineor-porates two styles of teeth, abeveled chipper, and a Oattopped raker tooth.

    ALTERNATE TOP SVUThis prome produces a fine fin-ish (and It kerf in the shape or aVl. and can be used on any

    . style of blade.

    FLAT TOPThis style of tooth uses ol)iyone grinding profile - flatacross the top. and produces aIlat bottomed kerf.

    beveled to one side of the blade or theother. so each tooth cuts only o,~side ofthe kerf.Using the ATB profile, each tooth is

    removing only very smaU chips. This iswhy an ATB profile produces such a highquality finish, and why it's the most com-monprofile for circular saw blades. ATB isfound on rip. crosscut, and combinationblades. and is also common on finish bladesthat use high numbers of teeth to producean extremely high quality finish.One drawback to this design is that it

    fonns an inverted V. when cutting groovesand dados (a nat top profile produces a flatbottom). The very tip of the cutting edgeon an ATB profile dulls quicker than mostother blades because this is the area thatdoes most of the cutting.TRIPLE CHIP.A triple chip tooth config

    urstion uses two different tooth profiles,one for the "chipper" tooth, and anotherfor the raker tooth. The chipper toothlooksUkea tooth ground to a nat top profilewith both outside corners chamfered off.The purpose of the chipper tooth is to"score" the material in the center andalong both edges of the kerf. Then the flattop raker tooth follows through and deanseverything up.This tooth configuration is normally

    used on saw blades designed for very highquality finish, and are used to cut lami-nated counter tops, particle board. plasticlaminates,CO~IBlliATIOI'. Finally. there's a com-

    bination tooth configuration that's reallynothing more than a hybrid of the alternatetop bevel profile, and the nat top protile.It's usually used on blades that are de-signed to both rip. and crosscut hardwoodsand plywoods.Nonnally the teeth on a eomblnation

    blade are grouped together in sections offive teeth - four are ATB. followed by aflat top raker tooth to speed up removal ofthe material during ripping operations.The combination of both profiles helpskeep the blade from becoming cloggedwith chips, yet keeps the high quality offinish.Another aspect of the combination blade

    that helps keep the rate of feed fairly highfor ripping is the large gullets in front ofIhe raker tooth. This gullet JUSthelps e1earout the chips a little quicker.


    The total number of teeth can be the onevariable tbat has the most noticeable effecton the cutting action of a carbide-tippedsaw blade.As the number of teeth on a saw blade

    increases, the distance between teeth isdecreased. 'rbi. reduces Lhe sise of theguUetsofthe blade and makes chip ejectionfrom the kerf more difficult. A blade with ahigb number of teeth also requires more


    Beyond the quality of the saw blade. you11also need a blade specifically designed toachieve the highest quality results for thetype of cutting being performed. Toachieve the highest qUAlity results whileripping, you need a blade that's designedspecifiealJy for ripping. Crosscutting is thesame - only 3 true crosscut blade canproduce the highest quality results. Inother words, there's no such thing lIS auniversal saw blade Cormaking the perfectcut every time on everything.Finding a saw blade that's designed to

    match the type of cutting you domost.ettenis probably the most important part ofchoosing a blade. The first step is to knowhow the different variables are used tofine-tune carbide-tipped blades to performdifferent cutting actions.The most common variables are: in..

    dividual tooth configurations. number ofteeth, and the hook angle of each tooth.Understanding the way these three fae-tors work together de-mystifies the type ofcutling a blade is designed for. and whatyou can expect of it.


    Choosing the correct tooth configurstion isimportant because it's what determineshow. and how well the teeth actually, ...move material. The tooth configura lion isnothing more than a profile ground on thelOP surface of the carbide tips. The othertwo surfaces (the sides and the face) ofeach carbide tip are usually kept flat. 0"slightly tapered.There are four common profiles used in

    grinding the tips of circular saw bladeteeth: flat top, alternate top bevel (ATB),triple chip. and a combination profile. Eachof these profiles has its own personality.including - pardon the pun - some goodand bad points.

    FLATTOP. On a flat top tooth configura-[ion. the top of each individual tooth isground square, perpendicular to the sidesof the blade.This style ofgrinding offers two distinct

    advantages. First. it provides the mostsupport for the cutting edge of the tooth.since the entire width of the tip is beingused. Secood, the cutting edge will lastlonger because the teeth wear out evenlyalong the entire width, not just on onepoint.The most common drawback to using a

    saw blade with a nat tOPprofile is the finishit produces. The blade takes bites out ofthe board that are as wide as the entirewidth of the kerf. Because the chips beingremoved are large, they have a tendencyto tear out. leaving a rough surface..u.TRNATE TOP BE\'l:L. The alternate

    top bevel (ATB) profile is almost self ex-planatory: the tops of alternating teeth are

  • \\'()()I)SMITH




    power to operate, more feed pressure, and CROSSCUT BLADES slower rate of feed,linder ideal .. tuauons, only three teeth The main dlfTerellCel>between a crosscut

    should be cutting at one time, One should blade and rip blade are the number ofbe le."ln, the pieee, one cutting in the teeth. the hook angle. and the tooth con-tenter. and one jWlt entering the piece, To figuration-', In other words, they're tinction of a eom-cau.....u prond(1l the maximum support for bination blade i, the large !lUlIetID front ofthe tip, the raker tooth. Th., oversued gulJet helpsSeeend, to pre' em tbe high rate of feed improve chiP rem,,,a] dunnjf rip opera-

    from overlnading the blade with weed tiens, thu' lD



    The c~t blade' I te.,ted included aSears Tllooth ATB blade and a F....ud6O-tooth Tnple Chip blade.\\lIen L. RIP IlLAOlS IThe Sta" I().toolh eombinauon bladl>usesan ATB tooth ronfil(Uration. ISoppc>Sedto Blades (or ripping are gt:Mrally limited w the eombinauun profile of tbe Freud no more than :!4 teeth (for a 10- blade). OfbIad.~. the blade> I tested, only nne 1$this moldOne err""l of ""in, an ATB tooth profile - a Freud 24-tooth rip blade. The ....,.,00

    on Ihe~ blade is that the rate offeed is blade I tcsted "a.. a :Jo.tonth Sears model.much slower, Th", '" due to the lack or any The reason this blade """ included inthelarj{c 1(U1I.1lI. which arc part or the "com lest. even thoUllh it had more than 2-1binatlon" tooth configuration. teeth, i, because it', lhe blade SearsBut what really surprised me W35 how n>eommpnds for ripping,

    the fleatK bladp compared to the Freud PIIt I)%"TOOTIIIIII'I'IN(;RLADE. It onlvblnde when rrppi ng' hardwood and look olle CUtto realize thai thi .. blade wisplywood. The quality of cut produced by genuinely dpsignt,1 for ripping. The firstthe ATII profile Se.... blade was definitely thing that'~ noti'ted. TIKiZtooth Sear. blade. on theother hand. "IS really no betu>r than thefreud IO-tooth combinatil>n blade.CO'tLI sIO" f'rom the "",Wl> of thl>

    te." bel ween the Freud and the Searsblad~. ilappea" that th~y're about equalin the quaJit) of th.,r performance. withthe Freud bl...l... Ilj(htly Infront. But whenlOU factor in the qua.lity of the blade. the~reud blnde com,', oul on top by a signifi'cant margin.


    At thls point, all of th.. information isbasically just lot of talk. The true test o(the quality of a bla< anrl Freud.The new "super" carbid .....tipped blades I

    tes ted "en' th. Ifr So"vJ".181ad~man-ufactured by Forr t Manufacturing($162). and I Teflon coated. -anti1Mp"cutoff blade ($110 manufactured byfreud'The chart on page 21 gives the results of

    the qualily t",na on the blade. tested. Al>for our opinions and reeommendaticns,here goeR The standard "'''' blad es can be di\ided

    into three ""t.-gone,: RIp blades. Crosseu;blodts, and Combination blades. In eachcategory C'Ira) blades were tested. Insome CBIII'K. tho blade. being tested weretechnically id..ntical, and in ethers, theblades we'" .lij(htly different.


    The three combination blades I rested"ere: a ~O-tooth~ .... blade that uses anATB preflle, and 41).and 5O-tooth Freudbbde' Ihat use the combmation profile.

    THE Htf.1 II C'O)lBt"TIO:tlt'l. and worse in8110ther,The combination profile l'e

  • 21\\'OOOSMITH

    can only be attributed to the quality of the is only equivalent to about. 4().tooth com- produced the finest finish uf all the blade. Iblades themselves. bination blade. tested, Freud not only manufactures thisBy itself. the results of this test could But one orthe most surprising aspects of blade to higher tolerances (plate tole ra nee

    possibly be dismissed as a nuke. BULwhen the forrest blade is its ability to rip with of less than .001") than their standardLhey'Tecombined with the problems found a rate of feed nearly equal to that of blades. they've also improved on the stan-with the other Sears blades I tested. I a 4().tooth combination blade. The method dard tooth configuration (ATB) by addingthink a fllirlyclear picture tan be drawn on Forrest uses to accomplish this feat is. some secondary bevels. Then they coatedthe quality. or lack of it. in the Sears according to them, a trade secret and can- the plate with a layer of Tenon to reduceblade s. not be disclosed, But they did reveal that the friction between the blade and theOn the other hand, the Freud blades it bas a lot to do with their special adap- wood. (The icing on the cake.)

    eontinually performed at, or above the pre- non to the standard Triple Chip tooth \Vhen crosscutting, the Freud blade pro-dieted norms in aU three categories. And configuration. duced a finish equalled only by the finishwben the heavily diseeunted prices of the '\lbat isn't A secret is lbe cost of their the Forrest blade witli the help of the 6"Freud blades are taken into consideration, blade. At Sl62. it's by far the most expen- dampener. And thal's saying' 8 lot. (Theit becomes clear to me that they not only sive blade on the retail market. But the common reaction around OUI' office was '1represent higher quality, but they also ke)" question is whether or not it's worth can't believe this cut ill straight off therepresent a better value in the long run. the eost, saw ...)

    THE"SUPER" BLADES In all honesty, for crosscutting. the Mr. Because 1 was so impressed with theSawdust blade produces the fmest finish finish the Freud blade produced whenI've grouped two different blades under you could ever want. And when yOU add crosscutting. ( decided to try it at rippingthis classification because they've been the optional 6"dampener(it'sjusta piece of (although with 80 teeth. it's really de-manufactured with exacting' standards ex- very nat steel that fits between the blade signed only for crosscutting). The finish iteeeding the indusu'y norms, or they have and the outside collar to help stabilize the produced during ripping was of betterincorporated a new type of technolOJ!:Yin blade), the results are incredibly good. quallty than the freud 5().tooih combina-their design. \Vhen crosseuttmg oak. the finish is. as tion blade.

    MR.SA\\'Ilt:~T.The Mr. Sawdust Signa- smooth as gia:;s. It's as close to perfection Finally I tried cutting some plywood,ture line sa" blade manufactured by for- BS one can get, without I};ng. and you guessed it. the Freud blade pro-rest Manufacturing is advertised rut "the Is it worth an extra $100when compared duced the finest finish again (the Forrestonly saw blade you'll ever need." That's a to some of Lhestandard blades? To answer blade produced a small amount of tear outsrrong claim. that. perhaps another question should be on the bottom edges).One of lbe reasons the people at Forrest asked fil'st. Howgood i. good enl}ughwhen WHtCH BLADETO BUY?boast about thclr blade with ouch zeal is il comes to the quality of the finish?

    that it's manufactured to very specific tol- In my opinion. once you've reached a If Iwere trying to choose a carbide-lippederanees (its plate tolerance is within .001"). certain point, any further improvement in blade that would come do ses t to "doing itThen to top it oIT. they've put an excep- rhe quality of finish is academic, and all", without. doubt. I'd choose thetiona! edge on the carbide tips using a usually too expensive to justify. 5O-tooth Freud combination blade. Then tosuper-fine 600-grit diamond wheel. Whether this blade, or any other compliment this blade, the next blade I'd

    AU in all. the blade is the finest example "super" blade CI'O-_5 the line and enters purchase is a 24-tooth rip blade, and finallyof qualit)! we've seen, with one exception the never never land of perfection i$ purely a 60 to i2-tooth cutoff blade.- the pin holes in the brazing alloy. personal opinion. My opinion is that this ,u far as the Super blades, not only isAccording to Forrest. this isn't a problem. blade produces the finish I've been search- the freud Anti-wil> blade cheaper. but itBut according to everyone else, the pin ing for. but my pocket book says "you\'e alse produce. a finer CULthan the Mr.holes shculdn 't be there ... especially on a got to be kidding:' Sawdust blade. But honestly, tho onlySI60 saw blade. fRF.t'tl Al'o'TI-CRWBLADE. After testing way 1 could consider purchasing either

    Because of the high number of teeth. the Forrest saw blade, Ifelt that, using:my super blade would be if I were doing anthis blade performs at its best when used other blade would be a let -down, I was awful lot of cutoff work, or had the moneyas a cutoff blade. But it can also be used as surprised again. to burn. Otherwise. I'd just use the stan-a rip blade, although the quality orthe cut Freud's new Teflon-coated cut,off blade dard blades and pocket the difference.


    90T32012 LM72M 9 Gl31~56 LU82M 9G132S5 tU84M M:r. SawduS1 LU8SMRetGlt Prlco $29.99 $64.8S $54.'9 $86.44 $39.99 $70.99 '162.00 $110.88

    II of l.o'h 30 24 72 60 40 40 60 aD- Carbide Qualtty - - NlA -Cl MIA NIA CA MIA Pla1. HorclnoSi stiff niH 'tiff I'lff "IH _ I,'H niH ,tiH

    8/32sr " " - " " - 91: " .,Carbide SilO (len9th) lS/32 " $/32 1:'/32 6./: II ''32 9/3232 32Tip Bro.z'ng good .,,(el good exc.1 good excel good exc.1- -

    - Tip Orlndlng rough lmooth rough .mooth roueh _ smooth ._!: smooth smoothlunout Tolerances MIA .003 NIA .003" MIA .003 .001 .001'- -Moxlmum RPM 5SOO 7000 5500 7000 SSOO 7000 NIA 7000II of [xpan.Jion Stob

    -- -0 4 3 6 4 UMS gullet, 4 8










    USlSKONO"ler fO SfTftNC1 fOIlSHOtJlDIl CUT


    Hllflape are easy to eut ... at least they the thicknl'l"of the stock. Tb~~makeaeut I TWO CUT MlTHODappear thaI "a)" on the surface. But the at the end of a lest piece. ~ hp the scraptrick to making a good. sturdy half lap is to over and make another pass right below The second method for cutting a half lapcut it 00 the joining halves are smooth the IInu one. 'ev fig. I. involves making two cuts - one to estab-enough to provide good gluing surfaces. There should be a thin sliver of wood Iishthe.hould~r,andthesecondtotrimorrAlso, you need to take enough time on the that the blade didn'l cut. Raise tbe blade the cheek. This melhod produces a veryinitiallle!'up to make sure each half of the just a touch, and make the same two cuts clean joint, ready for gluing.joint i. truly 0,,~1/a1fthe thickness of the again. Then nopeat this procedure, until SHQlil.llF.R(IT The firsl step in this~. the ,liver i. skimmed olf. ' two-rut method I~10 make a cut at theA' far a!o actually cutting the joint is Sf.T.f;\(E. Once the height of the blade shoulder line. SIIhe hcighl of the blade

    eoncerned, theno are two wa)~ to go about is ""I. UM.' tht ft,"", as a Joinery: Half La~s _------MAKING ENDS MEET

  • \\'c do allow for 311ell~1an Yo. kerf for eachCUI. And ,;Gmt'limes We actually allow forwider k,rf. because It', often easier to giveeach piece I liltle bil extra width, thanha'ing the art .. l. llj' to draw a vel')' thin"''1,,1('_lion on the ed~ of the drawing.However e did p;ouf on lhe cutting

    dial(l"8m (or I Tool Storage Cabinet in1\'00.I\\ ,..'tl Ih. ,urfate;ond th~ inlA!rioro(lh, ,,000Although wing ,,'th, I' kiln dried wood.

    or Ih..roughl11l1r dried lumber;_" the be.1anJ'-'t>r. lhi re "n:- limes ,,hen a ~-pecialpietl' of ...ood .h ..". up Ihat can'l bequickl~, or "ff""I".ly l

  • (\\'(1I111\MITH24

    In no particular order (except sort of asthey arrived) here's who we've heard from:

    SAN JOAQl'IV nNE WOOUWORKERS AS-SOCIATION. Woodworkers from Fresno toBakersfield (CA) started this club on Feb-ruary 5th. MW'k\\rebster. President, saysthere11 be three chapters of the club- inFresno, Bakersfield, and Tulare counties.The club publisho:s a nice looking news-

    letter, sponsors some woodworking clas-"'''', and lhe dues are S20.oo 1"'1' year.Contact: Mark R. We~'ter, 620 North G

    Str ee I, Porterville. CA 98257 (209:I!II III'1n.

    I"~'I 8~,,'1IWOOVCRAF'Tt:R'S ci.rs.:-Iorm C .rllodman. President of then~wh' rorn.,,1 1',dlO B,.ch Woodcral'ter'sClub: would tiki 10 henr fmm I)lhcr clubs,They ,,,,,,I advice, ""pie. "f application(01111:0. byla\\'11nnd th., lik~.

    If you can help NI,nn ~"I hi club .Iartl-drighl. \I rile 10 hlln ',Th., "olm ".schWoockralh'r'" Club. 1'~lCh.,,,,on Ci",I..Jupiter. f'l, 3:~ISb l:lfl[~717 lli"';;).

    TI:lE ALAB ..\ 'tA \\'CH)I)Wt.l(ht-;tt~ c.t ,.The Alabama \\' oodwurk.,.,.Gull.1 .1"rt.~1in March. They alre~c!yh:ltSGlIt,l). LenErickson, President of the Colorado\Voodworkcrs' Guild wants you to knowthat. if you Ih'e in Colorndo and are interested injoining the Guild, you should writeto him.t PO Box 5305, Denver. CO 80217.TilE WAsnINGTO!\ (DCI WOODWOflKRS

    CI'IUI.Thi.'gI'Oup h..." ita!! together. Theybold meetings \\ith eX~l'tspeakers on avarielY ofwoodworking subjects, and pro-vide what must be a popular and appreci-atT.'K \\()()I'\\4.Kk~:It.' t . tl It t ,.,',.le),\ \' RlJ.!hl In 4),lr 0\\'1' tmt.k)"an1 Ut. ~\\'C)Cwl\l,'iJrkinJtclub 411k'n In ,.n~ u,,(' In t 9("11"lral 1,)\\'8. Tht \Vood\\ orklrfI; t91ullill1\1I11'~JuL' more than 20m"mbel'lIK""} II.. ~ J.1I.I.\VO()fj\\'Urkl'~ Mi('I;ltt tllA thr t JI1 I h' (lit! tlnll aIN;:\d,' h,. "", 11, I.~'....n It 1~lllt.,\ th{o fil'"l4t Thul'l'otI,,) Ilf tllC foonll, to I",,,ul' Ifl''At liDlI h.I" e.:.()_ .-,\., r

    \\ ntt to w, u, ((It mt 1'( iii', nl':Iot n 1'\o\C'( (. Th,~tIllItlJtl!1 "" 1h 8(' 11\'1n

    (fll'lhi' u'lt!\l U'Ul \Ial" , ....t" .il kl'r'.Ctf'KtUlizatlor, \lOt '\,:r h" 1"1 C""," .)t L (urt" tl, n.nol..t"'('I)n1.~)'11K' f',lt nU41II "I&] \\ nOli. II I('offi"lralhrnan. (hllld

    \\'h~' ,Ielll'l 11('1f)...'rM J) Got rnl. (Int"'of th~ found. I'll, t':'y il 1lIll\I' "''lillysome !l;end$ 3rOun.llh,