of 51 /51
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY for NITROUS OXIDE for NITROUS OXIDE

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

 

Citation preview

Page 1: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDEfor NITROUS OXIDE

Page 2: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Respiratory SystemRespiratory System

Two functional partsTwo functional parts Conducting zoneConducting zone

Respiratory zoneRespiratory zone

Page 3: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Conducting ZoneConducting Zone

Transports gases from outside to respiratory Transports gases from outside to respiratory zonezone

Includes anatomic deadspace (150 ml)Includes anatomic deadspace (150 ml)

Page 4: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Conducting ZoneConducting Zone

Nasal passagesNasal passagesPharynxPharynx NasopharynxNasopharynx OropharynxOropharynx HypopharynxHypopharynx

Page 5: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Conducting Zone (cont.) Conducting Zone (cont.)

LarynxLarynxTracheaTracheaBronchi (left and right mainstem)Bronchi (left and right mainstem)BronchiolesBronchioles

Page 6: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 7: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 8: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Respiratory ZoneRespiratory Zone

Portion of lung where exchange of gases Portion of lung where exchange of gases occurs between blood and airoccurs between blood and air

Page 9: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Respiratory ZoneRespiratory Zone

Respiratory bronchiolesRespiratory bronchiolesAlveolar ductsAlveolar ductsAlveolar sacsAlveolar sacsAlveoliAlveoli

Page 10: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 11: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

AlveolusAlveolus

Unit in which actual gas exchange occursUnit in which actual gas exchange occurs

Around 300 million totalAround 300 million total

A pocket of air surrounded by thin membrane A pocket of air surrounded by thin membrane (1-2 micrometers in thickness) containing (1-2 micrometers in thickness) containing capillariescapillaries

Page 12: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Alveolus Alveolus

Wall consists of 4 thin layersWall consists of 4 thin layers Mucinous coveringMucinous covering Alveolar epithelium (incomplete)Alveolar epithelium (incomplete) Interstitial layerInterstitial layer Endothelial cells (pulmonary capillaries)Endothelial cells (pulmonary capillaries)

Page 13: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 14: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Physiology of RespirationPhysiology of Respiration

Inhaled gases travel through conducting zone to Inhaled gases travel through conducting zone to respiratory zonerespiratory zone

Gases diffuse across alveolar membranes Gases diffuse across alveolar membranes according to pressure gradientsaccording to pressure gradients

Pulmonary capillaries are a pool of blood vessels Pulmonary capillaries are a pool of blood vessels (70 sq meters)(70 sq meters)

Page 15: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 16: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Respiratory MechanicsRespiratory Mechanics

Pre inspiration - resting - -5cm H2O pleuralPre inspiration - resting - -5cm H2O pleuralPeak inspiration - more negative pressuresPeak inspiration - more negative pressuresEnd inspiration - negative pleural, 0 alveolar End inspiration - negative pleural, 0 alveolar Peak expiration -positive alveolarPeak expiration -positive alveolarEnd expiration - -5cm pleural, 0 alveolarEnd expiration - -5cm pleural, 0 alveolar

Page 17: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Respiratory MechanicsRespiratory Mechanics

Muscles InvolvedMuscles Involved Primary - DiaphragmPrimary - Diaphragm IntercostalsIntercostals

Accessory - Abdominals, Scalenes,Accessory - Abdominals, Scalenes, SternocleidomastoidSternocleidomastoid Some back musclesSome back muscles

Page 18: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 19: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 20: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Respiratory MechanicsRespiratory Mechanics

Resting pleural cavity pressure = - 5 cm H20Resting pleural cavity pressure = - 5 cm H20Thorax expands, increasing negative pressureThorax expands, increasing negative pressure

Air flows into lungs/alveoli until positive pressure Air flows into lungs/alveoli until positive pressure develops and gas exchange occursdevelops and gas exchange occurs

Air flows out of lungs to return to resting pleural Air flows out of lungs to return to resting pleural pressure of negative 5 cm H20pressure of negative 5 cm H20

Page 21: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Nitrous Oxide Inhalational Sedation Nitrous Oxide Inhalational Sedation May Represent the Most Ideal May Represent the Most Ideal

Sedation TechniqueSedation Technique

Page 22: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

PHARMACOLOGY OFPHARMACOLOGY OFNITROUS OXIDENITROUS OXIDE

Page 23: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Preparation of Nitrous OxidePreparation of Nitrous Oxide

Ammonium nitrate crystals heated to 240 Ammonium nitrate crystals heated to 240 degrees celsiusdegrees celsius

Decomposition to nitrous oxide and water Decomposition to nitrous oxide and water

Page 24: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Preparation of Nitrous OxidePreparation of Nitrous Oxide

heatheat

NHNH44NONO3 =======> 3 =======> NN22O + 2 HO + 2 H22OO 240 deg.240 deg.CC

Page 25: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Preparation of Nitrous OxidePreparation of Nitrous Oxide

N20 is chemically scrubbed 99.5% pureN20 is chemically scrubbed 99.5% pure

Stored in compressed form in metal cylindersStored in compressed form in metal cylinders30% in liquid form in full cylinder30% in liquid form in full cylinder

NitricNitric oxide (NO) is the most dangerous oxide (NO) is the most dangerous impurity (use only medical grade N2O) impurity (use only medical grade N2O)

Page 26: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Physical PropertiesPhysical Properties

N2O is a nonirritating, sweet-smelling, colorless N2O is a nonirritating, sweet-smelling, colorless gasgas

Only inorganic substance other than CO2 to have Only inorganic substance other than CO2 to have CNS depressant propertiesCNS depressant properties

Only inorganic gas used to produce anesthesia in Only inorganic gas used to produce anesthesia in humanshumans

Page 27: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Physical PropertiesPhysical Properties

N2O liquid requires heat for vaporization into N2O liquid requires heat for vaporization into gaseous stategaseous state

Relatively insoluble in the blood; Blood-gas Relatively insoluble in the blood; Blood-gas solubility coefficient is 0.47 at 37 deg. Csolubility coefficient is 0.47 at 37 deg. C

Page 28: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Potency of Nitrous OxidePotency of Nitrous Oxide

Least potent of anesthetic gasesLeast potent of anesthetic gases

35 more times soluble than N2 in plasma35 more times soluble than N2 in plasma100 times more soluble than O2 in plasma100 times more soluble than O2 in plasma

N2O + O2 can produce CNS depressionN2O + O2 can produce CNS depression

Page 29: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Potency of Nitrous OxidePotency of Nitrous Oxide

N2O in subanesthetic doses can produce N2O in subanesthetic doses can produce analgesiaanalgesia

N2O +O2 at 20%/80% is equal-analgesic to N2O +O2 at 20%/80% is equal-analgesic to 10 to 15 mg of morphine10 to 15 mg of morphine

Optimal concentration is 35%Optimal concentration is 35%

Page 30: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 31: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 32: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 33: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE
Page 34: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Pharmacology of Nitrous OxidePharmacology of Nitrous Oxide

N2O is rapidly absorbed into the CV system, N2O is rapidly absorbed into the CV system, due to large concentration gradient of N2O due to large concentration gradient of N2O between alveolar sacs and bloodbetween alveolar sacs and blood

N2O rapidly fills air-filled body cavitiesN2O rapidly fills air-filled body cavities

Page 35: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Pharmacology of Nitrous OxidePharmacology of Nitrous Oxide

Due to rapid uptake, two phenomena are seenDue to rapid uptake, two phenomena are seen Concentration effect Concentration effect - higher concentrations - higher concentrations

cause more rapid uptake of N2Ocause more rapid uptake of N2O Second gas effectSecond gas effect - a second anesthetic gas - a second anesthetic gas

will also be taken up more rapidly than usual will also be taken up more rapidly than usual when added to N2Owhen added to N2O

Page 36: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Concentration EffectConcentration Effect

Seen only when using high concentrations of a Seen only when using high concentrations of a gasgas

The higher the concentration inhaled, the more The higher the concentration inhaled, the more rapidly the arterial tension of the gas rapidly the arterial tension of the gas increasesincreases

The diffusion gradient from the lungs into The diffusion gradient from the lungs into blood results in a greater uptake of gas into blood results in a greater uptake of gas into lungslungs

Page 37: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Second Gas EffectSecond Gas Effect

Occurs when another inhalation anesthetic is Occurs when another inhalation anesthetic is used with N2Oused with N2O

Rapid uptake of N2O produces a vacuum in Rapid uptake of N2O produces a vacuum in alveoli alveoli

Second gas also undergoes rapid uptake along Second gas also undergoes rapid uptake along with N2Owith N2O

Page 38: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

AbsorptionAbsorption

CNS saturation occurs by displacement of N2 CNS saturation occurs by displacement of N2 by N2O, usually in 3-5 minutes by N2O, usually in 3-5 minutes

Tissues with greater blood flow (brain, heart, Tissues with greater blood flow (brain, heart, liver, kidney) receive greater amounts of liver, kidney) receive greater amounts of N2ON2O

Page 39: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

AbsorptionAbsorption

Tissues with poor blood supply (fat, muscle, Tissues with poor blood supply (fat, muscle, connective tissue) absorb small amountsconnective tissue) absorb small amounts

Slow absorption occurs once primary Slow absorption occurs once primary

saturation is completedsaturation is completedTherefore no body reservoir present to slow Therefore no body reservoir present to slow

recovery once N2O terminatedrecovery once N2O terminated

Page 40: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

BiotransformationBiotransformation

N2O undergoes N2O undergoes nono biotransformation in the biotransformation in the bodybody

Majority of N2O is exhaled unchanged 3 to 5 Majority of N2O is exhaled unchanged 3 to 5 mins. following termination of deliverymins. following termination of delivery

1% eliminated via skin and lungs in 24 hours1% eliminated via skin and lungs in 24 hours

Page 41: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Diffusion HypoxiaDiffusion Hypoxia

Can occur following termination of N2O if Can occur following termination of N2O if patient is allowed to breathe only room airpatient is allowed to breathe only room air

““Hangover” effect (headache,nausea,lethargy) is Hangover” effect (headache,nausea,lethargy) is producedproduced

Prevented by having the patient breathe 100% O2 Prevented by having the patient breathe 100% O2 for minimum of 3 to 5 minutesfor minimum of 3 to 5 minutes

Page 42: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Diffusion HypoxiaDiffusion Hypoxia

Rapid diffusion of N2O from blood to lungs Rapid diffusion of N2O from blood to lungs results in decreased CO2 arterial tension results in decreased CO2 arterial tension with decreased stimulus for respirationwith decreased stimulus for respiration

Rapid diffusion of N2O back into lungs Rapid diffusion of N2O back into lungs dilutes alveolar O2 with resultant hypoxiadilutes alveolar O2 with resultant hypoxia

Page 43: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Pharmacology of Nitrous OxidePharmacology of Nitrous Oxide

N2O is non-allergenicN2O is non-allergenic

Least toxic of inhalational agentsLeast toxic of inhalational agents

Page 44: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Effects of Nitrous OxideEffects of Nitrous Oxideon Organ Systemson Organ Systems

Page 45: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System

Actual Actual mechanism unknownmechanism unknown Mild depression of CNS (cerebral cortex) in Mild depression of CNS (cerebral cortex) in

conjunction with physiological levels of O2 conjunction with physiological levels of O2 (greater than 20%)(greater than 20%)

Sensations depressed (sight, hearing, touch, Sensations depressed (sight, hearing, touch, pain) pain)

Page 46: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular System

No changes in heart rate or cardiac outputNo changes in heart rate or cardiac output

Blood pressure remains stable with only slight Blood pressure remains stable with only slight decreasedecrease

Cutaneous vasodilationCutaneous vasodilation

Page 47: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Respiratory SystemRespiratory System

N2O is non-irritating to pulmonary epitheliumN2O is non-irritating to pulmonary epithelium

Changes (drop) in rate and depth more likely Changes (drop) in rate and depth more likely due to anxiolytic effectsdue to anxiolytic effects

Slight elevation of resting respiratory minute Slight elevation of resting respiratory minute volume at 50%/50%volume at 50%/50%

Page 48: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

GI SystemGI System

No clinically significant effects, unless there No clinically significant effects, unless there is a closed space (obstruction)is a closed space (obstruction)

N/V rarely seen unless hypoxia presentN/V rarely seen unless hypoxia present

Can be used in hepatic dysfunctionCan be used in hepatic dysfunction

Page 49: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Hematopoietic SystemHematopoietic System

Long-term exposure (greater than 24 hours) Long-term exposure (greater than 24 hours) can produce transient bone marrow can produce transient bone marrow depressiondepression

Page 50: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Musculoskeletal SystemMusculoskeletal System

No direct relaxation of skeletal muscleNo direct relaxation of skeletal muscle

Anxiolytic effects help relaxationAnxiolytic effects help relaxation

Page 51: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGYfor NITROUS OXIDE

Reproductive SystemReproductive System

Uterine contractions not inhibitedUterine contractions not inhibited

Pregnancy is a relative contraindication Pregnancy is a relative contraindication (avoid in first trimester)(avoid in first trimester)