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04 - Psychoanalytical

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  • 1. Psychoanalytical FREUD

2. Psychoanalytic Approach To Personality Psychoanalytical Approach based on Freuds work. The idea that behaviour can be influenced by an unconsciouspart of the mind. 3. Freudian Theory of Personality Three Parts of the Mind Aspects of mind whichhouses our thoughts andcognitive activities 3 parts: the conscious, thepreconscious, theunconscious 4. The Conscious Contains thoughts ofwhich you are currentlyaware Constantly changing asnew thoughts enter themind and others pass outof awareness 5. The Preconscious Stores all the thoughts youcould easily bring intoconsciousness if youwanted to. E.g. what you ate forbreakfast, who yourkindergarten teacher was,etc. 6. The Unconscious According to Freud, vastmajority of our thoughtsare in the unconscious No immediate access to Cannot bring intoconsciousness exceptunder certain extremesituations. Responsible for much ofour everyday behaviour. 7. Three parts of the Personality In Freuds view, the human personality could be divided intothree parts: Id, ego and superego According to Freud, these parts are often not at peace withone another 8. Id The one and only part to the human personality AT BIRTH. Actions based on pleasure principle the id is only concerned with satisfying personal desires, regardless of limitations or consequence. These reflexive actions are still present as adults, but held in check by other parts of the personality. Id uses wish fulfillment to satisfy its needs: if a baby is hungry with no food nearby, the id imagines the food and temporarily satisfies the need. Id impulses are unconscious, therefore we are unaware of all the impulses we might wish to act upon. 9. Ego 0-2yrs + interaction with environment = ego Egos actions based on the reality principle that is, the primary job of the ego is to satisfy the id impulse, but in a realistic way. Keeps unacceptable and dangerous id impulses in the unconscious 10. Superego About five years = superego Represents societys and parents values and standards Places more restrictions on what one can and cannot do. Primary weapon guilt! According to Freud, some children fail to fully develop the superego due to poor child-rearing practices. Can also become too powerful (supermoral), with impossible standards of perfection. 11. The Interaction of the Three Parts 12. Putting it altogether FreudsTopographical Model 13. Instincts and Tension Reduction Freud maintained that human behaviour is motivated by strong internal forces drives/instincts Two major categories of instincts: 1) life/sexual instincts - Eros 2) death/aggressive instincts - Thanatos The two types combine to motivate behaviours. Freud attributed most human behaviour to the life/sexual instinct. Note: sexual includes anything resulting in pleasure. Death instinct: the desire we all have to die and return to the earth. Mostly unconscious. Expression: self destruction, aggression against others. 14. Instinct Activation Increased psychological tension is created. Comparable to feelings of excitation, nervousness and arousal. Tension remains until the particular need is satisfied. Undesirable state = goal of most human behaviour to reduce the tension and return to a state of no tension.

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