ARTID111 Ancient Greek Art - Part 1

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  • 1.
    • ART ID 111 | Study of Ancient Arts
      • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD
      • NYIT Center for Teaching and Learning with Technology
      • With modifications by Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP

Gods, Heroes & Athlete:Ancient Greek Art 2. GREEK HUMANISM The civilization of Ancient Greece emerged in the ninth century BCE and passed through five periods of intense artistic activity spanning more than 800 years. Through Greek colonization, it spread from the Greek mainland to Asia Minor (Western Turkey) and Magna Graecia (Southern Italy and Sicily).During the Hellenistic period, Greek art and culture were dominant throughout the Mediterranean. 3. Gods and humans: Even the gods of the Greeks, in marked contrast to the divinities of the Near East, assumed human forms whose grandeur and nobility were not free from human frailty. Greek origins: The Greeks, or Hellenes , as they called themselves, appear to have been the product of an intermingling of Aegean peoples and Indo-European invaders. They never formed a single nation but instead established independent city-states or poleis . 4. Olympia and Hellas: In 776 BCE, the separate Greek-speaking states held their first ceremonial games in common at Olympia. Athens and Greek culture: The distinctiveness and originality of Greek contributions to art, science, and politics should not, however, obscure the enormous debt Greek civilization owed to the earlier great cultures of Egypt and the Near East. Reassessing Greek civilization: Nor should a high estimation of Greek art and culture blind historians to the realities of Hellenic life and society. Many modern artists have rejected Greek standards. 5.

  • Periods
  • The Geometric& Orientalizing Periods
  • The Archaic Period
  • The Early And High Classical Periods
  • The Late Classical Period
  • The Hellenistic Period
  • Hellenistic Art Under Roman Patronage


  • 5 main forms:
  • Architecture
  • Sculpture
  • Painting
  • Pottery
  • Jewelry making

7. Geometric &Orientalizing Art 8. Out of the Dark Age: Following the collapse of the Mycenaean (Late Helladic) civilization around 1200 BCE and the ensuing period of cultural decline and minor artistic activity known as the Dark Age, the first sign of a newly emerging Greek (Hellenic) culture was ceramic pottery decorated with geometric patterns in the ninth century. The destruction of the Mycenaean palaces was accompanied by the disintegration of the Bronze Age social order. 9. Geometric Art: In the eighth century, representations of animals begin to appear together with purely geometric patterns on painted ceramic pots.A little later, schematic human figures are seen depicted on very large ceramic vessels designed to serve as grave markers and to function in funerary rites.Small-scale sculptures of human figures, animals, and mythological creatures show the same geometric reduction of form. 10. Figure painting revived: Also during the eighth century, the human figure returned to Greek art-not, of course, in monumental statuary, which was exceedingly rare even in Bronze Age Greece, but painted on the surfaces of ceramic pots, which continued to be manufactured after the fall of Mycenae and even throughout the Dark Age. 11. 12. Geometric Krater from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens ca. 740 B.C.E. ceramic 40 1/2 in. high 13. Hero and centaurca. 750-730 B.C.E. bronze approximately 4 1/2 in. high Similar schematic figures also appeared in the round at this date, but only on a very small scale. 14. Votive Statuette of a Horselate 8th Century B.C.E. bronze approximately 3 in. high 15. 16. Mantiklos Apolloca. 700-680 B.C.E. bronze approximately 8 in. high One of the masterworks of the early seventh century BCE is the Mantiklos Apollo, a small, bronze statuette dedicated to Apollo at Thebes by an otherwise unknown man named Mantiklos. 17. 18. Corinthian black-figure amphora ca. 625-600 B.C.E. ceramic approximately 1 ft. 2 in. high The appeal of such vases was not due solely to their Orientalizing animal friezes, but also to a new ceramic technique the Corinthians invented, which art historians call black-figure painting . 19. Black-figure paintingis one of the most modern styles for adorning antique Greek vases. It was especially common between the 7th and 5th BC, although there are specimens dating as late as the 2nd BC. 20. 21. Greece's first stone temples: The foundation of the Greek trading colony of Naukratis in Egypt before 630 BCE brought the Greeks into direct contact with the monumental stone architecture of the Egyptians. 22. Plan of Temple A Prinias, Greece|ca. 625 B.C.E. 23. Lintel of Temple A Prinias, Greece ca. 625 B.C.E.|limestone|approximately 2 ft. 9 in. high 24. Lady of Auxerre,statue of a goddess or kore, ca. 650-625 B.C. Limestone, approx. 2' 11/2" high . 25. Archaic Art 26. Kourous ca. 600 B.C.E. marble 72 1/2 in. high 27. Calf Bearer (Moschophoros) from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece ca. 560 B.C.E.|Marble|65 in. high 28. Kroisos from Anavysos, Greece ca. 530 B.C.E.|marble|76 in. high 29. Peplos Kore from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece ca. 530 B.C.E. marble 48 in. high 30. 31. Temple of Hera I Paestum, Italy ca. 550 B.C.E. 32. Temple of Hera I Paestum, Italy ca. 550 B.C.E. 33. Doric order Corinthian order Ionic order 34. Exekias Achilles and Ajaxplaying dice from Vulci, Italy ca. 540-530 B.C.E. ceramic approximately 2 ft. high 35. Andokides Painter Achilles & Ajaxplaying a dice game from Orvietto, Italy ca. 525-520 B.C.E. ceramic 21 in. high 36. Euphronios Herakles wrestling Antaios from Cerveteri, Italy|ca. 510 B.C.E.|ceramic19 in. high 37. Euthymides Three revelers from Vulci, Italy ca. 510 B.C.E. ceramic approximately 2 ft. high 38. Temple of Aphaia Aegina, Greece ca. 500-490 B.C.E. 39. Temple of Aphaia Aegina, Greece ca. 500-490 B.C.E. 40. West pediment of the Temple of Aphaia Aegina, Greece ca. 500-490 B.C.E. marble approximately 5 ft. 8 in. high at center 41. Dying warriorfrom the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece ca. 500-490 B.C.E. marble approximately 5 ft. 2 1/2 in. long 42. Dying warriorfrom the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece ca. 490-480 B.C.E. marble approximately 6 ft. 1 in. long 43. Early Classical Art 44. Kritios Boy from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece ca. 480 B.C.E. marble 34 in. high 45. 46. Warrior from the sea off Riace, Italy ca. 460-450 B.C.E. bronze 78 in. high 47. Zeus (or Poseidon?) from the sea off CapeArtemision, Greece ca. 460-450 B.C.E. bronze 82 in. high 48. Myron Diskobolus (Discus Thrower) ca. 450 B.C.E. Roman marble copy after a bronze original 61 in. high 49. Polykleitos Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) ca. 450-440 B.C.E. Roman marble copy after a bronze original 83 in. high 50. Polykleitos Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) ca. 450-440 B.C.E. 83 in. high 51. Glossary

  • abacusThe uppermost portion of the capital of a column.
  • acropolis Greek, high city. In ancient Greece, usually the site of the citys most important temple(s).
  • agoraAn open square or space used for public meetings or business in ancient Greek cities.

52. Glossary

  • aisle The portion of a basilica flanking the nave and separated from it by a row of columns or piers.
  • Alexandros Of Antioch-On-The-MeanderSculptor of Aphrodite or Venus de Milo, ca. 150-125 BCE. The base, which was inscripted with the artist's name, is now lost.
  • Amazonomachy In Greek mythology, the legendary battle between the Greeks and Amazons.

53. Glossary

  • amphiprostyleThe style of Greek building in which the colonnade was placed across both the front and back, but not along the sides.
  • andronDining room in a Greek house.
  • antaeThe molded projecting ends of the walls forming thepronaosoropisthodomosof an ancient Greek temple.
  • apse A recess, usu. semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or the east end of a church.

54. Glossary

  • apsidalRounded; apse shaped.
  • arch A curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (voussoirs) that transmit the downward pressure laterally
  • architraveThe lintel or lowest division of the entablature; also called the epistyle .
  • arrisesIn Doric columns, the raised edges of the fluting.

55. Glossary

  • attic The uppermost story of a building.
  • balustradeA railing held up by small posts, as on a staircase.
  • basilicaIn Roman architecture, a civic building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side. In Christian architecture, a church somewhat resembling the Roman basilica, usually entered from one end and with an apse at the other.

56. Glossary

  • bilingual vasesExperimental Greek vases produced for a short time in the late sixth century BCE; one side featured black-figure decoration, the other red-figure.
  • black-figure paintingIn early Greek pottery, the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details incised through the silhouettes.
  • caduceusIn ancient Greek mythology, a magical rod entwined with serpents carried by Hermes (Mercury), the messenger of the gods.

57. Glossary

  • canonA rule, for example, of proportion. The ancient Greeks considered beauty to be a matter of correct proportion and sought a canon of proportion, for the human figure and for buildings.
  • capitalThe uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel.
  • caryatid A female figure that functions as a supporting column. (male: atlantid)

58. Glossary

  • caveaLatin, hollow place or cavity. The seating area in ancient Greek and Roman theaters and amphitheaters.
  • cella The chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classical temple, the room (Greek, naos) in which the cult statue usu. stood.
  • centaur In ancient Greek mythology, a fantastical creature, with the front or top half of a human and the back or bottom half of a horse.

59. Glossary

  • chitonA Greek tunic, the essential (and often only) garment of both men and women, the other being the himation, or mantle.
  • ChryselephantineFashioned of gold and ivory.
  • columnA vertical, weight-carrying architectural member, circular in cross-section and consisting of a base (sometimes omitted), a shaft, and a capital.

60. Glossary

  • contrappostoThe disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another part (usually hips and legs one way, shoulders and chest another), creating acounterpositioningof the body about its central axis. Sometimes called weight shift because the weight of the body tends to be thrown to one foot, creating tension on one side and relaxation on the other.

61. Glossary

  • contrappostoThe disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another part (usually hips and legs one way, shoulders and chest another), creating acounterpositioningof the body about its central axis. Sometimes called weight shift because the weight of the body tends to be thrown to one foot, creating tension on one side and relaxation on the other.

62. Glossary

  • Corinthian capital A more ornate form than Doric or Ionic; it consists of a double row of acanthus leaves from which tendrils and flowers grow, wrapped around a bell-shaped echinus. Although this capital form is often cited as the distinguishing feature of the Corinthian order, there is, strictly speaking, no Corinthian order, but only this style of capital used in the Ionic order.
  • cornice The projecting, crowning member of the entablature framing the pediment; also, any crowning projection.

63. Glossary

  • demosThe Greek word meaning the people, from which the word democracy is derived.
  • DoricOne of the two systems (or orders) evolved for articulating the three units of the elevation of an ancient Greek temple theplatform , thecolonnade , and thesuperstructure(entablature). The Doric order is characterized by, among other features, capitals with funnel-shaped echinuses, columns without bases, and a frieze of triglyphs & metopes.
  • drumOne of the stacked cylindrical stones that form the shaft of a column; the cylindrical wall that supports a dome.

64. Glossary

  • echinus In architecture, the convex element of a capital directly below the abacus.
  • elevationIn architecture, a head-on view of an external or internal wall, showing its features and often other elements that would be visible beyond or before the wall.
  • encausticA painting technique in which pigment is mixed with wax & applied to the surface while hot.
  • entablatureThe part of a building above the columns and below the roof. The entablature of a classical temple has three parts: architrave or epistyle, frieze, and pediment.

65. Glossary

  • entasisThe convex profile (an apparent swelling) in the shaft of a column.
  • fasciaeIn the Ionic order, the three horizontal bands that make up the architrave.
  • fillets In Ionic columns, the flat ridges of the fluting.
  • flute or fluting Vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section and used principally on columns and pilasters.
  • friezeThe part of the entablature between the architrave and the cornice; also, any sculptured or painted band in a building.

66. Glossary

  • glazeA vitreous coating applied to pottery to seal and decorate the surface; it may be colored, transparent, or opaque, and glossy or matte. In oil painting, a thin, transparent, or semitransparent layer put over a color to alter it slightly.
  • gorgonIn ancient Greek mythology, a hideous female demon with snake hair. Medusa, the most famous gorgon, was capable of turning anyone who gazed at her into stone.
  • Hellenes (adj. Hellenic)The name the ancient Greeks called themselves as the people of Hellas.

67. Glossary

  • HellenisticThe term given to the culture that developed after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE and lasted almost three centuries, until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 31 BCE.
  • hermA bust on a quadrangular pillar.
  • himation An ancient Greek mantle worn by men and women over the chiton and draped in various ways.
  • Hippodamian planA city plan devised by Hippodamos of Miletos ca. 466 BCE, in which a strict grid was imposed on a site, regardless of the terrain, so that all streets would meet at right angles.

68. Glossary

  • hydriaAn ancient Greek threehandled water pitcher.
  • hypaethralA building having no pediment or roof, open to the sky.
  • IonicOne of the two systems (or orders) evolved for articulating the three units of the elevation of a Greek temple: the platform, the colonnade, and the superstructure (entablature). The Ionic order is characterized by, among other features, volutes, capitals, columns with bases, and an uninterrupted frieze.

69. Glossary

  • KallikratesOne of the two architects of the Parthenon, active mid-5th century BC; responsible for the Temple of Athena Nike, also on the Acropolis.
  • kore (pl.korai) Greek, young woman. An Archaic Greek statuary type depicting a young woman.
  • kouros (pl. kouroi)Greek, young man. An Archaic Greek statuary type depicting a young man.
  • kraterAn ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water.
  • kylixAn a...