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790 D. Marine Meteorology OLR(1979)26(12)

determined during the Geosecs program. J. geo- phys. Res., 84(C5): 2471-2486.

Sea-air gas transfer rates are estimated from surface radon profiles measured at over 100 stations. The global mean transfer rate and hypothetical stagnant film thickness are then derived. Correlations between the exchange rate and wind speed are not readily identifiable. The radon method of determining the CO~ exchange rate gives values that are 20% lower than those estimated by bomb-produced radiocarbon methods. Low average wind speeds or conversion of CO~ to HCO3- are possible explanations. Includes an appendix on determining ~"~Ra content of surface mixed laver from submixed layer results. Lamont- Doherty Geological Observatory and Department of Geological Sciences, Columbia University, Palisades, N.Y. 10964, U,S.A, (rio)

79:6079 Resch, F. J. and J. P. Selva, 1979. Turbulent air-

water mass transfer under varied stratification conditions. J. geophys. Res., 84(C6): 3205-3217.

Experiments in a large air-sea interaction simulating facility examine velocity, temperature and humidity profiles as a function of the global Richardson number. The dependence of turbulent momentum, heat and mass transfers upon stratification conditions is determined. Appropriate flux values and coefficients are estimated; their correlations with the Reynolds and the bulk Richardson numbers are identified. Institut de Mecanique Statistique de la Turbulence, Laboratoire Associ~ au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 130, 13003 Marseille, France. (rio)

79:6080 Street, R. L., 1979. Turbulent heat and mass transfers

across a rough, air-water interface: a simple theory. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 22(6): 885-899.

A theory for rough wall flows by Street and Miller (1977) indicates that net transfer is a function of heat transfer in the water surface layer, radiation at the interface, and transfers of sensible heat and water vapor in the air surface layer. Theoretical results agree quantitatively with data from laboratory experiments. Transfers of sensible, latent and total heat, as well as mass transfers and interface temperatures, can be predicted. Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305, U.S.A. (rio)

79:6081 Wells, N. C., 1979. A coupled ocean-atmnsphere

experiment: the ocean response. Q. J! R. met. Soc.. 105(444): 355-370.

A mixed layer ocean model, which includes the effects of advection and salinity, is coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model of the Southern

Hemisphere. Response of the ocean model is compared with observations and shown to be successful in simulating the pattern of heating occurring during the summer season in subtropical and middle latitudes. Sensitivity of the model to changes in atmospheric circulation, advection and salinity is assessed. Department of Oceanography, University of Southampton, Hampshire, England.

4. Climate and climatology

79:6082 Henderson-Sellers, A., 1979. Clouds and the long-

term stability of the Earth's atmosphere and climate. Nature. Lond., 279(5716): 786-788.

Long-term climatic modelling suggests that the global albedo has tended to remain relatively constant, that therefore the average cloud coverage has been constant over time scales of 10~-I09 yr, and that medium-term climatic changes have resulted from smaller effects due to surface forcing of the albedo involving changing cloud patterns. Continental drift may have played an important role in the modification of cloud patterns. Department of Geography, Roxby Building, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, U.K. (rlo)

79:6083 Rogers, J. C. and Harry van Loon, 1979. The seesaw

in winter temperatures between Greenland and northern Europe. I!. Some oceanic and atmo- spheric effects in middle and high latitudes. &Ion. Weath. Rev.. 107(5): 509-519.

Variations in long waves, frequencies of highs and lows, zonal geostrophic winds, precipitation, sea ice and sea surface temperatures during four circulation modes are described. The atmosphere-ocean-ice systems of the North Atlantic and North Pacific develop large anomalies during and after seesaw winters. The seesaw winter of 1976-77 is specifically discussed. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309, U.S.A, (rio)

79:6084 Sergin, V. Ya., 1979. Numerical modeling of the

glacier-ocean-atmo~shere global system. J. geo- phys. Res., 84(C6): 3191-3204.

A simplified thermodynamic model of the glacier- ocean-atmosphere climatic system is constructed which indicates a Northern Hemisphere auto- oscillation owing to nonlinear interactions between large inertial components determined by oceanic heat capacity and ice sheet mass accumulation. The Southern Hemisphere responds aperiodically depending on cross-equatorial energy and mass transfers. Calculated periods and parameters are in reasonable agreement with empirical data,

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OLR(1979)26(12) D. Marine Meteorology 791

Laboratory for Mathematical Modeling of the Climate, Pacific Institute of Geography of Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, U.S.S.R. (fcs)

6. Precipitation

79:6085 Reed, R. K., 1979. On the relationship between the

amount and frequency of precipitation over the ocean. J. appl. Met., 18(5): 692-696.

Data at 12 ocean weather stations were used to determine the amount of precipitation by a method devised by Tucker (1961), and precipitation frequency at each site was taken from recent climatic atlases. By combining the above data, monthly and annual estimates of precipitation intensity were calculated. The monthly intensities were then corrected for a suspected bias in Tucker's assessments. The results are believed to have general applicability to extratropical regions. Furthermore, in data-space areas, use of intensities with frequencies can provide a more reliable estimate of oceanic rainfall amounts than Tucker's method. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Environmental Research Laboratories, NOAA, Seattle, Wash. 98105, U.S.A.

regions in which approximations remain valid, flow patterns, and convective heat and momentum transport are considered. National Hurricane and Experimental Meteorology Laboratory, NOAA, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124, U.S.A. (rio)

11. Atmospheric dust, nuclei, aerosols, pollutants, etc.

79:6088 Morelli, J., 1978. Donn6es sur le cycle atmo-

sph~rique des sels marins. [Atmospheric sen salt cycle.] J. Rech. oc~anogr., 3(4): 27-49.

Na, K, Ca and Mg components of atmospheric aerosols are reviewed with special emphasis on potassium. Injection via oceanic bubbling, distributions close to the sea surface at various locations, vertical distributions and deposition processes are discussed with a large-scale perspective. Potassium fluxes from different sources and biogeochemical cycles are investigated. Mission des Etudes et de la Recherche, Ministere de I'Environne- ment et du Cadre de Vie, boulevard du G~n~ral Leclerc, 9521 Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. (rio)

8. Radiation 79:6086

Simpson, J. J. and C. A. Paulson, 1979. Mid-ocean observations of atmospheric radiation. Q. Jl R. met. Soc., 105(A.A.S.): 487-502.

Various components of radiative flux were observed over the mid-Pacific Ocean. Net Iongwave radiative fluxes were measured with direct and indirect methods and then compared: sea surface albedo values were determined and used to test Payne's (1972) smooth representation for open oceans; shortwave and net longwave flux components were calculated from empirical formulae (Lumb, 1964). School of Oceanography, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oreg. 97331, U.S.A. (rlo)

9. Storms 79:6087

Willoughby, H. E., 1979. Forced secondary circula- tions in hurricanes. J. geophys. Res., 84(C6): 3173-3183.

Eliassen's (1951) forced secondary circulation model is physically interpreted in terms of a scale analysis approach. Conditions under which the symmetrical tangential flow is in hydrostatic and gradient balance,

79:6089 Shaw, G. E., 1979. Aerosols at Mama Loa: optical

properties. J. atmos. Sci., 36(5): 862-869.

Spectral attenuation of sunlight was measured at I 1 wavelengths for a period of 110 days to derive the degree and wavelength-dependence of attenuation by aerosols at Mauna Loa. Attenuation by suspended aerosols averaged 1.9% at 5000 A and air masses from the north were most turbid. Results suggested that aerosols from North America and Asia can reach Hawaii; atmospheric effects of Augustine Volcano eruptions were monitored. Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701, U.S.A. (rio)

13. Waves 79.'609O

Stevens, D. E., 1979. Vorticity, momentum and diver- gonce budgets of synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the tropical eastern Atlantic. Mon. Weath. Rev., 107(5): 535-550.

Vorticity, momentum and divergence budgets for synoptic-scale wave disturbances during phase III of GATE are determined. Nonlinear terms are small in all wave budgets, disturbances are not quasi- geostrophic, and residual imbalances in each large- scale budget indicate important subsynoptic-scale circulations. Horizontal wind advection, thermal wind